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whole volumes, to bring his abridgments into re- sapientia, &c. Love the Scriptures, and wisdom quest. This is the measure that hath been ren- will love thee. And St. Cyrill against Julian, dered to excellent Princes in former times, cum Even boys that are bred up in the Scriptures bene facerent, male audire, for their good deeds to become most religious, &c. But what mention we be evil spoken of. Neither is there any likelihood three or four uses of the Scripture, whereas whatthat envy and malignity died and were buried with soever is to be believed, or practised, or hoped for, the ancient. No, no, the reproof of Moses taketh is contained in them? or three or four sentences hold of most ages, Ye are risen up in your fathers' of the Fathers, since whosoever is worthy the stead, an increase of sinful men. What is that name of a Father, from Christ's time downward, that hath been done ! that which shall be done : hath likewise written not only of the riches, but and there is no new thing under the sun, saith the also of the perfection of the Scripture? I adore wise man. And St. Stephen, As your fathers did, the fulness of the Scripture, saith Tertullian so do ye.

This, and more to this purpose, his against Hermogenes. And again, to Apelles an Majesty that now reigneth (and long, and long, heretick of the like stamp he saith, I do not admit may he reign, and his offspring for ever, Himself, that which thou bringest in (or concludest) of thine and children, and children's children always !) own (head or store, de tuo) without Scripture. So knew full well, according to the singular wis- St. Justin Martyr before him; We must know by dom given unto him by God, and the rare all means (saith he) that it is not lawful (or poslearning and experience that he hath attained sible) to learn (any thing) of God or of right piety, unto ; namely, That whosoever attempteth any save only out of the Prophets, who teach us by thing for the publick, (especially if it pertain to divine inspiration. So St. Basil after Tertullian, religion, and to the opening and clearing of the It is a manifest falling away from the faith, and a word of God,) the same setteth himself upon a fault of presumption, either to reject any of those stage to be glouted upon by every evil eye ; yea, things that are written, or to bring in (upon the he casteth himself headlong upon pikes, to be head of them, énelo ayeiv) any of those things that gored by every sharp tongue. For he that med- are not written, We omit to cite to the same dleth with men's religion in any part meddleth effect St. Cyrill Bishop of Jerusalem in his 4. with their custom, nay, with their freehold; and Catech. St. Hierome against Helvidius, St. Augusthough they find no content in that which they tine in his third book against the letters of Petilian, have, yet they cannot abide to hear of altering; and in very many other places of his works. Also Notwithstanding his royal heart was not daunted we forbear to descend to later Fathers, because or discouraged for this or that colour, but stood we will not weary the reader. The Scriptures resolute, as a statue immoveable, and an anvil not then being acknowledged to be so full and so pereasy to be beaten into plates, as one saith; he knew fect, how can we excuse ourselves of negligence, who had chosen him to be a soldier, or rather a if we do not study them ? of curiosity, if we be not captain ; and being assured that the course which content with them? Men talk much of eipeolávn, he intended made much for the glory of God, and how many sweet and goodly things it had hanging the building up of his Church, he would not on it; of the Philosopher's stone, that it turneth suffer it to be broken off for whatsoever speeches copper into gold; of Cornu-copia, that it had all or practices. It doth certainly belong unto kings, things necessary for food in it; of Panaces the yea, it doth specially belong unto them, to have herb, that it was good for all diseases; of Catholicare of religion, yea, to know it aright, yea, to con the drug, that it is instead of all purges; of profess it zealously, yea, to promote it to the utter- Vulcan's armour, that it was an armour of proof most of their power. This is their glory before all against all thrusts and all blows, &c. Well, that nations which mean well, and this will bring unto which they falsely or vainly attributed to these them a far more excellent weight of glory in the things for bodily good, we may justly and with day of the Lord Jesus. For the Scripture saith full measure ascribe unto the Scripture for spinot in vain, Them that honour me I will honour; ritual. It is not only an armour, but also a whole neither was it a vain word that Eusebius delivered armoury of weapons, both offensive and defensive; long ago, That piety toward God was the weapon, whereby we may save ourselves, and put the and the only weapon, that both preserved Con- enemy to flight. It is not an herb, but a tree, or stantine's person, and avenged him of his enemies. rather a whole paradise of trees of life, which

bring forth fruit every month, and the fruit But now what piety without truth? What thereof is for meat, and the leaves for medicine. truth, what saving truth, without the word of It is not a pot of Manna, or a cruse of oil, which God? What word of God, whereof we may be were for memory only, or for a meal's meat or sure, without the Scripture? The Scriptures we two; but, as it were, a shower of heavenly bread are commanded to search, John 5. 39 ; Isai. 8. 20. sufficient for a whole host, be it never so great, They are commended that searched and studied and, as it were, a whole cellar full of oil vessels ; them, Acts 17. 11, and 8. 28. 29. They are re- whereby all our necessities may be provided for, proved that were unskilful in them, or slow to and our debts discharged. In a word, it is a believe them, Matt. 22. 29; Luke 24. 25. They can panary of wholesome food against fenowed tramake us wise unto salvation, 2 Tim. 3. 15. If we ditions; a physician's shop (as St. Basil calls it) be ignorant, they will instruct us; if out of the of preservatives against poisoned heresies; a panway, they will bring us home; if out of order, dect of profitable laws against rebellious spirits; they will reform us ; if in heaviness, comfort us; a treasury of most costly jewels against beggarly if dull, quicken us; cold, inflame us. Tolle, rudiments ; finally, a fountain of most pure water lege; tolle, lege; Take up and read, take up and springing up unto everlasting life. And what read the Scriptures, (for unto them was the direc- marvel ? the original thereof being from heaven, tion,) it was said unto St. Augustine by a super- not from earth;

the author being God, not man; natural voice. Whatsoever is in the Scriptures, the inditer, the Holy Spirit, not the wit of the believe me, saith the same St. Augustine, is high | Apostles or Prophets; the penmen, such as were and divine; there is verily truth, and a doctrine sanctitied from the womb, and endued with a most fit for the refreshing and renewing of men's principal portion of God's Spirit ; the matter, minds, and truly so tempered, that erery one may verity, piety, purity, uprightness; the form, God's draw from thence that which is sufficient for him, word, God's testimony, God's oracles, the word of if he come to draw with a devout and pious mind, truth, the word of salvation, &c.; the effects, light as true religion requireth. Thus St. Augustine. of understanding, stableness of persuasion, reAnd St. Hierome, Ama Scripturas, et amabit te pentance from dead works, newness of life, holl

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xyli Dess, peace, joy in the Holy Ghost ; lastly, the end as also by the colonies which thither they had and reward of the study thereof, fellowship with sent. For the same causes also it was well under. the saints, participation of the heavenly nature, stood in many places of Europe, yea, and of fruition of an inheritance immortal, undefiled, and Africk too. Therefore the word of God, being set that never shall fade away. Happy is the man forth in Greek, becometh hereby like a candle set that delighteth in the Scripture, and thrice happy upon a candlestick, which giveth light to all that that meditateth in it day and night.

are in the house ; or like a proclamation sounded

forth in the marketplace, which most men preBat how shall men meditate in that which they sently take knowledge of; and therefore that cannot understand? How shall they understand language was fittest to contain the Scriptures, that which is kept close in an unknown tongue? both for the first preachers of the Gospel to appeal as it is written, Except I know the power of the unto for witness, and for the learners also of those coice, I shall be to him that speaketh a barbarian, times to make search and trial by. It is certain, and he that speaketh shall be a barbarian to me that that translation was not so sound and so The Apostle excepteth no tongue ; not Hebrew the perfect, but that it needed in many places corapcientest, not Greek the most copious, not Latin rection; and who had been so sufficient for this the finest. Nature taught a natural man to con- work as the Apostles or apostolick men? Yet it fe-s, that all of us in those tongues which we do seemed good to the Holy Ghost and to them to not understand are plainly deaf; we may turn the take that which they found, (the same being for deaf ear unto them. The Scythian counted the the greatest part true and sufficient,) rather than Atkenian, whom he did not understand, bar- by making a new, in that new world and green barous : so the Roman did the Syrian, and the age of the Church, to expose themselves to many Jea: (even St. Hierome himself calleth the exceptions and cavillations, as though they made Hebrew tongue barbarous ; belike, because it was a translation to serve their own turn; and therestrange to so many:) so the Emperor of Constan- fore bearing witness to themselves, their witness tintiple calleth the Latin tongue barbarous, though not to be regarded. This may be supposed to be Pope Nicolas do storm at it: so the Jews long some cause, why the translation of the Seventy before Christ called all other nations Lognasim, was allowed to pass for current. Notwithstandwhich is little better than barbarous. Therefore ing, though it was commended generally, yet it as one complaineth that always in the Senate of did not fully content the learned, no not of the Rome there was one or other that called for an Jews. For not long after Christ, Aquila fell in interpreter; so lest the Church be driven to the hand with a new translation, and after him Theolike exigent, it is necessary to have translations dotion, and after him Symmachus : yea, there was in a readiness. Translation it is that openeth the a fifth, and a sixth edition, the authors whereof window, to let in the light; that breaketh the were not known. These with the Seventy made shell, that we may eat the kernel ; that putteth up the Hexapla, and were worthily and to great asile the curtain, that we may look into the most purpose compiled together by Origen. How beit holy place; that removeth the cover of the well, the edition of the Seventy went away with the that we may come by the water ; even as Jacoó credit, and therefore not only was placed in the rolled away the stone from the mouth of the well, midst by. Origen, (for the worth and excellency by which means the flocks of Laban were watered. thereof above the rest, as Epiphanius gathereth) Indeed without translation into the vulgar tongue, but also was used by the Greek Fathers for the the unlearned are but like children at Jacob's well ground and foundation of their commentaries. (which was deep) without a bucket or something Yea, Epiphanius abovenamed doth attribute so in draw with : or as that person mentioned by much unto it, that he holdeth the authors thereof Exay, to whom when a sealed book was delivered not only for interpreters, but also for prophets in with this motion, Read this, I pray thee, he was some respect : and Justinian the Emperor, injoinfain to make this answer, I cannot, for it is ing the Jews his subjects to use especially the sealed.

translation of the Seventy, rendereth this reason

thereof, Because they were, as it were, enlightened While God would be known only in Jacob, and with prophetical grace. Yet for all that, as the have his name great in Israel, and in none other Egyptians are said of the Prophet to be men and place ; while the dew lay on Gideon's fleece only, not God, and their horses flesh and not spirit : so and all the earth besides was dry; then for one it is evident, (and St. Hierome affirmeth as much,) and the same people, which spake all of them the that the Seventy were interpreters, they were not language of Canaan, that is, Hebrew, one and the prophets. They did many things well, as learned sutie original in Hebrew was sufficient. But when men; but yet as men they stumbled and fell, one the fulness of time drew near, that the Sun of while through oversight, another while through righteousness, the Son of God, should come into ignorance ; yea, sometimes they may be noted to the world, whom God ordained to be a reconcilio add to the original, and sometimes to take from ation through faith in his blood, not of the Jew it: which made the Apostles to leave them many only, but also of the Greek, yea, of all them that times, when they left the Hebrew, and to deliver were scattered abroad; then, lo, it pleased the the sense thereof according to the truth of the Lord to stir up the spirit of a Greek prince, (Greek word, as the Spirit gave them utterance. This for descent and language,) even of Ptolemy Phila- may suffice touching the Greek translations of the delph king of Egypt, to procure the translating of Old Testament. the book of God out of Hebrew into Greek. This is the translation of the Seventy interpreters, coin- There were also within a few hundred years monly so called, which prepared the way for our after Christ translations many into the Latin Saviour among the Gentiles by written preach- tongue : for this tongue also was very fit to convey ing, as St. John Baptist did among the Jews by the Law and the Gospel by, because in those times vocal. For the Grecians, being desirous of learn- very many countries of the West, yea of the South, ing, were not wont to suffer books of worth to lie East, and North, spake or understood Latin, being moulding in kings' libraries, but had many of made provinces to the Romans. But now the their servants, ready scribes, to copy them out, and Latin translations were too many to be all good : so they were dispersed and made common. Again for they were infinite ; (Latini interpretes nullo the Greek tongue was well known and made modo numerari possunt, saith St. Augustine.) familiar to most inhabitants in Asia by reason of Again, they were not out of the Hebrew fountain, the conquests that there the Grecians had made, (we speak of the Latin translations of the Old

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THE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER. Testament,) but out of the Greek stream; there- French Psalter (as Beda had done the Hebrew) fore the Greek being not altogether clear, the about the year 800: King Alured by the said CisLatin derived from it must needs be muddy. This tertiensis, to have turned the Psalter into Saxon : moved St. Hierome, a most learned Father, and Methodius by Aventinus (printed at Ingolstad) to the best linguist without controversy of his age, have turned the Scriptures into Sclavonian: Valdo or of any other that went before him, to undertake Bishop of Frising by Beatus Rhenanus, to have the translating of the Old Testament out of the caused about that time the Gospels to be translated very fountains themselves; which he performed into Dutch rhyme, yet extant in the library of with that evidence of great learning, judgment, Corbinian: Valdus by divers, to have turned them industry, and faithfulness, that he hath for ever himself, or to have gotten them turned, into bound the Church unto him in a debt of special French, about the Year 1160: Charles the Fifth of remembrance and thankfulness,

that name, surnamed The wise, to have caused

them to be turned into French about 200 years Now though the Church were thus furnished after Valdus' time; of which translation there be with Greek and Latin translations, even before many copies yet extant, as witnesseth Beroaldus. the faith of Christ was generally embraced in the Much about that time, even in our King Richard Empire : (for the learned know, that even in St. the Second's days, John Trevisa translated them Hierome's time the Consul of Rome and his wife into English, and many English Bibles in written were both Ethnicks, and about the same time the hand are yet to be seen with divers ; translated, greatest part of the Senate also :) yet for all that as it is very probable, in that age. So the Syrian the godly learned were not content to have the translation of the New Testament is in most learn. Scriptures in the language which themselves un- ed men's libraries, of Widminstadius' setting derstood, Greek and Latin, (as the good lepers forth ; and the Psalter in Arabick is with many, were not content to fare well themselves, but ac- of Augustinus Nebiensis' setting forth. So Postet quainted their neighbours with the store that God affirmeth, that in his travel he saw the Gospels in had sent, that they also might provide for them the Ethiopian tongue: And Ambrose Thesius selves :) but also for the behoot and edifying of alledgeth the Psalter of the Indians, which he the unlearned, which hungered and thirsted after testitieth to have been set forth by Potken in righteousness, and had souls to be saved as well Syrian characters. So that to have the Scriptures as they, they provided translations into the vulgar in the mother tongue is not a quaint conceit lately for their countrymen, insomuch that most nations taken up, either by the Lord Cromwell in England, under heaven did shortly after their conversion or by the Lord Radevile in Polony, or by the Lord hear Christ speaking unto them in their mother Ungnadius in the Emperor's dominion, but hath tongue, not by the voice of their minister only, but been thought upon, and put in practice of old, also by the written word translated. If any doubt even from the first times of the conversion of any hereof, he may be satisfied by examples enough, nation; no doubt, because it was esteemed most if enough will serve the turn. First, $t. Hierome profitable to cause faith to grow in men's hearts saith, Multarum gentium linguis Scriptura ante the sooner, and to make them to be able to say translata docet falsa esse quæ addita sunt, &c. with the words of the Psalm, As we have heard, so That is, The Scripture being translated before in we have seen. the languages of many nations doth shew that those things that were added (by Lucian or Hesy- Now the church of Rome would seem at the chius) are false. So St. Hierome in that place. length to bear a motherly affection toward her The same Hierome elsewhere affirmetb that he, the children, and to allow them the Scriptures in the time was, had set forth the translation of the mother tongue : but indeed it is a gift, not deserySeventy, sua linguæ hominibus ; that is, for his ing to be called a gift, an unprofitable gift

: they countrymen of Dalmatia. Which words not only must first get a licence in writing before they may Erasmus doth understand to purport, that St. use them; and to get that, they must approve Hierome translated the Scripture into the Dal- themselves to their Confessor, that is, to be such matian tongue ; but also Sixtus Senensis, and as are, if not frozen in the dregs, yet soured with Alphonsus á Castro, (that we speak of no more, the leaven of their superstition. Howbeit it seemmen not to be excepted against by them of Rome, ed too much to Clement the Eighth, that there do ingenuously confess as much. So St. Chry- should be any licence granted to have them in the sostome, that lived in St. Hierome's time, giveth vulgar tongue, and therefore he overruleth and frusevidence with him : The doctrine of St. John (saith trateth the grant of Pius the Fourth. So much are he) did not in such sort (as the Philosophers' did) | they afraid of the light of the Scripture, (Lucifuge vanish away, but the Syrians, Egyptians, Indians, Scripturarum, as Tertullian speaketh,) that they Persians, Ethiopians, and infinite other nations, will not trust the people with it, no not as it is being barbarous people, translated it into their set forth by their own sworn men, no not with the (mother) tongue, and have learned to be (true) licence of their own Bishops and Inquisitors. Yea, Philosophers, he meaneth Christians. To this so unwilling they are to communicate the Scripmay be added Theodoret, as next unto him both tures to the people's understanding in any sort, for antiquity, and for learning, His words be that they are not ashamed to confess, that we these, Every country that is under the sun is full forced them to translate it into English against of these words, (of the Apostles and Prophets ;) their wills. This seemeth to argue a bad cause, and the Hebrew tongue (he meaneth the Scriptures or a bad conscience, or both. Sure we are, that in the Hebrew tongue) is turned not only into the it is not he that hath good gold, that is afraid to language of the Grecians, but also of the Romans, bring it to the touchstone, but he that hath the and Egyptians, and Persians, and Indians, and counterfeit ; neither is it the true man that shunArmenians, and Scythians, and Sauromatians, neth the light, but the malefactor, lest his deeds and, briefly, into all the languages that any nation should be reproved ; neither is it the plaindealing useth. So he. In like manner Ulpilas is reported merchant that is unwilling to have the weights, by Paulus Diaconus and Isidore, and before them or the meteyard, brought in place, but he that by Sozomen, to have translated the Scriptures useth deceit. But we will let them alone for this into the Gothick tongue: John Bishop of Sevil by fault, and return to translation. Vasseus, to have turned them into Arabick about the Year of our Lord 717 : Beda by Cistertiensis, Many men's mouths have been opened a good to have turned a great part of them into Saxon : while (and yet are not stopped) with speeches about Efnard by Trithemius, to have abridged the the translation so long in hand, or rather perusals


xix of translations made before: and ask what may endeavour to make that better which they left so be the reason, what the necessity, of the employ- good; no man, we are sure, hath cause to mislike

Hath the Church been deceived, say they, us; they, we persuade ourselves, if they were alive, all this while ? Hath her sweet bread been mingled would thank us. The vintage of Åbiezer, that with leaven, ber silver with dross, her wine with strake the stroke : yet the gleaning of grapes of water, her milk with lime? (lacte gypsum male Ephraim was not to be despised. See Judges 8. 2. miscetur, saith St. Irenee.) We hoped that we had Joash the king of Israel did not satisfy himself till been in the right way, that we had had the Oracles he had smitten the ground three times; and yet he of God delivered unto us, and that though all the offended the Prophet for giving over then. Aquila, world bad cause to be offended, and to complain, of whom we spake before, translated the Bible as Fet that we had none. Hath the nurse holden out carefully and as skilfully as he could; and yet he ibe breast, and nothing but wind in it ? Hath the thought good to go over it again, and then it got bread been delivered by the Fathers of the Church, the credit with the Jews, to be called kat' arpißelay, and the same proved to be lapidosus, as Seneca that is, accurately done, as St. Hierome witness

peaketh? what is it to handle the word of God eth. How many books of profane learning have deceitfully, if this be not? Thus certain brethren. been gone over again and again, by the same Also the adversaries of Judah and Jerusalem, like translators, by others? Of one and the same book Samballat in Nehemiah, mock, as we hear, both at of Aristotle's Ethicks there are extant not so few the work and workmen, saying, What do these as six or seven several translations. Now if this wak Jeros, gc. will they make the stones whole cost may be bestowed upon the gourd, which afagain out of the heaps of dust which are burnt! fordeth us a little shade, and which to day flourishalthough they build, yet if a fox go up, he shall eth, but to morrow is cut down ; what may we eren break doron their stony wall. Was their bestow, nay, what ought we not to bestow, upon translation good before? Why do they now mend the vine, the fruit whereof maketh glad the conit ? Was it not good ? Why then was it obtruded to science of man, and the stem whereof abideth for the people ? Yea, why did the Catholicks (meaning ever ? And this is the word of God, which we transPopish Romanists) always go in jeopardy for re- late. What is the chaj to the wheat ? saith the fusing to go to hear it? Nay, if it must be trans- Lord. Tanti vitreum, quanti verum margaritum ! lated into English, Catholicks are fittest to do it. (saith Tertullian.) If a toy of glass be of that They have learning, and they know when a thing reckoning with us, how ought we to value the true is well, they can manum de tabula. We will pearl! Therefore let no man's eye be evil, because ansfer them both briefly: and the former, being his Majesty's is good; neither let any be grieved, brethren, thus with St. Hierome, Damnamus that we have a Prince that seeketh the increase of reteres ? Minime, sed post priorum studia in domo the spiritual wealth of Israel; (let Sanballats and Domini quod possumus laboramus. That is, Do Tobiahs do so, which therefore do bear their just te condemn the ancient ? In no case: but after the reproof ;) but let us rather bless God from the endegrours of them that were before us, we take ground of our heart for working this religious the best pains we can in the house of God. As if care in him to have the translations of the Bible be said, Being provoked by the example of the maturely considered of and examined. For by learned that lived before my time, I have thought this means it cometh to pass, that whatsoever is it my duty to assay, whether my talent in the sound already, (and all is sound for substance in knowledge of the tongues may be profitable in any one or other of our editions, and the worst of ours measure to God's Church, lest I should seem to far better than their authentick vulgar) the same have laboured in them in vain, and lest I should will shine as gold more brightly, being rubbed and be thought to glory in men (although ancient) polished ; also, if any thing be halting, or superabove that which was in them. Thus St. Hierome fluous, or not so agreeable to the original, the same may be thought to speak.

may be corrected, and the truth set in place. And

what can the King command to be done, that will And to the same effect say we, that we are so bring him more true honour than this? And wherefar off from condemning any of their labours that in could they that have been set a work approve travelled before us in this kind, either in this land, their duty to the King, yea, their obedience to God, or beyond sea, either in King Henry's time, or and love to his Saints, more, than by yielding their King Edward's, (if there were any translation, or service, and all that is within them, for the fur. Correction of a translation, in his time,) or Queen nishing of the work? But besides all this, they Elizabeth's of ever renowned memory, that we were the principal motives of it, and therefore acknowledge them to have been raised up of God ought least to quarrel it. For the very historical for the building and furnishing of his Church, and truth is, that upon the importunate petitions of that they deserve to be bad of us and of posterity the Puritanes at his Majesty's coming to this in everlasting remembrance. The judgment of crown, the conference at Hampton-court having Aristotle is worthy and well known: If Timotheus been appointed for hearing their complaints, when kad not been, we had not had much sweet musick : by force of reason they were put from all other But if Phrynis (Timotheus' master) had not been, grounds, they had recourse at the last to this shift, ve had not had Timotheus. Therefore blessed be that they could not with good conscience subscribe they, and most honoured be their name, that break to the communion book, since it maintained the the ice, and give the onset upon that which help- Bible as it was there translated, which was, as eth forward to the saving of souls. Now what can they said, a most corrupted translation. And albe more available thereto, than to deliver God's though this was judged to be but a very poor and book unto God's people in a tongue which they empty shift, yet even hereupon did his Majesty understand? Since of an hidden treasure, and of begin to bethink himself of the good that might a fountain that is sealed, there is no profit, as ensue by a new translation, and presently after Ptolemy Philadelph wrote to the Rabbins or mas- gave order

for this translation which is now preters of the Jews, as witnesseth Epiphanius: and sented unto thee. Thus much to satisfy our scruas St. Augustine saith, A man had rather be with pulous brethren, kis dog ihan with a stranger (whose tongue is strange unto him.) Yet for all that, as nothing is Now to the latter we answer, That we do not begun and perfected at the same time, and the deny, nay, we affirm and avow, that the very latter thoughts are thought to be the wiser: so, meanest translation of the Bible in English, set if we building upon their foundation that went forth by men of our profession, (for we have seen before us, and being holpen by their labours, do none of their's of the whole Bible as yet) conTHE TRANSLATORS TO THE READER. taineth the word of God, nay, is the word of God: Church of God for certain hundred years, were of As the King's speech which he uttered in Parlia- another mind : for they were so far from treading ment, being translated into French, Dutch, Italian, under foot (much more from burning) the transand Latin, is still the King's speech, though it be lation of Aquila a proselyte, that is, one that had not interpreted by every translator with the like turned Jew, of Symmachús, and Theodotion, both grace, nor peradventure so fitly for phrase, nor Ebionites, that is, most vile hereticks, that they so expressly for sense, every where. For it is con- joined them together with the Hebrew original, fessed, that things are to take their denomination and the translation of the Seventy, (as hath been of the greater part ; and a natural man could say, before signified out of Epiphanius,) and set them Verum ubi multa nitent in carmine, non ego paucis forth openly to be considered of and perused by all. of'endor maculis, fc. A man may be counted But we weary the unlearned, who need not know so a virtuous man, though he have made many much ; and trouble the learned, who know it already. slips in his life, (else there were none virtuous, for in many things we offend all,) also a comely man Yet before we end, we must answer a third and lovely, though he have some warts upon bis cavil and objection of their's against us, for alterhand; yea, not only freckles upon his face, but ing and amending our translations so oft ; wherein also scars. No cause therefore why the word truly they deal hardly, and strangely with us. translated should be denied to be the word, or For to whom ever was it imputed for a fault, (by forbidden to be current, notwithstanding that such as were wise,) to go over that which he had some imperfections and blemishes may be noted done, and to amend it where he saw cause ? St. in the setting forth of it. For what ever was per: Augustine was not afraid to exhort St. Hierome fect under the sun, where Apostles or apostolick to a Palinodia or recantation. The same St. men, that is, men endued with an extraordinary | Augustine was not ashamed to retractate, we measure of God's Spirit, and privileged with the might say, revoke, many things that had passed privilege of infallibility, had not their hand? The him, and doth even glory that he seeth his infirRomanists therefore in refusing to hear, and mities. If we will be sons of the truth, we must daring to burn the word translated, did no less consider what it speaketh, and trample upon our than despite the Spirit of grace, from whom origi- own credit, yea, and upon other men's too, if nally it proceeded, and whose sense and meaning, either be any way an hindrance to it. This to as well as man's weakness would enable, it did the cause. Then to the persons we say, that of express. Judge by an example or two.

all men they ought to be most silent in this

case. For what varieties have they, and what Plutarch writeth, that after that Rome had been alterations have they made, not only of their serburnt by the Gauls, they fell soon to build it vice books, portesses, and breviaries, but also of again : but doing it in haste, they did not cast the their Latin translation? The service book supstreets, nor proportion the houses, in such comely posed to be made by St. Ambrose, (Officium Amfashion, as had been most sightly and convenient. brosianum,) was a great while in special use and Was Cataline therefore an honest man, or a good request : but Pope Adrian, calling a council with patriot, that sought to bring it to a combustion ? the aid of Charles the Emperor, abolished it, yea, Or Nero a good Prince, that did indeed set it on burnt it, and commanded the service book of St. fire ? So by the story of Ezra and the prophecy Gregory universally to be used. Well, Officium of Haggai it may be gathered, that the temple Gregorianum gets by this means to be in credit built by Zerubbabel after the return from Babylon but doth it continue without change or altering 3 was by no means to be compared to the former No, the very Roman service was of two fashions built by Solomon; for they that remembered the the new fashion, and the old, the one used in one former wept when they considered the latter. Church, an the other in another; as is to be seen Notwithstanding might this latter either have in Pamelius a Romanist, his preface before Mibeen abhorred and forsaken by the Jews, or pro- crologus. The same Pamelius reporteth out of faned by the Greeks! The like we are to think Radulphus de Rivo, that about the year of our of translations. The translation of the Seventy Lord 1277 Pope Nicolas the Third removed out of dissenteth from the Original in nany places, the churches of Rome the more ancient books (of neither doth it come near it for perspicuity, service,) and brought into use the missals of the gravity, majesty. Yet which of the Apostles did Friers Minorites, and commanded them to be condemn it? Condemn it? Nay, they used it, observed there ; insomuch that about an hundred (as it is apparent, and as St. Hierome and most years after, when the above named Radulphus learned men do confess ;) which they would not happened to be at Rome, he found all the books to have done, nor by their example of using of it so be new, of the new stamp. Neither was there this grace and commend it to the Church, if it had chopping and changing in the more ancient times been unworthy the appellation and name of the only, but also of late. Pius Quintus himself conword of God.' And whereas they urge for their fesseth, that every bishoprick almost had a second defence to their vilifying and abusing of pecular kind of service, most unlike to that which the English Bibles, or some pieces thereof, which others had ; which moved bim to abolish all other they meet with, for that hereticks forsooth were breviaries, though never so ancient, and privileged the authors of the translations: (hereticks they and published by Bishops in their Dioceses, and call us by the same right that they call themselves to establish and ratify that only which was of his catholicks, both being wrong :) we marvel what own setting forth in the year 1568. Now when divinity taught them so. We are sure Tertullian the Father of their Church, who gladly would heal was of another mind : Et personis probamus the sore of the daughter of his people softly and fidem, an ex fide personas ? Do we try men's slightly, and make the best of it, findeth so great faith by their persons ? We should try their per- fault with them for their odds and jarring ; we sons by their faith. Also St. Augustine was of hope the children have no great cause to vaunt another mind : for he, lighting upon certain rules of their uniformity. But the difference that apmade by Tychonius a Donatist for the better peareth between our translations, and our often understanding of the word, was not ashamed to correcting of them, is the thing that we are make use of them, yea, to insert them into his specially charged with ; let us see therefore own book, with giving commendation to them so whether they themselves be without fault this far forth as they were worthy to be commended, way, (if it be to be counted a fault to correct,) and as is to be seen in St. Augustine's third book De whether they be fit men to throw stones at us : Doctr. Christ. To be short, Origen, and the whole o tandem major parcas insane minori: They

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