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4. MANUSCRIPTS. YOTE.-In the citation of the MSS., and the several Greek of Alexandria, Tischendorf thinks; meant handwritings in them, Tischendorf's notation has for the use of a Latin Church. Corrected by been followed. The citations of MSS. have been later hands, both Greek, Dk of the 7th century, taken from the editions of Tischendorf, Tregelles, De early in the 9th. and Alford ; usually the first: the accounts of the E (Gospels). Codex Basileensis, in the Public LiYSS, from Tischendorf and Scrivener.
brary at Basle, apparently brought thither from Nie. Aleph, first letter of Hebrew alphabet). Co. Constantinople. Contains the Gospels, except a
der Sinaitici, now at St. Petersburg; discovered few verses of St. Luke. 8th century. bs Tischendorf in 1859 in the Convent of St. E (Acts). Codex Laudianus, now at Oxford ; preCatherine on Mount Sinai. Contains a large sented to the University by Archbishop Laud part of the Septuagint and the whole New Tes- in 1636. Contains the Acts in Greek and Latin, tament. Written, in Tischendorf's judgment, except about two chapters. Date, about 600 A.D. about the middle of the 4th century A.D., pro- Apparently written in Sardinia, for use in a bably at Alexandria. Corrected in some places Latin church. by later handa, , of the 4th century, y, about E (Epistles). Codex Sangermanensis, now at St. the 6th century, or a, early in the 7th cen. Petersburg. An inexact copy of D Claromontatary, 1 of the 7th century. The first hand is nus. 9th century. denoted by Nor H*. (See note belo!).
F (Epistles). Codex Augiensis ; in the Library of A Coder Alexandrinus, in the British Museum ; Trinity College, Cambridge.' Contains the Paul.
presented to Charles I. in 1628 by Cyril Lucar, ine Epistles, in Greek and Latin, except a few Parnarch first of Alexandria, then of Constanti. passages; the Greek text of the Epistle to the Lople. Contains the Septuagint almost complete, Hebrews is also missing. 9th century. the whole New Testament, except St. Matthew G (Epistles). Codex Boernerianus; in the Royal i.--Av. 6, and St. John vi. 50-viii. 52. Date Library at Dresden. Contains the Pauline Epis(Erst hand denoted by A or A*) middle of the tles, except the Hebrews, with some omissions. 5th century or earlier, corrected in a few places It has much resemblance to Codex Augiensis, by later hands (A2 and A3); corrections which F., and Scrirener believes that both were copied may probably have been made by the original from one MS. some centuries older than either. scribe himself, are denoted by A** May have Date, late in the 9th century. been written at Alexandria, but "it exhibits, H (Gospels). Codex Andr. Seidelii, now at Hamburg. especially in the Gospels, a text more nearly Contains the Gospels, with many omissions. 9th approaching that found in later copies than is or 10th century,
found in most of its high antiquity."-Scrirener. H (Acts). Codex Mutinensis ; at Modena, Contains B Codex Vaticanns, in the Vatican Library at Rome. part of the Acts. 9th century.
Contains nearly all the Septuagint and all the H (Epistles). Codes Coislinianus Parisiensis. Part New Testament except Hebrews ix. 14 to end, now at Paris, part at St. Petersburg. Contains 1 and 2 Timothy, Titus, Philemon, Revelation; fragments of five of the Pauline Epistles. 6th these are found in it indeed, but supplied by a century. late hand, probably of the 15th century; First K (Gospels). Codex Cyprius Parisiensis. In the band (B or B*) of the 4th century, probably Alex- National Library at Paris. Contains the Gospels. andrine ; Tischendorf thinks that the copyist 9th century. who wrote out this MS. was one of the two K (Epistles). Codex Mosquensis. At Moscow. Con. scribes who produced the original Sinaitic MS. of tains the Epistles, except about 12 chapters. 9th the New Testament. Corrected in some places century. by later hands Bå of the 4th or 5th century, B3L (Gospels). Codex Parisiensis Regius. In the Naof the luth or Ilth century.
tional Library at Paris. Contains the Gospels, B (Revelation). Also in the Vatican. Contains except a few passages. Sth century. Has "a Rerelation About 800 A.D.
strong resemblance to Codex B; abounds in what C Codes Ephraemi Syri Rescriptus. So called be. are termed Alexandrian forms beyond any other
cauze certain tracts by St. Éphraem the Syrian copy of its date."---Scrivener. bad been copied upon it above the old writing. L (Acts and Epistles). Codex Angelicus Romanus, Now in the National Library at Paris. Muti. belonging to the Augustinian monks at Rome. lated, containing about half the New Testament, Contains Acts from viii. 10, and Epistles, except no single book being entire. First hand (C or a few verses. Of 9th century. C) of the 5th century, Alexandrine, or at least Z Codex Palimpsestus Dublinensis. In Library of Egyptian, Tischendorf thinks ; later hands, (* Trinity College, Dublin. Passages of Chrysostom of the 6th century, apparently Syrian or Egyp- and Epiphanius written over the old writing, in tian, C3 of 9th century, Constantinopolitan.
a hand of the 10th century or later. Contains part D Gospels and Acts). Codex Beze. In the Uni- of St. Matthew. 6th century.
versity Library at Cambridge ; presented to the r (i.e. Gamma). Part at Oxford, part at St. PetersUniverzity in 1581 by Theodore Beza. Contains burg. Contains the Gospels nearly entire. 9th the Gospels and Acts in Greek and Latin, ex. century. cept a few chapters. The first hand (D or D*) of A (i.e. Delta) Codex Sangallensis. In the Monastery the 6th century. Some of the missing portions of St. Gall in N.E. Switzerland. Contains the sre supplied, "perhaps from the original leaves," Gospels, except part of St. John. “ Written by by a hand of about the 10th century (Drupp), Latin (most probably by Irish) monks in the west Hes many words and some passages not found of Europe during the 9th century."-Serirener. in other MSS.
2 (ie. Xi). Codex Zacynthius. In the Library of the D (Epistles). Codex Claromontanus. In the Na- British and Foreign Bible Society, London. Con
tional Library at Paris. Contains the Epistles tains considerable portions of St. Luke. Like Z, of St. Paul in Greek and Latin. Written (D or a palimpsest, the original hand being probably of D®) in the 6th century in North Africa by a the sth century. References of the forme N*, B*, C*, &c., are used to denote the original reading of the MSS. A, B, C, &c., in cases where a later hand has introduced an alteration. In passages which have not been touched by the later hands, the first hand is denoted by A, B, C, &c., simply.
Bear?, Cear, and the like, are sometimes used to denote one or more of the correctors, or later hands, of the M8. in question, where it has not been thought worth while to distinguish these hands from one another.
Chi (1.4. C, ut videtur) and the like, denote that the editor from whom the citation is taken is not quite sure that he has rightly read the passage in question in the particular MS.
5. CRITICAL EDITIONS OF THE TEXT.
A1.-Alford, Very Rev. Dr. H. (died 1870). The Greek Edd.- (Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Philemon) Testament, with a critically revised text, and a
La. Ti. Tr, E. L. JVH. critical and exegetical commentary. 3rd-5th edi.
Ephesians, 1 Thessalonians-Titus) La. Ti. Tr. tion, 4 vols., London, 1865, &c.
(Hebrews-Revelation) La. Ti. Tr. WH. La.- Lachmann, Dr. C. (died 1851). The New Testa- NOTE.-There are many passages in which a critical
ment in Greek and Latin, according to the re- editor does not satisfy himself that one of two rival cension of C. Lachmann. 2 vols., Berlin, 1842- readings is confidently to be preferred to the other, 1850.
the evidence being divided. In such cases a figure Li.-Lightfoot, Right Rev. Dr. J. B. Select Epistles of (1, *) has been appended to the name of the editor in
St. Paul (Galatians, Philippians, Colossians, Phi- question; the former showing that the reading is judg. lemon). London, 1865, &c.
ed on the whole the more probably corroct by the editor. Mcl.-McClellan, Rev. J. B. The New Testament, &c., the latter that it is judged the less probable by him. It
vol. 1. The Four Gospels. London, 1875. should be said, however, that the preference thus in. Scr.-Scrivener, Rev. Dr. F. H. A plain introduction dicated is in some cases more decided than in others.
to the criticism of the New Testament. Cam- The edition of the Gospels by Dr. Westcott and bridge, 1874, 2d edition.
Dr. Hort contains a special symbol ([[ ]]), to mark Ti.-Tischendorf, Dr. Const. von (died 1874). Greek particular passages which these editors believe not
New Testament, 8th critical edition. Leipzig, to have formed part of the original text of the Gos1865-1872.
pels, but to be early additions, usually of Western Tr.-Tregelles, Dr. S. P. (died 1875). The Greek New origin, and thus to have been founded in some cases
Testament edited from ancient authorities, with upon a genuine tradition. This symbol has been the Latin version of Jerome from the Codex reproduced here. It may be well to give an example Amiatinns. London, 1857-1871.
of the potation adopted. The note upon St. Like We.-Weiss, Dr. B. The Gospel of St. Mark. Berlin, ix. 54 (“even as Elias did”) runs thus: “So A CD,
1572. The Gospel of St. Matthew, Halle, 1876. 41?. La. Tr[[WH.]]; omit X B, Ti. Tr?”. This im
in the MSS, ACD; not found in X B; that they are WH.-Westcott, Rev. Dr. B. F., and Hort, Rev. Dr. accepted as part of the Gospel by Lachmann; re
F. J. A. The New Testament in the Original jected by Tischendorf; that Tregelles, with some Greek. (Not published.),
hesitation, rejects them from the text; Alford, with Edd.-This abbreviation (St. Matthew, St. Mark, some hesitation, accepts them; that Westcott and St. Luke) La. Ti. Tr. Mcl. We. WH.
Hort believe them not to have been found in the (St. John) La. Ti. Tr. Mol. WH.
original Gospel of St. Luke, but to have been added, (Acts-2 Corinthians) La. Ti. Tr. WH.
probably as early as the 2nd century.
The names of the scholars who support the Authorised Version in a passage are introduced by the word So' at the beginning of the note upon the passage. Omit,' followed by the name of a critic, denotes that the editor in question judges that the words referred to did not form part of the original text of the Bible. These words, 'So,' Omit,' and in general explanatory words, are printed in italics; those which are given as substitutes or alternatives for something in the text, are printed in Roman type.
Renderings are indicated by consecutive figures throughout a chapter as reference-marks. Readings are specified by the early letters of the Greek alphabet (By). These reference-marks are so arranged that they may be worked forward or backwards, i.e., from 'the text to the footnotes, or from the footnotes to the text.
KING OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE, AND IRELAND,
DEFENDER OF THE FAITH, &c.
The Translators of the Bible wish Grace, Mercy, and Peace, through JESUS CHRIST our Lord.
GREAT and manifold were the blessings, most dread Sovereign, which Almighty God, the Father of all mercies,
bestowed upon us the people of England, when first he gent Your Majesty's Royal Person to rule and reign over us. For whereas it was the expectation of many, who wished not well unto our Sion, that upon the setting of that bright Occidental Star, Queen Elizabeth of most happy memory, some thick and palpable clouds of darkness would so have crershadowed this land, that men should have been in doubt which way they were to walk ; and that it should hardly be known, who was to direct the unsettled State ; the appearance of Your Majesty, as of the Sun in his strength, instantly dispelled those supposed and surmised mists, and gave unto all that were well affected exceeding cause of comfort; especially when we beheld the Government established in Your Highness, and Your hopeful Seed, by an undoubted Title. and this also accompanied with peace and tranquillity at home and abroad.
But among all our joys, there was no one that more filled our hearts, than the blessed continuance of the preaching of God's sacrel Word among us ; which is that inestimable treasure, which excelleth all the riches of the earth ; because the fruit thereof extendeth itself, not only to the time spent in this transitory world, but directeth and disposeth meu unto that eternal happiness which is above in Heaven.
Then not to suffer this to fall to the ground, but rather to take it up, and to continue it in that state, wherein the famous Predecessor of Your Highness did leave it : nay, to go forward with the confidence and resolution of a Man in maintaining the truth of Christ, and propagating it far and near, is that which hath so bound and firmly knit the hearts of all Your Majesty's loyal and religious people unto You, that Your very name is precious among them: their eye doth behold You with comfort, and they bless you in their hearts, as that sanctified Person, who, under God, is the immediate Author of their true happiness. And this their contentment doth not diminish or decay, but every day increaseth and taketh strength, when they observe, that the zeal of Your Majesty toward the house of God doth not elsek or go backward, but is more and more kindled, manifesting itself abroad in the farthest parts of Christendom, by writing in defence of the Truth, (which hath given such a blow unto that man of sin, as will not be healed,) and every day at home, by religious and learned discourse, by frequenting the house of God, by hearing the Word preached, by cheriching the Teachers thereof, by caring for the Church, as a most tender and loving nursing Father.
There are infinite arguments of this right Christian and religious affection in Your Majesty ; but none is more forcible to declare it to others than the vehement and perpetuated desire of the accomplishing and publishing of this work, which now with all humility we present unto Your Majesty. For when Your Highness had once out of deep judgment apprehended how convenient it was, that out of the Original Sacred Tongues, together with comparing of the labours, both in our own, and other foreign Languages, of many worthy men who went before us, there should be one more exact Translation of the Holy Scriptures into the English Tongue: Your Majesty did never desist to urge and to excite those to whom it was commended, that the work might be hastened, and that the business might be expedited in so decent a manner, as a matter of such importance might justly require.
And now at last, by the mercy of God, and the continuance of our labours, it being brought unto such a conclusion.is that we have great hopes that the Church of England shall reap good fruit thereby ; we hold it our duty to offer it w Yoar Majesty, not only as to our King and Sovereign, but as to the principal Mover and Author of the work : humbly craring of Your most Sacred Majesty, that since things of this quality have ever been subject to the censures of illmeaning and discontented persons, it may receive approbation and patronage from so learned and judicious a Prince w Your Ilighness is, whose allowance and acceptance of our labours shall more honour and encourage us, than all the calomniations and hard interpretations of other men shall dismay us. So that if, on the one side, we shall be traduced by Popish Persons at home or abroad, who therefore will malig us, because we are poor instruments to make God's holy Truth to be yet more and more known unto the people, whom they desire still to keep in ignorance and darkness; or if, on the other side, we shall be maligned by selfconceited Brethren, who run their own ways, and give liking unto Dothing, but what is tramed by themselves, and hammered on their anvil ; we may rest secure, supported within by the truth and innocency of a good conscience, having walked the ways of simplicity and integrity, as before the Lord; and sustained without by the powerful protection of Your Majesty's grace and favour, which will ever give countenance to bonest and Christian endeavours against bitter censures and uncharitable imputations.
The Lord of heaven and earth bless Your Majesty with many and happy days, that, as his heavenly hand hath Etriebed Your Highness with many singular and extraordinary graces, 90 You may be the wonder of the world in this 'atter age for happiness and true felicity, to the honour of that great GOD, and the good of his Church, through Jesus Christ our Lord and only Saviour.
THE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER.
be by devising any thing ourselves, or revising liberally endowed, a voice forsooth was heard
, , that which hath been laboured by others, deserveth from heaven, saying, Now is poison poured down certainly much respect and esteem, but yet findeth into the Church, &c. Thus not only as oft as we but cold entertainment in the world. It is wel speak, as one saith, but also as oft as we do any comed with suspicion instead of love, and with thing of note or consequence, we subject ourselves emulation instead of thanks : and if there be any to every one's censure, and happy is he that is hole left for cavil to enter, (and cavil, if it do not least tossed upon tongues ; for utterly to escape find an hole, will make one, it is sure to be miscon, the spatch of them it is impossible. If any man strued, and in danger to be condemned. This will conceit, that this is the lot and portion of the easily be granted by as many as know story, or meaner sort only, and that Princes are privileged hare any experience. For was there ever any by their high estate, he is deceived. As the sucord thing projected, that savoured any way of new-devoureth as well one as another, as it is in Dess or renewing, but the same endured many a Samuel; nay, as the great commander charged storm of gainsaying or opposition ? A man would his soldiers in a certain battle to strike at no think that civility, wholesome laws, learning and part of the enemy, but at the face ; and as the eloquence, synods, and Churchmaintenance, (that king of Syria commanded his chief captains to we speak of no more things of this kind,) should fight neither with small nor great, sare only be as safe as a sanctuary, and out of shot, as they against the king of Israel: so it is too true, that say, that no man would lift up his heel, no, nor envy striketh most spitefully at the fairest, and dog move his tongue against the motioners of the chiefest. David was a worthy prince, and no them. For by the first we are distinguished from man to be compared to him for his first deeds; brute beasts led with sensuality : by the second we and yet for as worthy an act as ever he did, even are bridled and restrained from outrageous be- for bringing back the ark of God in solemnity, he haviour, and from doing of injuries, whether by was scorned and scoffed at by his own wife. fraud or by violence : by the third we are enabled to Solomon was greater than David, though not in inform and reform others by the light and feeling virtue, yet in power ; and by his power and that we have attained unto ourselves : briefly, by wisdom he built a temple to the Lord, such an the fourth, being brought together to a parley face one as was the glory of the land of Israel, and to face, we sooner compose our differences, than by the wonder of the whole world. But was that his writings, which are endless : and lastly, that the magnificence liked of by all? We doubt of it. Church be sufficiently provided for is so agreeable Otherwise why do they lay it in his own son's to good reason and conscience, that those mothers dish, and call unto him for easing of the burden? are holden to be less cruel, that kill their children Make, say they, the grievous servitude of thy as soon as they are born, than those nursing father, and his sore yoke, lighter. Belike he had fathers and mothers (wheresoever they be) that charged them with some levies, and troubled them withdraw from them who hang upon their breasts with some carriages ; hereupon they raise up a (and upon whose breasts again themselves do hang tragedy, and wish in their heart the temple had to receive the spiritual and sincere milk of the never been built. So hard a thing is it to please Ford) livelihood and support fit for their estates, all, even when we please God best, and do seek to Thus it is apparent, that these things which we approve ourselves to every one's conscience. Epeak of are of most necessary use, and therefore that none, either without absurdity can speak If we will descend to latter times, we shall find against them, or without note of wickedness can many the like examples of such kind, or rather spurn against them.
unkind, acceptance. The first Roman Emperor
did never do a more pleasing deed to the learned, Yet for all that, the learned know, that certain nor more profitable to posterity, for conserving the worthy men have been brought to untimely death record of times in true supputation, than when he for none other fault, but for seeking to reduce corrected the Calendar, and ordered the year actheir countrymen to good order and discipline : cording to the course of the sun : and yet this was And that in some Commonweals it was made a imputed to him for novelty, and arrogancy, and capital crime, once to motion the making of a new procured to him great obloquy. So the first law for the abrogating of an old, though the same Christened Emperor (at the least wise, that openly were most pernicious : And that certain, which professed the faith himself, and allowed others to would be counted pillars of the State, and pat- do the like,) for strengthening the empire at his terus of virtue and prudence, could not be brought great charges, and providing for the Church, as he for a long time to give way to good letters and did, got for his labour the name Pupillus, as who refined speech; but bare themselves as'averse from would say, a wasteful Prince, that had need of a them, as from rocks or boxes of poison : And guardian or overseer. So the best Christened fourthly, that he was no babe, but a great Clerk, Emperor, for the love that he bare unto peace, that gave forth, (and in writing to remain to pos- thereby to enrich both himself and his subjects, terity) in passion peradventure, but yet he gave and because he did not seek war, but find it, was forth, That he had not seen any profit to come by judged to be no man at arms, (though indeed he any synod or meeting of the Clergy, but rather excelled in feats of chivalry, and shewed so much the contrary : And lastly, against Churchmainte- when he was provoked,) and condemned for giving hance and allowance, in such sort as the ambassa- himself to his ease, and to his pleasure. To be dors and messengers of the great King of kings short, the most learned Emperor of former times, should be furnished, it is not unknown what a (at the least, the greatest politician,) what thanks fletion or fable (80it is esteemed, and for no had he for cutting off the superfluities of the laws, better by the reporter himself, though super- and digesting them into some order and method ? stitious) was devised : namely, That at such time This, that he hath beon blotted by some to be an as the professors and teachers of Christianity in Epitomist, that is, one that extinguished worthy