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189. 1 Mac. 15. 10. Money.) Antiochus, joined by Tryphon's malcontent army, besieges him in Dora (Dor). but refuses

Simon's aid, and in spite of the Roman prohibition and his own grant (143) turns against the
Jews. After the mission of Athenobius (whom Simon's magnificence astounds), he sends Cen-

debeus, made captain of the sea-board (105) in Simon's stead, to demand Joppa and Gazars, 1 Mac. 16. 1. and to harass Judæa, himself pursuing Tryphon, escaped by sea. Simon's sons, John and

Judas, free Judeen from Cendebeus. 136.

11. Ptolemæus, Simon's son-in-law, aspiring to the sovereignty, assassinates Simon and 2 of his

John(Hyrcanus), Simon's eldest son, who, occupying Jerusalem, succeeds his father (141)
sons, elle offers to surrender Judæa to Antiochus, but fails to seize Zion and Gazara and to kill

The First Book of Vaccubees ends; the authority henceforward is Josephus. jos. Ant. 13. 8. Joux HYRCANUS surrenders Jerusalem after a protracted sieke to Antiochus, for his moderation 12.

named Eusebes (Pious). Antiochus dying in his Parthian expedition (141), J. Hyrcanus frees 125.

Judæa finally from Syria. He amasses great wealth, and builds the castle Baris (see B.c. 256
The Jews maintain their independence in alliance with Rome-Egypt and Syria being hence-

forward enfeebled by wars of succession, and the Parthian Empire being undeveloped. Jos. Ant. 13.9. Attacking successively the Jews in veterate border-foes, J. Hyrcanus begins the conqueat of 109.

the trans-Jordanie districts, destroys Shechem and the temple on Gerizim (332), and conquering

the Idumaeans merges them by compulsory proselytism in the Jewish nation (101; 68). His sons, 108.

Aristobulus and Antigonus, obliterate Samaria after a year's riege ; meanwhile, a Syrian general betrays the strongholds of Galilee. The Independence of Judæa, now nearly co-exten. sive with the ancient Jewish kingdom W. of Jordan, is recognised by the Syrian king.

Religious differences had ripened into factions (see Jewish Sects). The generous and selfdevoted Chasidim had degenerated into the Pharisees-haughty, tyrannica , censorious', yet the

popular party; and the opponents in politics and doctrine of the aristocratic and sceptical cp. 13. 6. 2.

Sadducces. At this climax of restored Jewish power, Hyrcanus abanduns the Pharisees, and,

repressing their practices ( traditions'), joins the Sadducees. Henceforward, party spirit, amo Tac. Hist. 5. 8.bition, and crime sap Jewish prosperity. The As. Jos. Ant. 13. 11.

Their names indicate the Greek proclivities of Hyrcanus' song; ARISTOBULUS I., his successor, 106.

is even called Phil. Hellen. He assumes the title of King (the first so called since the Babylonian morean king

captivity), annexes and proselytises Iturwa (along Hermon's S.E. base), and dies of remorse after 105. 13. 12. the murder of his favourite brother Antigonus. dom.

Aristobulus' brother, ALEXANDER JANSÆUS, Jos. Ant. 13. 13. murders his younger brother and begins aggressive wars. The Egyptian alliance and Syrian

civil wars enable him to annex the unconquered cities of the sea-board (except Ptolemais), of the 13. 13. interior, and trans-Jordanic provinces, thus completing the conquest of the territory of the 12

Tribes-notwithstanding great reverses, and successive invasions by Ptolemy Lathyrus king of Cyprus (when Cleopatra queen of Egypt saved the kingdom), by Demetrius Eucerus and Antiochus Dionysius, kings of Damascus, and by. Aretas king of Arabia Petrara [164], now very

powerful through Syria's disintegration and civil wars, and by commerce. Tigranes k. of Ar. 83.

menia, seizes Syria, and retains it until defeated by Lucullus B.C. 69.

To overawe the Pharisees and people, A. Jannseus hires a body guard of Pisidians and Cilicians.

The Arabians defeating him in Guulonitis (Golan), the Jews rebel (6 yrs.), and call in Demetrius 13. 11. Eucærus king of Damascus, who destroys A. Janneus' body guard at Shechem and expels him.

After Demetrius' withdrawal, he recovers the throne, and crucities 800 of his opponents; the rest going into exile, peace ensues. A. Jannæus leaves his kingdom to his wife, Salome (Gk.

Alexandra), bidding her restore their ascendency to the Pharisees. 78.

13. 16. ALEXANDRA makes her elder son HYRCANUS II. H.P., and rules through the Pharisees. Over

awing the neighbouring kings by her army and mercenaries, she commande peace (9 yrs.). A. Jannæus' displaced adherents obtain the fortresses for their protection from the Pharisees, and during Alexandra's last illness, join Aristobulus her younger son (become the army's ta

vourite while annexing Damascus) in planning a revolution. HYRCANUS, whose succession is 69. Jos. Ant. 14. 1. 1. disputed by his stronger-minded brother, ARISTOBULUS(II.), on the defeat of the Pharisees' forces,

resigns the high priesthood and crown after 3 months' tenure, and lives a retired lite. 68.

Antipater, an Idumaan, father of Herod, induces Hyrcanus to escape to Aretas king of Petre Jos. Ant. 14. 2. 1.' (164), and Aretas to reinstate him ; the Jews join them. Aristobulus is besieged in the Temple. 65. Jos. Ant. 14. 2.3. Pompey sends Scaurus into Syria, and after finally defeating Mithridates and his ally

Tigraner in Armenia), annexes Syria to Rome, because an insufficient barrier Against Armenia and the Parthians', deposing the last Seleucid king, ANTIOCHrs XIII. Scaurus, receiving rival

offers of aid from the 2 brothers, decides for Aristobulus, bidding Aretas raise the siege.64.

14. 3. Pompey receives their ambassadors at Damascus, but decides to arbitrate between the brothers 14. 4. at Jerusalem. Aristobulus, anticipating a result adverse to himself, prepares Jerusalem for a

siege. Pompey captures the Temple on a Sabbath, after 3 months siege. 12,017 Jews are massacred and the fortifications dismantled. Pompey enters the Holy of Holies, but respects

the treasures He rein-tates Hyrcanus as high priest, but as ethnarch only of Judæa proper The

(Judah and Benjamin) and tributary to Rome, annexing Galilee to Roman Syria (Euphrates Roman

14. 4. 5. to Egypt), under Scaurus, and organising Samaria independently. Prisoners taken with ArisEinpire.

tobulus and his 2 sons to grace Pompey's triumph. found the Jewish colony at home. 67. 14. 5. 4. Gabinius, pro-consul of Syria, reorganizes Judæa, abolishing the high priest's civil power Judea a

14. 6. (nominally restored, B.C. 44). Alexander, and, later, his father Aristobulus and brother AntiKomun Jos. B.J.1. 8. 8. gonus, escape ; but Gabinius suppresses their revolts, which only strengthen Antipater. depen. 54. Jus. Ant.14.7. Crassue, the triumvir, robs the Temple before invading Parthía, which now threatens Syria. dency.

Julius Caesar sends Aristobulus to create a diversion in Syria against Pompey: he is

poisoned on the way, and Scipio executes Alexander at Antioch. Antigonus opposes Hyrcanus. 14.8. Pompey is defeated at Pharsalia. Julius Cæsar, for his services in Egypt against Pompey,

makes ANTIPATER a Roman citizen, and procurator of Judra, Samaria and Galilee ( with leave to tortify Jerusalem, P.C. 44)– Hyrcanus remaining high priest and ethnarch. Hence

forward the Herodian supplants the Asionaan family. 14. 9. Antipater advances his sops, making Phasnel governor of Jerusalem, and Herod tetrarch of

Galilee. Herod distinguishes himself by suppressing the Galilæan banditti, and defying Hyrcanus and the great council (Sanhedrin) with the aid of Sextus Cæsar, pro-consul of Syria.

After Julius Cæsar's assassination, B.C. 44, llerod, with characteristic address, wins the conspirator Jos. Ant. 14. 11. Cassius, the new pro-consul. Malichus, an adherent of Hyrcanus, to sustain him and the

Asmonæans against the encroachments of a half Jew (Idumaan, &ce B.C. 10), poisons Antipater, who-e sons, Phasael and Herod, procure Malichus' Assassination, but, after Cassius marched against Antony, are left without Roman support. Malichus faction, headed by Antigonus, courts Hyrcanus, but Herod's betrothal to Hyrcanus' granddaughter, the Asmunaan

princess Marimne, conciliates the king and nation. Jos.Ant. 14.12.2. The Triumvirs partition the Roman provinces : Antony undertakes those E. of the Adriatic

won by the defeat of Brutus and Cassius at Philippi. Though denounced to Antony by the Jos. Ant. 14. 18. party of Antigonus, Herod's bribes and personal influence gain Palestine for himself and

Phasnel as Tetrarchs, nominally under Hyrcanus, as king.

Antony being in Egypt with Cleopatra, the Parthians overrun Phænicia and Palestine.
Antigonus, buying their support, seizes part of Jerusalem. Hyrcanus and Phasael accepting the
Parthians' arbitration, are innprisoned. Herod escapes with his family, and Mariamne and Alex-
andra her mother, to the fortress Marada, W. of the Dead Sea. Phayael commits suicide.

ANTIGONUS disqualities Hyrcanus for the high priesthood by mutilation, and usurpe it with
Jos. Ant. 15. 2. 2. the throne. Ilyrcanus, sent captive into Parthia, is welcomed by the numerous Babylonian Jews.
Jos. Ant. 14.14. Herod, refusing the command of Cleopatra's army, visits Rome. Welcomed by Antony, he

ostensibly advocates with the Triumvirate the claims of Meriamne's brother Aristobulus (grandson

of Aristobulus II.) heir of both Asmonxan families: the Senate makes Herod.king of the Jews.' 33-8.

Jos. Ant.14. 15. The Parthians abandon Antigonus, and are expelled by Ventidius ; meanwhile, Herod con-



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37. Jus. d nt. 14.16. quers Galilee and defeats Antigonus. In a Srd campaign, Sogins, by Antony's orders, Barista Piena!

to capture Antigonus with Jerusalem after a 7 month's siege during which he mured Jos. Ant. 15.1.

Herod destroys the leading Antigonians, including all the Greato Sandinis but

bribes Antony to behead Antigonus, the last Asmontan priest-king, at Antech The

HIEHOD TUE GREAT durst not assume the High Priesthoort; hencefortant it is starter Herod. Jos. Ant. 15.2. 4. the civil power, which (native or Roman) bestows and recalls it at will. Hyr uns 11 meters iun

but as he is disqualified, Herod appoints a Babylonian of high-pritetly fam., ANAL. DA king- Jos. Ant. 15. 2. 5. Mariamne's impor'unity and the intrigues of Aristobulus' mother. Alexandra, with it! dom. Jos. Ant. 15. 3. Cleopatra, cause Herod to appoint ARISTOBULUS III., aged 17. The Jersenie 97 36.

causes Aristobulus' murder (while bathing), whereupon Alexandra appeal thrast (km

to Antony, who summons Herod to Laodicea ; but Herod unexpectedly wins over his det 34.

though Cleopatra asked for Judæa and Herod's life. (llerod even urzed Antas to

his bane.) Herod's family divides into Herodian and Asinonsan factions. 12 Si. Jos. Ant. Octavian defeats Antony and Cleopatra at Actium, and pursues them to cope where beste 30. Jos.dut. 15.6. Herod executes Ilyrcanus 11., aged 8t, and meeting Octavian at Rhodes, wins a friend

is confirmed in his kingdom, which Octavian, after conquering Exypt, encies and the restoring the balsam-region of Jericho and the sea-board (given by Antons to Centras, end the

inland fortresses. Ierod's kingdom thus includes Judæa, Samaria, Galice, Perna 29. Jos. Ant. 15.1.3. Herou, in a fit of suspicion, aggravated by his mother and sister Salome execute larte te

his undying remorse ; also, her mother Alexandra. (& the survivors of Hyrcanu's, lucht 27.

Octavian receives from the Senate the title Augustus, i.e. divine honours, 10 ST E ** the imperial provinces.-llerod apparently aims at founding a dynasty, and even a ima Empire not less than Solomon's, by Roman support and with the con«nt or email the Jews. To flatter Augustus, and to counterbalance the Jess' turbulent and error by a strong Grecian party, or to gradually break it down by reconcilinx theast 124 Roman customs, Llerod introduces theatres and amphitheatres, games, and gladbaca te

even at Jerusalem. His innovations provoke resistance, esp. by the Pharines 25. Jos. Ant. 15.8. Ten Zealots conspire to kill Herod. He re-fortities the Baris of John HyTesta asen

to the Temple, calling it Antonia (castle. Acts 22. 31); bridles the kingdom o

and fortifying Samaria [108, rebuilt by Gabinius, B.C. 57). re-peoples it with his see 24. Jos. Ant. 15. 10.1. maritans, re-naming it Sebaste after Augustus. llis liberality in a famine cope inobi

ller d takes Mariamnes sons to Augustus at Rome for education, as if his bein, u = Iturra, Truchomtis. and Batanæa, with power to bequeath his kingdom. The succes. made an open question, causes fresh intrigues in his family.-The favour of Art minister Agrippa, who reckon Herod next after themselves in the Empire, revive: the Jews

picions and antngonism, which llerod's subsequent building of Temples (ep on V.. 02.09 22. Jos. Ant. 15.9.3. 18? ace 109 and patronage of the decaying Olympic games, strengthen. Herod bad

palace on the W. hill opposite the Temple, and founds the Græco-Roman city and porta *** 20. Jos. Ant.15. 10.3. Augustus personally organizes the E. provinces : the Gadarenes denounge Hood Do

made joint-procurator of Syria, and Perica is given to Pheroras his brother ss Tetrard Head Jos. Ant. 15. 11. remits taxes, and begins to restore Zerubbabel's Temple to the dimensions and pienet?

cp. Luke 21. 5. Solomon's: see Sects, Herodians-Agrippa II. completed it 5 years before its de
Jos. Ant. 16. 1.2. Herod brings Marianne's sons, Alexander and Aristobulus, from Romne. The Jerecha

astic reception revives the intrigues of Salorne &c., lest hereafter they arenge their me 15.

Jos. Ant. 16. 2. 1. Agrippa visits Jerusalem. Herod visits him at Sinope, and returning with hinter ud 14. Jos. Ant. 16.2.2. Ephesus, wins for the Jews of lonia, i.e. pro-consular Asia, the contirmativa of a bus Jos. dn. 16.3.2. On his return, Salome and Pheroras at length rouse Lerod's suspicions, and be seca

eldest son Antipater from Rome as a counterpoise to the popularity and hope' ef Larses 13. Jos. Ant. 16. 3.3. sons. Antipater gradually supplants them, and is sent with Agrippa to Aurustus,

Aquileia reconciles Mariamne's sons and Herod, who accused them of designs by lie 11. Jos. Ant. 16. 4. Herod declares Antipater his heir, with reversion to Alexander and Aristnalas. Sa 10. Jos. Ant. 16. 5. daughter bears Heroil Agrippa to Aristobulus. Cursarea is finished and dedicated to AC

Herod, suppressing the banditti of Trachonitis, is involved in war with Arabia, che sented by Syllæus, alienates Aurustus awhile; but only Herod's groting donezeu des

prevent Augustus ceding Arabia Petræa to him, in which Augustus confirms Area 6. Jos. Ant. 16. 11. Mariamne's sons, condemned by a special council at Berytus (Beyrout), un Herd: Dr.

Jos. Ant. 17.1. are strangled. The nation and army loathe Antipater as their ipurderer, who, though visa
Jos. Ant. 17.3.2. king, retires to Rome, bearing a will making him heir, with reversion to Hend Putin

The census or rezistration of the Roman world (Lk. 2. 2) bexins. 7000 Pharisees refuse te

of allegiance to lerod and Cæsar as . unlawful'. They spread the report that the sights Jos. Ant. 17.4.3. come lenLk 3:13)lerod executes their leaders. (1. Herod recalls Archelaust and Pia 5.

To , pian with Pheroras his father's murder. Jos. Ant. 17. 5. John the Baptist is born. (2) Pheroras' death discloses Antipater's plot; he returns, experts

to find flerod dead, but is convicted before him and Varus, legatas, ie. Impal govca

Syria. Falling ill, Hlerod declares Herod Antipas, his 3rd surviving son, his heir.
Luke 2.2. Birth of Christ. (2) Quirinus or Cyrenius, legatus of Syria the first time. (see 6. BCand

Herod's death being reported, the golden eagle above the great gate of the Tearple to
Jos. Ant. 17.8. down; Herod burns the offenders alive. He orders Antipater's execution, and by Bere
Luke 3. 1. divides his kingdom among his 3 youngest surviving sons, five days bei ure his dest:

quenthing a kingdom of Judæa, Samaria, Idumea, to Archelaus, and tetrarchies to H. has

(Galilee and Perea), and to Philip (Ituren, Gaulonitis, Trachonitis, Batanaal Jos. Ant. 17. 9. ARCHELAUS promises reform of grievances and taxation, but massacres sono Zeale te

during the Passover, demand vengeance for the victims in the matter of the cscle. Jos. Ant. 17. 10. Whilst Herod's family await at Rome Augustus decision on his will, local relel aus

Judas of Galilte, plunge Palestine (Samaria excepted) into anarchy and blonxished,

Varus, legntus of Syria, restores order with fire and sword, crucifying 30 Jess in Jerust Jog. Ant. 17. 11. A Jewish embassy intreats Augustus to dethrone the Herodian family. Aurustur auta

Matt. 2. 22. the will, but makes Archelaus Ethnarch only : his unexpected succession (5) taus: Josep A.D. 6. Jos. Ant. 17. 13.

turning from Egypt, to bring up JESUS at Nazareth in the tetrarchy of the zer der Auto

The Jews appeal against the tyranny and disorders of Archelaus rein: Aucusto be Judaen a

him. His Ethnarchy becomes part of Roman Syria under a procurator resident si Roman

Jos. Ant. 18. 1. Quirinus, again legatus of Syria, makes a taxing-census of the Ethnarchy, which, and the province. cp. Mat. 22. 17.) nation or mark of slavery (see Publicans). The outbreaks are renewed: (see Jeesus Zeala,

cp. Luke 3. 2. Galileans'). To conciliate the Jews. Quirinus makes Annas H.P. 14. Luke 2. 42. JESUS (aged 12) visits the Temple at the

Passover, and enters the school of the Rabbis Augustus dies. TIBERIS, Emperor. Valerius Gratus, procurator, after departas de higit Mat. 26. 3, &c. priests (including Annas) in ll years, appoints a strict Pharisee, Joseph Caiapias, A.n. Luke 3. 1-3.

PONTIUS PILATE, a creature of Tiberius' favourite Sejanus, procurator. Juda ke B***** Jus. Ant. 18. 3.

ministry begrins. (2) Pilate provokes outbreaks by introducing into Jerusskoin the Bare

legions, especially ohnoxious because of the images (eagles) and Emperor's bus* 30, 31. cp. Luke 13. 1.

standards, and by taking sacred revenues to build an aqueduct. He massacres the purelse

Christ's ministry beyins in Galilee. (2) John the Baptist imprisoned and beheaded by A3 33.

Sejanus' disgrace and execution make Pilate conciliatory.

Christ condemned by the Sanhedrin, and executed by the reluctant procurato, rike

Srd day from the dead, appears during 40 days to His disciples (2), and ascends into acas (1) Tacitus ( Nist, y. 13) and Suetonius ( resp. c. 4) record a general and persistent expectation in the East, based on ada s** books, of the restoration of a great Eastern Empire under Jewish leadership. --(9) See the Chronological Table of Coopel de





Co-editor of the Revised English Bible."

The so-called sects of Judaism did not consist, as in other communities, of dissidents from the main body on grounds of doctrine or discipline, but were composed of outward conformists, who strove, by one method or another, to give intenser expression to its principles and life. The word “Order", as applied e.g. to the Jesuits in the Roman Church, would nearly, though not altogether, describe their position. Some communities also, which, although not of the Ten Tribes, held various relations of affinity with the chosen people, are sometimes known as “ Sects". As the word is convenient it may be retained, provided that the wide variety of its applications is borne in mind.

The following scheme exhibits at one view the main divisions which existed in Scripture times.





Members of alien tribes taken into the Jewish community.



...... Mixed Community-Israelites and Assyrian settlers.

.. An order under a common vow. Not & sect.



Religious distinctions,
7. EssEXES...

} Professional distinctions.

Roman faction 11. ZEALOTY.

Jewish faction

Political distinctions.

A secret society.

Jabez (probably in S. Judah) are described as descen1. THE KENITES.

dants of one Hemath, “father of the house of Re. We read of “Kenites" among the inhabitants of chab". Whether Rechab is a proper name, or an Canaan in the days of Abraham (Gen. xv. 19). The appellative signifying “rider", and denoting the habits name (like our Smith) seems originally to have des of the community, is not quite clear. No personage noted a worker in metals (Gesenius, Thesaurus, sub of the name is mentioned elsewhere in Scripture; but voce), and may have arisen from some specialty of the Jebonadab or Jonadab the son of Rechab appears in tribe in work or warfare. They were evidently a no the days of Jehu's great uprising against the family of mad race, and we next meet with them in the land of Ahab, as taking a stern and decisive part in the sup. Midian, the Sinaitic peninsula ; Jethro, the Midianite pression of idolatry (2 Kings X. 15, 23). As we learn priest, whose daughter Moses espoused (Exod. iii. 1), from Jer. XXXV., Jonadab reorganized the Kenites, being also a Kenite (Judg. i. 16). For a time, then, or a portion of them, into an ascetic community, the Kenites had cast in their lot with the descendants pledged by stringent vows neither to dwell in cities, of Keturah; but they afterwards followed the destinies to build houses, nor cultivate land, but to maintain a of Israel, influenced no doubt by their connection with nomad life, and especially to abstain from wine and the great lawgiver. Balaam in his prophecy refers to strong drink. In the days of Nebuchadnezzar, how. the Kenite tents as on the outskirts of the Israelite ever, the approach of the Babylonian armies com

camp (Num. xxiv. 21). Jethro himself declined to fol. pelled these Rechabites to escape from their tents for low his son-in-law to Canaan, but his son Hobab seems, safety into Jerusalem. For the sake of a lesson to the after some hesitation, to have remained with Moses people, Jeremiah was directed to test their fidelity. (Exod. xviii. 27; Num. X. 29, 32); and the clan even. Driven from their wandering life, might not the dis. tually occupied' " the wilderness" in the south of ciples of Jonadab suppose themselves discharged from Judah, dwelling in tents, although in close and re their ascetic vows, or at any rate seize the opportunity cognised alliance with the Israelite community--in of release?

Vessels of wine were set before them in fact a kind of ginsy rnce.

As circumstances might the Temple, and they were bidden to drink. They dictate, they would pass from spot to spot; and we firmly refused; and the prophet takes

occasion to im. meet with a Kenite settlement in the uplands of press upon the people of Judah the much-needed lesson Naphtali, to the north, mentioned in the history on of faithfulness to principle, adding at the same time account of Jael's exploit (Judg. iv. 11, 17); while in the promise of Jehovah that the Rechabites should after daya mention is made of Kenites as dispersed stand before Him” continually, in other words, among the Amalekites of the Negeb or South Country should minister in some capacity in His Temple. The (1 Sam. xv. 6; see also xxvii. 10).

They ranked among nature of this ministry we can only conjecture. In 1 the

friends of David when a fugitive from Saul; and Chron. ii. 55 the Rechabites appear as "scribes" ; in the through all changes were faithful to the religion of LXX. inscription to Psalm kxi., they are given rank

among the sweet singers of Israel. It appears certain 11. THE RECHABITES.

that from the era of the captivity the nomad life was

to some extent renounced, seeing that a son of Rechab After the days of David we read no more of the is found co-operating with the priests and rulers in roof their existence and virtual incorporation with Israel be added that at a much later period the historian might have escaped attention but for a remarkable off. Hegesippus, as preserved by Eusebius, in describing shoot of the clan in the family of Rechabites. In 1 Chron. ii. 65, certain families of Kenites dwelling at Lord", writes that one of the priests, the sons of


Rechab, who are mentioned by Jeremiah the prophet”, dextrous alterations of the Pentateuch were made ta cried out against the crime (see Smith's Dict. Bible, favour the assumption. The Law of Moses, writers art. “ Rechabites", by Professor Plumptre). On the the after histories or the prophetic books, was tales whole there seems satisfactory evidence that a place in as the text-book of the Samaritan faith; and breaker the sanctuary itself was given to these descendants of by degrees from the old idolatrous admittere, an alien and wandering people. The subsequent his. schismatic community laid claim to a stricte in tory of the Rechabites is unknown; the reports of and a more rigorous orthodoxy

even than prestale travellers who profess to have discovered their traces | Jerusalem. From time to time disaffected Jews, are hardly conclusive, while warranting further research ing their own community, seceded to Gerisin, and is into this interesting bye-way of Scripture history. rancour deepened as time went on.

When Antiochus Epiphanes (about B.C. I

his famous attempt to denationalise and regasize the During the later age of the separate kingdom of Jews, the Samaritans revealed the spariose Israel, the name of Samaria, its capital, was often em: xii. 5, sec. 5). This placed them in deady oprost

faith by their ready submission to the tyrant (da ist ployed to denote the nation (Isa. vii. 9; Jer. xxiii. 13; Ezek. xvi. 46, etc.). When, therefore, another com

to the Jewish patriot party, which, under Joe He munity had usurped the place of the Ten Tribes, it

canus the Maccabee, destroyed Samaris sed the tsewas natural to apply to them the name of *Samari ple of Gerizim, B.C. 130 (Jos. Art. xii. 9, SEC. I b tans". The word, however, is found only once in the

the altar remained, the spirit of the seet work. Old Testament (2 Kings xvii. 29). This community and the old animosity subsisted in all its free dort

To the Jees the one was in its origin mainly or wholly heathen,

consisting to the time of our Lord. --at any rate chiefly-of immigrants from five pro

was still a “stranger" (alien, Lake ari.;** vinces of Assyria, sent by Esar-haddon (probably Matt. x, 5, 6). In travelling from Galilee to bless Ezra iv. 10), to colonize the districts from which the but would take the road on the eastern side the Israelites had been deported. In the earlier period of Jordan. When members of the two co their residence, the land which had long been waste

Angry strife was stire to arise (Luke in 3-5, de and unpeopled was ravaged by lions. This the settlers leading to bloodshed. No name of scuo smo rightly interpreted as betokening the anger of the un- bitter in Jerusalem than that of Samaritan Jalan known tutelary "God of the land”, and in answer to 48).

All this gives point to our Lord's repeated sam their solicitations a captive-priest was sent from Assy. 1 of brotherly kindness (Luke 1. ss, etc.); and is ria to instruct them. He fixed his abode at Bethel, teresting to find that one of the disciples de munte but taught them no more than to combine the worship calling down fire from heaven to destroy the seas of Jehovah with that of their own ancestral idols: afterwards in many Samaritan villages (Lobe i They feared the LORD, and served their own gods (2 Kings xvii. 33).

comp. with Acts vni. 25). This motley religion endured for some generations, Samaritans have remained in their ancestral shoes &

Through all generations and amid every chase the but the worship of the old Assyrian and Babylonian Nablous (Neapolis, the ancient Sheche, Fistis doubt, from the influence of the Israelitish remnant altar and their sacrifices upon Mount Gerie They still scattered through the land-such men as, after world" (Dean Stanley),

and preserve thet eztirane the destruction of Jerusalem a century later, came “from Shechem, from Shiloh, and from Samaria" to

the Pentatench, in its old Hebrer characters, worship and to mourn at Mizpeh with their brethren religious care. There has been much discussions of Judah (Jer. xli. 5; compare 2 Chron. xxxiv. 6, 9).

this relic of antiquity; and if, as seems most poptakt Notwithstanding the arguments of Hengstenberg and

it represents the Law as handed down among the Te others, the opinion that the survivors of the Ten Tribes from the days of the disruption anda de Tribes in the course of time coalesced with the de- the fact effectually disposes of modern theories a scendants of the Assyrian settlers,

and that the Sama the late origin of the * Five Books". The stars ritans had in part an Israelite origin, seems defensible one that cannot here be discussed, but it desertes al on all rational and Scriptural grounds.

will doubtless receive further elucidation. When the decree of Cyrus restored Jerusalem to the Jewish exiles in Babylon, they found a considerable

IV. NAZARITES. community in the northern part of the kingdom who Strictly speaking, the Nazarite (from Hals claimed to worship the God of Abraham, and proffered their assistance to Joshua and Zerubbabel in the erec-obligations being distinctls personal. The role

" to separate") formed no community, their con tion of the Temple. The Jewish leaders decisively this kind of separation are given in Num. 2; and repulsed them, feeling the danger of admitting so the manner of their introduction, seen to rent mixed a community into the commonwealth of Israel. the order as already existing. Some bare Brand Their alliance being thus refused, they became thence- but on scarcely sufficient authority, that it wie forth the bitterest adversaries of Judah (Ezra iv. 1–5). rowed by the Jews from the Egyptians. The prema This hostility broke out in the days of Nehemiah, of the Nazarite vow evidently was that of tone when Sanballat of Beth-horon (a Samaritan city near tion

to God; the temporary and ontwani "The the frontier), with Tobiah, an Ammonite slave, long ness" testifying to the life-long unirersal china harassed the Jews with malignant opposition of every The symbolic accompaniments of the FTC kind ; ending all however, after Nehemiah's

departure, extremely simple, demanding no secina by specious advances towards reconciliation. For the engrossing observances, and in no way in good and patriotic governor, returning, found to his with the ordinary duties of life.

TO Absta amazement that Tobiah was installed in lodgings with strong drink, as well as from the fruit of the in the Temple precinct, and that Sanballat had given every shape,' to allow the hair to grow, ed his daughter in marriage to a grandson of the high approach the dead--such was the threefold rabat terms with the former enemies of God's people. For very noticeable' token of the row. The "Cars &

man or woman; and the long hair Fould be the an Ammonite to be established in the sanctuary was paration might be many or few, according to be & profanation. Tobiah and the high priest's grandson (Manasseh,Jos. Ant. xi. 7. 92, were summarily expelled that the usual period was thirty days, but a

or conscience

of the Nazarite. Jewish writers al Neh. xiii. 49, 28, 29), and the breach between Jews and occasionally made for sixty or a bundred der Samaritans became irreparable. [But Josephus makes even for a longer time (see the case of Helosa Manasseh brother to Jaddua H. P., placing him in B.C. of Adiabene; Smith's Dict. Bible, art. "Naser 333, a second Sanballat being Manasseh's father-in-law.] At the expiration of the vow, the Nasarite bades Manasseh now assumed the priesthood

in Samaria sent himself at the altar with a complete series (about B.C. 408), establishing there an organised reli- offerings; he parted also with his locks, which gious community. Mount Gerizim, in time long past burned in the fire of the sacrifice. The De held in honour as one of the holy places” in Pales- this ceremonial was twofold, including the tine, was selected as the centre of the new worship; and, by permission of the Persian king Darius Nothas, had been subjected, but on the other, that dan

hand release from the special restrictions to slid a temple was there reared to Jehovah. Soon this was declared to be the place which God had chosen, and

to a life of piety and boliness of which are were the symbol.


“Ewald sup

In the Nazarite row, accordingly, there was a sacra Pharisees, laying their chief stress upon exact ohe. mental consecration of all life to God; it was peculiarly dience, were led to formalism and an exaggerated esti. appropriate therefore to youth; and scanty as are the mate of the authority of the Fathers, the Sadducees, details furnished by Scripture on the subject, there are taking morality as their watchword, lost all sense of hints that this was the period of life usually chosen the supernatural, while the Essenes, whose great prinfor the vow. See Amos ii. 11; also the touching lament ciple was self-control, were led into a mystical and of Jeremiah (Lam. iv. 7): “Her Nazarites* were purer unprofitable asceticism. Only the two former sects than snow, they were whiter than milk, they were are mentioned in the New Testament, although there more ruddy in body than rubies, their polishing was of are clear traces of the third : Josephus has much to sappbire” (comp. Ps. cxliv. 12, " that our daughters say upon them all. may be as corner stones, polished after the similitude of a palace"). A striking similarity exists between

V. THE PHARISEES. the symbols of Nazarite and those of high-priestly dedi. In opposition to the "mingling", of which we have cation (Lev. xxi. 10-12, where the word rendered crown spoken above, arose the brotherhood of the Distinct" is the same as that used in Num. vi, 19 for the long or “ Separatists" (perushim*, whence in the Greek hair of the Nazarite). The separated one would thus form of the word " Pharisees"). When or how the be reminded of the great ideal of a holy life---a priestly fraternity assumed its shape, we cannot accurately self-dedication to God. See Exod. xix. 6; Isa. Ixi. 6. tell. The first mention of it is among the events

A distinction is made by Jewish writers between a of B.C. 108, when the body was already powerful and of “Nazarite of days" and a “Nazarite for life". The great repute (Jos. Ant. xiii. 10, sec. 5). A commission latter were those dedicated from infancy, for a special had been appointed by authority of John Hyrcanus to purpose, to a life-long observance of the Nazarite vow. enquire how far the Divine law of religious contribu. Such were Samson (the only one actually called "a tions was observed by the people; and the Pharisees Nazarite" in Scripture (Judg. xiii. 7); also Samuel bound themselves to pay all tithes before the use or (1 Sam. i. 11), and John the Baptist (Luke i. 15). James sale of any commodity. Another point of special *the Lord's brother” is represented by tradition as a agreement related to the avoidance of all uncleanness, Nazarite. Whether this particular form of dedication in regard to which a multitude of rules were laid was customary in earlier or later times we are not able down, many of which were minute and puerile. To to decide on the authority of Scripture.

these two characteristics of Pharisnism our Lord poses that Nazarites for life were numerous in very alludes (Matt. xxjii. 23, 25). But the chief point of early times, and that they multiplied in periods of distinction lay in the regard paid by the Pharisees to great political and religious excitement". The refer the oral lar, a series of unwritten interpretations of ences in Scripture and the Apocrypha (Amos ii. 11, 12; the Divine oracles handed down from doctor to doctor, 1 Macc. iii. 49), seem to refer to the “Nazarites of and forming an elaborate system extending to every days". In the history of the Apostle Paul we read of detail of worship and of life. The “ traditions of the four persons of this class, in whose votive observances elders" thus spun around God's Word a web of intrihe himself took part (Acts xxi. 23, 24, 26); while tho cate refinement; and while professing to "fence the vow at Cenchreæ (Acts xviii, 18) was evidently of an Law", or to lessen the risk of breaking it, became in other kind.

the multiplicity of subtle distinctions and_vexatious It is scarcely necessary to mention that the word rules an oppression to the conscience. Formaliem Nazarite and Nazarene have no relation to each other. was substituted for spiritual religion, and the "sepaThe letter "z" in the two is radically different in rateness" of this fraternity, as evinced by their long Hebrew ? and »). “Jesus of Nazareth” was not "a rohes with fringe and tassels, their broad phylacteries, Nazarite", as He Himself suggests (Matt. xi. 18, 19) their long prayers publicly recited by the highways at in contrast with His forerunner John.

the customary hours, as well as by the casuistry of

their teachings and the inconsistency of their lives, PHARISEES, SADDUCEES, AND ESSENES.

proved their piety to be in great measure an affectation.

Very terrible is the indictment brought against the (The Chasidim.)

Pharisees by our Lord, as reported in Matt. xxiii., The era of the Jewish captivity, writes the late Mark vii., Luke xi. They were in fact the principal Emanuel Deutsch, was “one of the most mysterious obstacle to the reception of Christ and His Gospel. It and momentous periods in the history of humanity. was impossible for them to accept the spirituality of What were the influences brought to bear upon the His doctrines, or to descend to the humility of those captives during that time, we know not. But this we who would follow Him. Their spirit was that of selfknow, that from a reckless, lawless, godless populace, sufficiency and pride. When John the Baptist preached they returned transformed into a band of Puritans". the baptism of repentance in the wilderness, the Phari. One result of this revival of the Israelite faith, was sees for the most part (Luke vii. 30), although not the firm and organized stand henceforth made against entirely (Matt. iii. 7), held aloof. They thanked God the efforts of their successire heathen rulers to de- that they were not as other men(Luke xviii. 10); nationalize and paganize the nation. It is true that yet while exalting themselves in their own esteem to some in high places were unable to resist the seduction. heaven, they verily became the “children of hell” Thus, under the influence of Antiochus Epiphanes, (Matt. xxiii. 15). king of Syria (B.C. 175-161), the very high priest, Jason Undoubtedly there was another side to the Pharifaic hy name, introduced Pagan rites into Jerusalem, and character. They held certain great doctrines, as that sent offerings to Hercules, the god of Tyre. This dis- of a resurrection and future life, with a tenacity ungraceful period was afterwards appropriately spoken of known to the people at large; while their strictness on as the time of the mingling". But the heart of the points of religious observance served as an antidote to nation was true, and the noble struggles of the Mac- prevailing laxity. The Apostle Paul regarded it as a cabees against the tyrant are familiar to all readers of distinction among the professors of Judaism to be a Jewish history. In connection with the prolonged con- Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee (Acts xxiii. 6; comp. trat we meet with a fraternity under the name of Assi. Phil. iii. 5). Like the Jesuits in the Roman Church, drans, described as “mighty men of Israel", "volun- the Pharisees proved the utmost capabilities of their tarily devoted to the Law (see 1 Macc. ii. 42; vii. 13; religious system, if, like them, they found it wanting. 2 Macc. xiv. 6). Evidently this appellation stands for The best and the worst of the people were Pharisees; 1 the Hebrew Chasidim, “Pious", or, to adopt a modern but in the best there was a narrowness and fanaticism, term, " Pietists". From this fraternity, whose common bond of union was a resolution to devote their lives to the upholding of the Law in its integrity, appear

• From parash. Heb. to separate or distinguish, almost like

See Nazarite above. to have sprung, directly or indirectly, the three great sects" of after time--the PHARISEES, the SADDUCEES,

t See Dr. Ellersheim's Sketches of Jewish Social Life, p. 23.

1 " The Talmud", parodying the manifold divisions and suband the ESSENES. Widely as these diverged from one divisions made by Pharisalc teachers, " distinguishes seven classes of another in after time, and bitter as were their mutual Pharisees, one of whom only is worthy of that name. These are-(1) controversies, they all started from the same point-a those who do the will of God from earthly motives; (2) they who firrn adherence to the national faith. But while the

make small steps or say, Just wait arhile for me; I have just one more good work to perform : 3) they who knock their heads

against walls in avoiding the sight of a woman ; (4) saints in office; • Or perhaps the word here used (a somewhat different form from (5) they who implore you to mention some more duties which they that usually rendered Nararite) means "separated" in dignity- might perfrom: 16.) they who are pions because they fenr God: (7)

princes The same word is used (Gen. xlix, 28; Deut. xxxiii. the true and only Pharisee is he who does the will of his Father 26) of Joseph

which is in heaven because he Lotes llim".- Deutsch, Talmud.


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