« PreviousContinue »
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.
“Words," from its opening, " These are the words." It Numbers relates the two numberings of the people in
consists of three addresses by Moses to the people in the the wilderness, first in the 2nd year of the exodus, xxx.), and of certain final acts and words of Bloses :
11th month of the 10th year of the exodus (chaps. i.-chap. i.; and, secondly, in the 40th year of the exodus, e.g. the
appointmeut of his successor (xxxi.), his Song passed at Kadesh bad passed away. "It is called in Heb. (xxxii.), his Blessing (xxxiii.), his death and buriai wilderness." It consists of four sections: (1) Prepara- the second, a repetition of the main principles of the trayedabber, or bemidbar, and he spake," or "in the XXXivThe first address, an exhortation based upon tions for breaking up the camp at Sinai, and marching Covenant, 'extends from v. 1 to xxvi. 19; the third, on Canaan, i.-X. 10 ; (2) the march by way of the south (the west route being barred by the Philistines), xxvii, 1 to xxx. 20. The object of Deuteronomy is to
containing the solemn sanctions of the foregoing, from from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea on the borders of Canaan, supplement the previous law: it is an authoritative and repulse by the Canaanites, X. 11 - Xiv: 45 ; (3) a republication of it to a new generation by the law-giver ing of Aaron and Miriam, and the rebellion of Korah, chaps. xii. 5–14 (comp.' Ex.*xx. 24), xiii. 1-18, xviii. 20, and enactments in the 38 years of penal wandering. xx.. xxi. 1-9, xxiv. 16, &c.; some' laws are also abrothe wilderness, the 40th of the exodus, with the
death sated which are no longer appropriate, e.g. chap. xii. 15 of Aaron, the second and new circuitous march to Ca
repeals Lev. xvii. 3–5. There are verbal changes even Daan round Edom and Moab, the conquest of the east
in the Decalogue, e.g. in the 4th and 10th command
ment. of Jordan, aud the episode of Balaam, XX.-XXXV.
A special interest attaches to the distinction
between a true and false prophet (chap. xiii.), to the DEUTERONOMY.
regulations for the monarchy, (xvii. 14-20), and the
prediction of a second prophet and lawgiver like Moses Deuteronomy is so called from its name in the Septua- (xviii. 15-18; cp. Acts hii. 22; vii. 37), and chap. xxviii., gint, meaning "second law." In Heb. it is called, which seems to foretell the whole course of Jewish history.
The Historical Books.
think it was compiled much later. This verse may Joshua is the first of what are called in Heb. "the refer to the Philistine eaptivity implied in chap. xviii. 31, former prophets,"
ie, the historical books to the end of The events in xvii.- xxi. are supposed to have occurred Kings, with the exception of Ruth. It records the early in the history, because the grandson of Moses history of Israel from the death of Moses to that of (the probable reading, not Manasseh) is named (chap. Joshua, embracing (1) the conquest in three eam- xviii. 30), and the grandson of Aaron (XX. 28). It is paigns, the first subjugating central Canaan, the se. doubtful' whether the rule of the various judges reSand defeating the five kings of the south, and the corded was contemporary or consecutive; if the latter, thiri crushing the kings of the north under Jabin we have in this book the history of some 410 years, at Lake Merom fi.- xii.); and (2) the settlement of which seems borne out by chap. xi. 26, Acts xiii. 20 Canaan, first that of the trans-Jordanic tribes, then of where the common reading is, however, incorrect); if Judah, Ephraim, and half Manasseh, and lastly of the the former, perhaps not more than 150, which is fai's remaining tribes. The first part is historical, the voured by the genealogy of David (1 Chron. ii. 10-15) second mainly geographical. The Book of Joshua
might and of Zadok (i Chron. vi. 4-8). The chronology of be described as the Domesday Book of the Israelites. this book is one of the most difficult questions in Bib
The title does not necessarily imply that the book ical criticism. The history of Judges is referred to in was teritten by Joshua, any more than in the ease of Ps. lxxviij. 60, 1xxxxiii. 9, and Hosea ix. 9, X. 10. Ruth, Samuel, &c., though from xviii. 9. xxiv. 26, it would seem that written records were made by Joshua
RUTH. and his contemporaries. The phrase "unto this day.” Ruth is so called because it relates her history, and Which occurs so frequently, points to a time later than the introduction of this Moabitess into the line of the the events narrated, but in some cases at least cer
Promised Seed as an ancestress of David and of our cainly not much later. In chap. xvi. 10 we have a Lord (comp. also Tamar and Rahah). The
book does state of things which had ceased to exist in the time not follow Judges in the Heb., but was so placed of Solomon (1 Kings ix, 16); and Josh. xv. 63 was writ- in the LXX. translation. The Talmud ascribes it to ten before 2 Sam. v. 6. Some have seen in the Book of Samuel. In its present form it was clearly written Joshua a continuation of the Pentateuch, making that after David
became famous, chap. iv. 22. The law convolume strictly a Hexateuch. The Book of Pealms re tained in Deut. xxv 7-9, which had already become fers to Joshua, e.g. Ps. xliv. 2-4, 1xviil. 13-16, 1xxviii, 64, modified in the time of Ruth, seems to have been obso15. cxiv. 1-8, and so does Habakkuk, iii. 8--13.
Thé lete when her history was written (chap. iv. 7). book probably covers about 25 or 30 years.
The Books of Samuel are so called in the Heb., but
the bistory of Saul and of three parts : (a) a preface (chaps. 1.--iii. 4); (6) the propriate, inasmuch as his death is recorded in the 25th
xvii.- xxi.). The main history records in soine detail and 2nd books of Samuel is purely arbitrary, and indeed deliverance from Chushan-rishathaim by othniel, the period probably of about 130 years. This again marks a deliverance from the Moabites by Ehud, that from the crisis in the history of Israel. The disorganization which Burak, from the Midianites by Gideon (whose son A- theocracy had apparently failed, and a mixed theocracy bimelech established a temporary monarchy), the de. was substituted for it by the appointment of a king, who liverance from the Ammonites by Jephtbah, and the struggle of Samson with the Philistines.
was, however, to consider himself strictly as God's vice
The supple- gerent. The first king, Saul, did not satisfy this condiment consists of two episodes, that of Micah and the lion, and the crown was therefore transferred to David which nearly led to the extermination of Benjamin: struction of Shiloh by the Philistines occupy chaps. i.-increasing disorganization among the people, with a prosperity under the judgeship of Samuel, chaps. moral and religious decadence, unchecked even by the xli.; the reign of Saul, with the youth and light of the most marked punishment' short of the captivity, scribes the reign of David (1) at Hebron for 7x years,
Samnel is in conflict with Ish-bosheth (i.-iv.); (2) in Jerusathen raised to reform morals, re-establish religion lem. for 33 years, as undisputed monarch, victorious
over his enemies, though with his reign embittered by the national independence. There is nothing
to show the revolt of Absalom. There is some difficulty about f whom the book
was written: but chap. 1. 21 must the chronology of the reign of Saul, only the beginning 2 Sam. y. 7; and chap. xvii. 6, &c., perhaps indicates Chronology. The sources of these books were probably acquaintance with Saul.
Samuel, therefore, may have the book of Jasher (2 Sam. i. 18), the Psalms of David compiled Judges; but chap. xviii. 30 has led some to 1 (2 Sam. xxii. 1), the chronicles of king David (1 Chron.
A SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS Xxvii, 24), the book of Samuel the seer, Nathan the pro- view, the separate political existence of Israel was in phet, and Gad the seer (1 Chron. xxix. 29; comp. 1 Sam. defensible. The book ends in the middle of a sentence, X. 25). The text bears numerous marks of corruption : which is continued in Ezra i. 3; and the last three antes see especially 1 Sam. vi. 19 (numbers); xiii. 1 (numbers) of Chronicles are the same as the first three of Exata 2 Sam. v. 8, xxi. 8 (Michal for Merab); xxiv. 13 (comp. showing that the books were originally one, and most i Chron. xxi. 12). The only clue to the
date of Samuel, probably by one and the same author. which is indefinite, is the allusion (1 Sam. xxvii. 6) re
EZRA ferring to some time after Rehoboam.
The Jews and early Christians treated the Book E however, may be of earlier date.
as one with that ot Nehemiah, and the traditie is e KINGS.
internal grounds probable Ezra biroself as a priest The Books of Kings (so called in Heb.) are by the (i.e. skilful expounder) " in the law of Moses and ru LXX. called the 3rd and 4th Books of Kings. They are one in the Heb. MSS., and the division is purely arbi
à principal actor in the events described in the le trary. They contain the history of the Jewish nation part of his book. The first part (chaps ifrom the closing years of David till the end of the la) the history of the return of a rempart the den monarchy, and the departure to Babylon, a period of belonging chiefly to the tribe of Judah, with Leial
Benjamin) from captivity under Zerubbabel einde archy under Solomon, which, with the preceding reign, Cyrus, 536 B.C.; 6) a series of bindrances to the sun
Judah, and Jeshua the High Priest, in tbe lisad marks the greatest height of power and splendour in the Hebrew nation, though the causes of disruption bouring tribes; (e) the final completion of the Teeple
of restoration, carried on for some years by the seigt were already at work (1 Kings i.-xi.); (2) the divided and re-establishment of its services, in BC X, the prekingdoms of Israel and Judah, (a) at first hostile to each other, irom Rehoboam to the death of Asa kings of Ju- | phets Haggai and Zechariah haring rose dah, and from Jeroboam to the death of omrikings of had punished by drought and famine. The sea
from the despondency and sinful apathy via ad Israel (1 Kings xii. xvi. 28), (b) then allied under the records,
after an interval of 57 years, Ezra som si dynasty of Omri in the northern kingdom, and Jeboshaphat and his successors in the southern (1 Kings
xvi. to Jerusalem under Artaxerxes Loogimanes de 29-Kings xi. 20), and (c) finally, for the most part, jears 458-457 B.c, with the reforms institute hostile again under the dynasty of Jehu and succeeding those who returned from exile were called statin kings in the north, and the kings from Joash onwards ward (from the tribe of Judah bearing the DSE in the south to the taking of Samaria in B.c, 21, which mivent part) Jews; the mass of the 12 tribes ante tribes (2 Kings xii. -xvii.); (3) the separate
existence of itself of the permission to return formeri the Digesia the southern kingdom, assailed alternately by Egypt and (see Esther: James i. 1, &c.). It is to be noted that Assyria and the Chaldæan king of Babylon, Nebuchad- passages chaps. iv. 7-ví. 18, vii. 12-3, are girea in pezzar, who. having conquered Nineveh for his father, original Arainaic. had absorbed the Assyrian empire, till the destruction of
NEHEMIAH. Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar in B.C. 588 (2 Kings xviii.
Nehemiah is expressly said to have mitten the bar -xxv.). The Books of Kings supply us with the only other historical books of the Bible. It has fount:
that bears his name, a fact which distinguistes is from materials we have for the history of Israel, which is chaps. i. - vii. containing a narrative of Nebril passed over in the Chronicles in silence. event recorded, the accession of Evil-Merodach, son of mission in 445–444 B.C., but apparently writtes De Nebuchadnezzar, gives us the date 561 B.C. for that of the later (chap. v. 14), the chief result of his mission de composition of the book as it exists. Much of it was pro- rebuilding, in spite of active opposition of the pas bably written earlier. The Talmud and some moderns tion in being written in the third personligt bra perhaps not without some probability. The sources of thought this piece to be the work of Era): this time Kings were the Book of the Acts of Solomon (1 Kings records the joint work of Ezra and Nebemisl in her xi. 41), the Book of the Chronicles of the kings of Israel ligious re-organisation of the people; chaps 1-3 11 Kings xiv. 10, &c.), and of Judah (1 Kings xiv. 29, &c.). I contain sundry lists of the principal then in the pa In addition to the history of the kingdoms of Judah and bood and in the laity. In the last sectica cap Israel, we have also that of the prophets Elijah and 27-xiii.) the author rererts to the first person; Elisha.
For the chronology of these books, see Bases of was probably written by Nehemiah abans Chronology.
Another view is that Nehemiah wrote the whole CHRONICLES.
greater part of sections 1 and 4, but that the content The Books of Chronicles, like those of Samuel and work was put together along with Chronicles and Kings, were one book in the Heb. to the time of St. by a somewhat later writer. The internal eritis Jerome. Their original name is the Acts
of the Days or follows:-(1) Neh. xii. 23 (ep. e. 10), carries Bour Times. In the LXX., it is Paraleipomena, things omit- about 350 B.C; (2) Neb. xii. 2 (cp. again e 10, bring ted. The chronicler recapitulates the history of Samuel / date to Alexander the Great, in whose time Jadi and Kings, besides giving genealogies of the nation not high priest; (3) the
title “king of Persia Esil! elsewhere to be found. These were copied from existing iv. 5, 7), which presupposes the fall of the Persia registers (1 Chron. ix. 1). Writing after the Return, he pire; and (4) Neh. xii. 46, 47, in which the dans des was anxious to represent the Law and the worship of wiah" are referred to as belonging to the past Chassis the restored Temple as the central bond of the nation. I is very important as shewing the national estimas & hence its prominence in, and the generally Levitical tone the national history in the 5th century B.G of, his narrative. According to the Jewish tradition the
ESTHER. Chronicles are the work of Ezra. The book was certainly The Book of Esther is one of the fire Mega written after the Captivity: e.g. 1 Chron. iii. contains a read at the feast of Purim, of which it recuests genealogy of the descendants of Zerubbabel. The writer origin. The date and authorship of the book are si made use of and quotes twelve or fourteen authorities, tain.
Its history illustrates the growth of the Digessa which he mentions by name. The history contains many (see Ezra),
and its condition-material, social, sod omissions : c.9. David's adultery with Bathsheba and gious. It is commonly supposed that Abasters 3 murder of her husband, the slaughter of the sons of Persian Xerxes, whose character fitiy correspond Saul at the demand of the Gibeonites, the rebellions of ther is probably a Persian name meaning aus Absalom and Adonijah, Solomon's
foreign wives and Hebrew word is Hadassah, which signites " Mitte idolatry; and many additions, chiefly religious (e.g. Le-has often been remarked that the name of God a vitical details in the bringing of the ark to Jerusalem, not occur in the book, neither is there any directie and at the consecration of the Temple, the orders of the ence to religion, though the doctrine of a proto Levites and their gathering). The writer of Chronicles arrangement of events is presupposed throt bort does not concern himself with the history of Israel, no probably on this ground that it was one of Laeket doubt for the reason that, from his ecclesiastical point of l admitted into the Jewish Canon.
The Poetical Books.
Captivity. The name oecurs powhere else in The Book of Job is remarkable as differing from all being etymologically distinct from Job Ger other books of the Bible in having no reference to the and "Jobab" Gen. xxxvi. 33, with which it has Covenant People or their history. Its origin and date rantly been confounded and identifiedi. Esekiel Enis are matters of much obscurity, about which very oppo- liar with the history of Job (Ezek. xiv. 10, and one site opinions have been held: some regarding the book rently was Jeremiah (oomp. Jer. xv.
30. XI. 14 with 14 as older than Genesis, and others as later than the 1). And perhaps the largest consensusof opinion
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.
hein favour of the book having been composed shortly be
PROVERBS. fore the latter prophet. Some have thought that it was
The Book of Proverbs is known in Heb, by its first written in Egypt, others, with perhaps more probability, word, mishley, which has the same meaning. It is not assign it to the south or south-east of Palestine on the borders of the Desert. There is some question as to the but contains also connected poetical pieces of some
however contined to "proverbs" in the modern sense, genuineness of the speeches of Elihu in chs. xxxii.- xxxvii. length. It falls
naturally into eight parts, exclusive of The book consists of five divisions : The introduction the heading (1. 1–7),
viz. (1) i. 8-ix. 18; (2) x. 1-xxii. (chaps. i.-ii.), the discussion between Job and his friends 16: (3) xxii, 17–xxiv. 22; (4) xxiv. 23--35; (6) xxv. 1(chape. iii.---xxxiii.), the speeches of Elihu (chaps. xxxiv. xxix. 27; (6) XXX.; (7) xxxi.1–9; (8) xxxi. 10–31. Two --xxxvii.), the reply of the Lord (chaps. xxxviii.- xli.).
of these sections undoubtedly contain remnants of the and the couclusion (chap. xlii.). The argument of the proverbial poetry of king Solomon, to whom indeed tho Book of Job is one of the most profound that can engago headings (x. 1; xxv. 1 expressly assign the proverbs the human intellect-viz. that of God's moral govern- which follow. It was to the great literary movement in ment of the world, more especially with reference to the the reign of Hezekiah that we are indebtel for the latter sufferings of good men--a problem which is touched upon
of them-a fact of importance, as this editorial activity elsewhere, in such passages as Ps. xxxvii., lxxiii., Gen.
can hardly have been confined to the sayings or writings xviii., Jer. xii., &c., &c. PSALMS.
of Solomon. The 1st is by far the most poetic and beauThe Book of Psalms is divided by the Hebrews into
tiful portion of the Proverbs; here the sense is generally
not contined to single verses, but carried on through fve sections, like the Law of Moses, whether for that
consecutive paragraphs. The style of the 2nd, 3rd, 4th, reason or for any other is not known. The first section and 5th sections is just the reverse ; the sense here is consists of Ps. i.xli., the second of Ps. xlii.—Ixxii., the almost always contined to separate verse3. In the 6th third of Ps. Ixxiii.- xxxix., the fourth of Ps. xc.-cvi., section we have several instances of a form of speech and the fifth of Ps. cvii.-cl.--each portion concluding also found in chap. vi. 16; here also the sense is consecuwith a Doxology, and the first three sections with the tive. In the 8th, at verse 10, we have an acrostic comadditional words Amen and Amen, and the last two with Hallelujah, which is not found in the others. As the position running through all the letters of the Hebrew Psalms approach their close, the Doxology of praise and alphabet, but having little connection with the previous
verses (see Lamentations). This book is frequently quoted thanksgiving increases in volume and intensity. All the
in the New Testament,c.g. Rom. iii. 10, 15, xii. 16, 1 Pet. Psalms have superscriptions, with the exception of 31, which are therefore called in the Talmud orphan Psalms. Nothing is known of Agur the son of Jakeh (chap. xxx. 1),
iv. 8, iii. 9, 1 Thes. v. 15, Heb. xii. 5, 6, 2 Pet. ii. 22, &c. The authority of the titles is however doubtful, both on account of the difficulty of barmonising them in many
or of king Lemuel (xxxi. 1). Cases with the contents of the Psalms, and also because
ECCLESIASTES. of the variations in the Hebrew Septuagint (LXX.) and Ecclesiastes is called in Heb. koheleth, a word which is Syriac versions. No less than 73 are ascribed in the very difficult to translate, and is inadequately rendered Hebrew to David, 12 to Asaph, one of the leaders of his Preacher." It is a feminine participle, and means perchoir (1 Chron. vi. 39, &c.). Il to the gons of Korah, one haps calling together an assembly, thus referring to each to Heman, Ethan, and Jeduthun, probably also wisdom. The book purports to be written by Solomon among the number of David's singers, two (Pss, Ixxii. and (i. 1), but as Solomon is spoken of as dead (i. 12) it would cxxv.) to Solomon, and one (Ps. xc.) to Moses. In the seem that this was only a poetic assumption. The LXX. Pås. cxxxvii., cxxxviii., and cxlvi.cxlviii., are character of the language'as well as the circumstances axcribed to the prophets Jeremiah, Ezekiel, Haggai, and described and the tone of thought, have led most modern Zechariah.
Other Psalms (e.g. Ps. Ixxxv. and cxxvi.) commentators to refer it to the last century of the Perclearly reach down to times after the Captivity, while sian empire (440-336 B.C.). The intention of the book some (especially Pss, xliv., lxxiv., lxxix.) have even been appears to be to shew the unsatisfying nature of all attribute to the age of the Maccabees.
worldly things, and to lead men to the practical conclu. The first book consists wholly of David's Psalms. Ps. i., sion to "fear God and keep His commandments." It 1, and xxxiii. are anonymous, but probably belong to was this conclusion alone, according to Jerome, which laim. The second book consists of Psalms by the sons made the Jews consider it worthy of admission into the of Korab and David, the third book of Psalms by Asaph Canon. The name Jehovah does not occur in it. Vain and the sons of Korah, the fourth and fifth books are attempts have been made to trace a progressive develop, Dade up chiefly of anonymous liturgical productions ment of thought in the book; indeed, after the 2nd 17 set down to David), many of which were probably chapter, the work has every appearance of being based composed for the service of the 2nd Temple. The Psalms on incomplete and disarranged notes. Ecclesiastes is one which principally refer to the Messiah are ij., viii., xvi.. of the tivo Rolls, and is read at the feast of Tabernacles, Ixi, xl, xlv., lxxii., lxxxix., cx., cxxxii. The so-called penitential Psalms (according to ecclesiastical usage) are
SONG OF SOLOMON. 1.,, *xx., xxxviii., li., cii., cxxx., cxliii. ;. Psalms of The Song of Songs is the first of the five Megilloth or praise to God for the works of nature, viii., xix, first Rolls, and is read by the Jews annually at the Passover. hall. xxix., civ., cxxxix ; didactic Psalms, xxxvii., xlix., The interpretation of this book is a matter of extreme luiii.; Psalms relating to Jerusalem, xlviii.,
Ixxvi., difficulty, and a variety
of opinions have been held. It wwwvil, cxxii., cxxv., cxxxii., cxxxvii. Psalms relating is of the nature of a dialogue
between two lovers, and to the Law, i., xv. xix.,
second half, cxix; minatory there is a chorus of Daughters of Jerusalem, who, from vindictive' Pealms, XXXV., Ixix., cix; historical time to time, join in it. The English reader finds diftiPsalmos,
lxxvii., lxxviii. lxxxi., xcv., cv., cyi., cxiv., culty in understanding this poem from the ambiguity of COXXY., CXXXV.; liturgical Psalms for the Temple service, the word "Love." In chaps. ii. 7, iii. 5, viii. 4, it means kivii.. cv., cxxxiv.-cxxxvi., cxlviii., ch; so-called "Songs | the sentiment, not a person. In chap. i. 15, 16, the of Degreeg" or Psalms of pilgrimage, cxx.--cxxxiv. ; words are totally different. Love is the term applied to
acrostic or “alphabetic Psalms (i.e. Psalms BO the Bride, Beloved to the Bridegroom. Both Jews and arranged that each gucceeding verse or group of verses Christians have thought that there is a deeper and more shall begin with a new letter of the Hebrew alphabet) spiritual meaning than the literal one underlying this LIV., XXXiv., xxxvii., cxi., cxii., cxix., cxlv. (see, besides, most exquisite of poems. From the local colouring of the Index of Subjects under “Psalms"): The Psalms the poem (comp. vi. 4; viii. 11; iij. I; iv. 1, 8, 13), it has were the first book in the 3rd and last division (Kethu- been supposed that the author belonged to the northern him), or " Sacred writings." of the Heb. Scriptures. kingdom, and from the allusion to Tirzah as still the They thus stand for the whole series in Luke xxiv. 44. royal residence (vi. 4; comp. 1 Kin. xvi. 9).
The Prophets. (The Four Greater.)
had two or more children (chapg. vii. 3, n. 1, vii. 14). Isaiah is the first of the Prophets rightly so called, of There is also a tradition that Amoz and Amaziah weru whom we reckon 4 greater and 12 less. If we calculate brothers; and if so, Isaiah and Uzziah were cousins. his prophetic lite from two years before the death of It the prophecies are arranged in order of time, it would Upiah (chap. vi. 1) to the third year of Manasseh (in seem that though Isaiah was solemnly called to his office whose reign, according to a tradition, he was sawn in the last year of Uzziah or the first of Jotham (chap. sesunder in the trunk of a mulberry tree), it must have vi. 1), his ministry, was wholly in abeyance during the extended from about 700 to 695 B.C.; and the combined reign of Jotham (chap. vii. 1). The book of Isaiah naigas of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah give us a period of turally divides itself into two parts, which are separated more than 60 years, so that even if he did not survive by the historical chapters (xxxvi. -- xxxix.). It has been Iczekiah, he must have lived to a great age. We know supposed by many
modern critics that the 2nd part is lothing of his personal history, except the name of his by an unknown writer, who lived a century and a half father, the fact that he was married (chap. viii. 3), and later, towards the end of the Captivity and at Babylon
A SUMMARY OF THE BOOKS
mainly because the scene seems to be wholly laid in a kiah's. This will shew the confusion of ama time when
the return from eaptivity is near (Cyrus is which characterises Jeremiah's prophecies sa thg har mentioned by name, xliv. 28); and on similar grounds eome down to us, a confusion which is yet further it the authorship of Isaiah has been denied also in the creased in the Septuagint version. The prominent case of chaps. xiii., xiv. 1-23, xxi. 1-10, XXV.-xxvii. in Jeremiah is the Covenant broken, but to be me xxxiv., XXXy. Arguments from style and language The personal character of the Messiah retires soare have been used on both sides of the controversy. One into the background (see, however, the prophecydt of the main arguments for the Isaianic authorship of *** Branch" in chap. xxiii. 1-8). The style of Jenter the disputed passages is the literary relation which they is more diffuse than that of Isaiah, but characteria present to the writings of Zephaniah and Jeremiah great tenderness. (compare e.g. Isa. xlvii. 8, 10 with Zeph. ii. 15; Isa. xliv.
LAMENTATIONS. 12-15, xli. 7. xlvi. 7 with Jer, x,1-16, &c.). Isaiah's chief merit is his manysidedness. He excels in is read by the Jews on the ninth of An, the day on tie
Lamentations is one of the
five Megillot for Roir. various styles, and combines the moral qualities of several less eminent prophets (especially Amos and Hosea); He ascribed to Jeremiah
(though the internal evširo
the 1st Temple was destroyed. The book is trabant deepened the prophetic idea of the Day of the Lord,
and this is by no means decisive), and was called fortal gave a new turn to the current expectations of the Mes destruction of Jerusalem. siah. He is the first to hint at the Virgin Birth (vii. 14); acrostic poems (see Proverbes, sect. 6); chaps
The first four charta and while describing the glories of the Messianic King- bave each 22 verses, according to the number of dom (ix. 1-7) and its beneficent effects (xi.1-9, 1x. 15
brew letters, chap. iii. has 66 Ferxes, but esat 22, lxi, 1, 3) he also gives to the servant of Jehovah " (perhaps originally the people of Israel in its ideal aspect) shorter than the others;
chap. bas the same
verses begin with the same letter; they are a peculiar character of mildness (xlii. 1), and speaks of him as making atonement for sin by humiliation and not alphabetical. In the first chapter the seed et
of verses as the other three, but the stangen suffering
(liii.); moreover he looks forward in a striking scribes the miseries the city had undergone, le 16, xix, 23—25, xlii. 6, xlix. 6, 22, 23, 1x. 1–16). These recond he dwells on them in connection with the same markable anticipations of Christianity have obtained for personal,
though the speaker is really put the
sins, in the third his plaint becomes apparently Isaiah the name of the Evangelical Prophet. The first part of the book (i.-xxxix.) contains (1) a col- fourth he depicts the degradation of Zion cas
self, but the ideal righteous but suffering Israeten lection of prophecies relating to Judah, when Ahaz its king was threatened by the confederated forces of Rezin
sin, and in the fifth he prays that her reproach and Pekah--the distress and Messianic salvation (i.-ix.
taken away, and that she may renew ber days a 6); (2) prophecies against foreign nations, partly those
EZEKIEL which occupied the horizon in the reigns of Ahaz and
Ezekiel was the son of Buzi, a priest protaltyd Hezekiah (Samaria, Assyria, Philistia, Moab, Damascus, family of Zadok, of whom, however, nothing 13 Ethiopia, Egypt, Arabia, Tyre), and partly those which
He was the younger contemporary of Jaech, were to occupy it at a later date, e. g. Babylon, which is
like him prophesied before and after the destruction also alluded to under the name "desert of the sea" (ix. Jerusalem, though he was in the Land of the Cape 7—xxvii, 13); (3) a further collection of prophecies rela
and not with Jeremiah in Judea and For The ting to Israel -- pointing the moral of the fall of Samaria always be borne in mind in reading brebiel te (xxviii.-xxxv.); (4) a historical supplement (xxxvi.
one of the leading Jews at Jerusalem who, tosetha xxxix.). The subjects of the second part may be said to be the king Jehoiachin, were carried away by Felice (1) the Deliverance which God is about to work for His
nezzar 590 B.C. The place assigned to him was in people through the instrumentality of Cyrus (xl. xlviii.); potamia, on the river Chebar, the modern ihr (2) the Atonement which
the sufferings of the servant of prophesied from about 594 till 572 3.C, which is the Jehovah" should accomplish for the
nation (xlix.- lvii.); datē given, viz. the 27th year of Jehoiach in's Cape (3) the restored and reformed Jerusalem, into which, (chap. xxix. 17). The book has four main driskt after due penitence and the execution of Divine
judg: chap. i.- xxiv. prophecies mainly directed spak ment, even the heathen should be gathered (lviii.- xvi.)
condemning the perjury of the alliance with Eople
accepting vassalage under Babylon, and announce JEREMIAH.
approaching fall of Jerusalemn; 2) chars Jeremiah prophesied from the 13th year of Josiah, Philistines, who had triumphed maliciously over
prophecies against foreign nations Moabites Ideas 629 B.C., down to the destruction of Jerusalem, 688 B.C. and later, for a period therefore of more than 40 years: Egypt and Pathros, Israel's useless allies: these are
calamities, against Tyre and Sidon, and a He was of priestly family, and was called when a youth order of time, but the dates are given : (3) 18 (chap. xi. 18—23) at first, and afterwards in Jerusalem, bones, the
overthrow of Gog, &c. &c; the rise It is not improbable that he was the son of Hilkiah the theocracy. A chief characteristic of Ezekih was stoned by the Jews at Tahpanhes in Egypt (chap. they resemble Daniel, Zechariah, and the Rere xliv. 1). The book may be divided as follows :-(1) chaps St. John. These writings doubtless did and 1.-Ixxiii., prophecies mingled with
history, from the call. ing of the Prophet onwards, and consisting chiefly of
the reform which was accomplished during the threatenings of judgment and punishment upon the
--the old tendency to idolatry giving place for people who have broken the Covenant which God had and loyal monotheism, Ezekiel insist the
the observance of the Law, ceremonial sa ne made with them-the possession of the Temple should not help them any more than that of Shiloh had done
(in this showing perhaps his priestly dement; yet with a final prospect of salvation and the institution
most priestly among the propheta"). At the of a now Covenant based on moral regeneration; (2)
he lays stress upon the necessity for personal chaps. xxxiv.-xlv., historical narrative, chiefly of the
ness, and upon personal responsibility. The siege of Jerusalem and the sufferings of the prophet expectation takes with him the form d during it, with prophecies after the taking of the city, the last chapter referring to Baruch ; (3) prophecies to
over a restored and morally renewed people foreign nations, some untrustworthy allies, some hostile
of this prophet is marked by a frequent used to Israel, and others, like Israel, the prey of the Chal
DANIEL. dæans, viz. Egypt, Philistia, Moab, Ammon, Edom, Da- The Book of Daniel, though classed by us si mascus, Kedar, and Elam (chaps. i. 6, xlv., - li.); (4) a greater prophets, is placed in the Jewish Camon letras historical appendix by another hand (lii.). In chap. xxxvi. Esther and Ezra. As early as the age of Panas 2, 23, we find mention of a roll
which was burnt by the 270 A.D., this fact was treated as an indieta king. This probably contained what we now have in having been written after the age of propbegona chaps. i.-xix., or the bulk of it. At all events, chap. xxi, in the time of Antiochus Epiphanen, thote belongs to the time of Zedekiah, the last king of Judah; of its being placed before Ezra would seem to our chaps. xxii., xxiii, belong to the reign of Jehoiakim, who the latter inference. Daniel was taken aptin was made king by Pharaoh-Nechoh after the death of third year of Jehoiakim (or about 6 Rch and Josiah ; chap. xxiv. to Zedekiah's reign; chaps. XXV., Xxvi. to Babylon, where he attained to great enuinen to Jehoiakim's. In chap. xxvii. 1. Jehoiakim is probably a successive monarchs, and died probably shoot mistake for Zedekiah (see ver. 3). Chaps. xxvii.-xxxiv. This book is written partly in Hebrew and belong to Zedekiah's reign, chaps. xxxv. xxxvi. to Jehoi- maic, the latter part being chaps il. -ril bu akim's, chaps. xxxvii.-- xliv. to Zedekiah's, and later, toric narrating chiefly the rise and intuicace ! chaps. xiv.-xlix, to Jehoiakim's, chaps. 1., li, to Zede. I the Babylonian court, and the capture d Eatyka
OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENT.
Modes (chaps. i.--vi.), and partly prophetic or apocalyp be noted that during the Captivity the older parable-protic, containing a forecast of Jewish history based upon phecy came to be succeeded by the vision prophecy, of the prophecies of Jeremiah (chaps. vii.- xii.). The second which the Book of Daniel is an example. Belshazzar is part consists of a remarkable series of visions, in which most probably identified with Bel-shar-uzar, the eldest the Messiah is (according to A.V., which, however, many son and heir-apparent of Nabonidus, the last king of Hebrew scholars regard as incorrect) for the first time Babylon. Darius the Mede is variously identified with mentioned by name in connection with the prediction of Astyages, Cyaxares II. (who is, bowever, only known the 70 weeks (ix. 25, 26); in these chapters also occurs the from Xenophon's Cyropadia, a doubtful authority), and first mention of the title “ son of man" (vii. 13). It is to a viceroy of that name under Cyrus.
The Prophets. (The Twelve Minor.) The Minor Prophets are so called from the smaller bulk | as "a succession of earthquake shocks." The mission of of their writings, which form a single volume in the the prophet was to Israel, but he prophesied also against Hebrew, They are twelve in number, and extend over Judah and the surrounding nations, whose sivs would a period of about 400 years, nearly equal to that from call down upon them punishment. He concludes a series Chaucer to Wordsworth. Arranging them roughly in chro- of denunciations and symbolic visions by a prophecy of nological order, their succession would be :- Before the the restored theocracy of the Messianic time. This book Captivity, Joel, Jonah, Amos, Hosea, Micah. Isaiah, Ze contains numerous references to the books of Moses. chariah 11. (?), Nahum, Zephaniah, Habakkuk, Jeremiah;
OBADIAH . during the Captivity, Obadiah (?), Ezekiel, Daniel. Isaiah 11. 09; after the Captivity, Haggai Zechariah I., Malachi; time when he lived. He is probably not the same as
Ot Obadiah we know absolutely nothing, not even the though born at Tekoa, a city of Judah, addressed his pro- and it is possible that Joel ii. 32 refers to the last verse ot Dorthern kingdom; all the rest were Judæans; Amos, the Obadiah mentioned in 1 Kings xviii. His position Jeremiah, Ezekiel,
Zechariah, and possibly Joel and Ha: Obadiah, in which case he must, of course, have been niah probably of royal, descent; Anios was a shepherd, that Jeremiah should have quoted from Obadiah, than bakkuk were of priestly or Levitical. Isaiah and Zepha- contemporary with Joel. So much of Obadiah is found witbout regular prophetical training (Amos vii. 14, 15).
that Obadiah in his very brief prophecy should have HOSEA.
incorporated so much of Jeremiah. Still some have Hosea, the first in order of the Minor Prophets, was thought that the denunciation of Edom, corresponding an elder contemporary of Isaiah. His mission, which as it does closely with Ps. cxxxvii. 7, Ezek. xxxv.. points was to the Ten Tribes only, continued till somewhat to the period of the exile. The prophecy consists chiefly later probably than the capture of Samaria, in 721
B.C. of this denunciation, but ends with a prospect of Mes ple was also contemporary with Amos and Micah. The sianic deliverance and triumph. leading idea of this prophet is the Divine love for Israel,
JONAH. which will survive even the chastisement brought down
All that we know of Jonah is derived from the book by its sins. In the first part of the book (chaps. i.-ji.), that bears his name, and from the statement in 2 Kings Israel's sin is set forth symbolically, as adultery against xiv. 25, which shows that he, at least, was a prophet that God: the second part (chaps. iv.- xiv.) consists
of warn; arose out of Galilee (see John vii. 52). By the reference ing and bortatory addresses. The style
and language of in Kings we may place him early in the reign of JeroHosea are very obscure. He prophesied the destruction boam II., 824-783 B.C. ; he was probably one of the of Samaria, the capital and last remnant of Jeroboam's earliest of the Minor Prophets. The book contains an nation, chap. xiii. 16 ; the rejection of the Ten Tribes account of the mission of Jonah to Nineveh-afterwards until their repentance and turning to God in a long the bitter foe of Israel, by whom Samaria was to be distant future, when they should share in the in-gather: destroyed and Judah attacked under. Hezekiah-his ing of the Gentiles, chaps. i. 10, 11.23 (see Rom. ix. 25, 26): voyage and miraculous preservation, his preaching of the return of the children of Israel to David their king. repentance in Nineveh, and the lesson taught him by the chap. iii, 3; and the destruction of Judah. The book is incident of the gourd. Some have thought that the a mine of allusions to the earlier history and the books story of Jonah is to be regarded as an allegory or para. of Moses, e q. chaps. iv. 15; v. 8, see Judg: v. 14; chaps. ble. The principal argument against this view is the I. 3, xi. 8, xii. 3-13; xiii. 5, Ex. iii. 15, &c., &c.
reference to it by our Lord (Matt. xii. 40, xvi. 4, &c.). JOEL.
The book seems intended to teach a two-fold lesson, Jol was a prophet to Judah (chaps. Ii. 1, 15, 17, 23, 32, (1) the power of repentance, (2) a tolerant and generous iii. 1-8, 16–21), familiar with the Temple and its services. spirit towards non-Israelitish peoples. and the valley of Jehoshaphat (chap. iii. 2, 12). His date
MICAH is uncertain. Many think that Joel prophesied as early Micah was contemporary with, though younger than as the time of Joash, 875-850 B.C. This is inferred from Isaiah, as may be seen by the date given (chap. i. 1). the absence of allusion to the pressure that afterwards His name is a shorter form of Micaiah (1 Kings xxii.), came to be felt from Syria and Assyrian Others, however, and is given in full in Jer. xxvi. 18. He seems to allude would place him later, about 800 B.C. In either case he to the significance of his own name, i.e. " Who is liku would be the earliest of the Prophets whose writings have unto the Lord" (chap. vii. 18). Like the rest of the come down to us. On the other hand, an influential mi- carlier prophets, he denounces judgment first, against nority
of critics regard Joel as one of the post-Captivity Samaria and then against Jerusalem. After the judg. prophets, basing this view on the internal evidence of the ment will come a restoration and the reign of the book itself, such as the exclusive importance attached Messiah, who shall arise out of Bethlehem. Micah to the priests in chap. i., and the apocalyptic features of insists strongly upon the moral requirements of the chap. ii. Some of his last words are taken up by Amos covenant (vi. 6-8), upon the pacific character of the chap. iii. 16, see Amos i. 2). The book contains three Messiah's kingdom liv. 3, 4). and upon the mercy of main prophecies :--The plague of locusts, chaps, i. and ii.; God in forgiving sin (vii. 18). The passage, chap ív. 1 the gift of the Holy Ghost, chap. ii. 28; the judgment in-3 has either been copied in Isa. ii. 2-4, or has been the valley of Jehoshapbat, chap. iii. 2.' Interpreters are taken by both prophets from an older writer. In chap. greatly divided as to whether by locusts the prophet vi. 4. 5, there is a striking reference to the history meant a plague of real locusts or the Assyrian Invasion of Balaam, as recorded in Num. xxii.- xxiv, Miof possibly prophesied the second under some particular cah begins his prophecy with the words uttered by Visitation of the former.
his great namesake, Micaiah, 150 years before (comp. AMOS
chap. i. 2 with 1 Kings xxii. 28), and recurs to them All we know of Amos is derived from his writings more than once : viz, as chaps, iii. 1. 9. vi. 1. His proin chaps. 1. and vii. - le prophesied during part of the phecy ends with a clear reference to the promises in Home that Izziah and Jeroboam II. were contemporaries Genesis, shewing that they had for centuries been in Judah and Israel respectively, i.e. between $10 and the hope of Israel. Micah is referred to in Matt. ii. 6, 1 744 B.C.: he was, therefore, an older contemporary of 0; x. 35. 30 ; Mark xiii. 12; Luke xii. 63; John
. 42. Hosea and Isaiah. Amos opens his message (chap. i. 2)
NAHUM. with the words of Joel (iii. 16), sbewing thereby that Nahum is called the Elkoshite, but whether from a Joel preceded him. Nothing is known of the earthquake town named Elkosh
in Galilee (comp. Caper-naum=the 12. the time of Uzziah, except that it is alluded to in village of Nahum), or from an Alkush near Mosul, is not Zoch. xiv. 5, and that it appears to have supplied the known. Neither is his date certain. Chap. i. 4 is approimagery in Mic. j. 4, Nah. i. 6. Isa. vi. 10–21,
and many priate to an inhabitant of Palestine (comp. i. 15). "The his moral tone, and his prophecy has been well described I of No-Amon, i.e. Egyptian
Thebes, in chap. iii. 8, this 15 of Amos. Amos is remarkable
for the severity of only clue to the date is in the allusion to the destruction