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Greek worship within their churches, that in all probability nothing but Mahometan austerity prevents them from practising more nonsense in public than their catholic brethren of the west. The Turks indeed hold the Greek rites in the utnjost contempt, and their picture-worship in perfect abhorrence, their own faith being intimately connected with the spirituality of the Deity, of whom they cannot endure any corporeal representations. I once had a conversation with a most respectable Turkish agd upon this subject, who assured me that if the “ Greek dogs” were not such idolaters he should have some respect for them, but when he saw them led by such ignorant and sordid impostors as he knew their priests to be, he could not possibly restrain his indignation and contempt. He then asked me why the English Franks never bowed down to kiss pictures, and why they did not cross themselves? and when I explained to him some of the chief articles of the Protestant faith and the discipline of our church, which discards all ceremonies that tend to debase the mind, and retains those only which are necessary to add dignity to religious worship, he exclaimed that all this was very good (wana nana); but that we were no more Christians than he was; meaning to pay us the greatest compliment in his power. .

Certainly the Greek priests exert very few endeavours to enlighten their countrymen, whose ignorance and credulity is the source from which they derive the greatest part of their revenues. They teach their flocks therefore just as much of Christianity as is necessary for their craft, instruct them more in legends and miracles of saints than in the life and doctrines of their Saviour, inculcate a lively faith in purgatory, with the efficacy of masses, crossings, and the tedious repetition of prayers, just as if divine like human charity could be forced by sturdy importunity: hence attendance upon ceremonious institutions counterbalances the neglect of religious duties, and the people, unimpressed with the true stamp of devotion, possess a most adulterated system, not only of faith, but of morality. I trust however that the time is not far distant when these abominations shall cease for ever.

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The Greek clergy of Ioannina are very numerous and many of them very poor: some follow various kinds of professions, but especially husbandry and fishing: these are distinguished from the laity only by a high round cap and beard Howing over the breast: they despise the tonsure as an innovation of the Latin church. A priest is only allowed to marry once, and his wife must be a virgin : if he marries a second time he is silenced, and is termed an apopapas. The monks or caloyers are bound by a vow of continency, and from them the bishops and other dignitaries of the church are generally selected. The Archbishop of loannina is appointed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, on the recommendation of the vizir: he has four suffragan bishops under him, viz. of Vellas (or Konizza), Argyro-Castro (or Drinopolis), Delvino, and Paramithia. His jurisdiction is very limited, for Ali Pasha will permit neither priests nor laity to possess more power than is absolately necessary within bis dominions.

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Difficulties which occur to the Writer of Ali Pasha's early History-Prefatory Remarks respecting the Country called Albania and its InhabitantsAli's Birth-place and FamilyHis Situation at the Death of his Father-Character of his Mother-Ali's EducationHis Mother and Sister carried off by the Gardikiotes-Ali's first Attempts at Warfare and various SuccessHis Adventures in the Mountains of Mertzika -Throws off his Dependence on his Mother-Turns KleftesTaken by. Kourt Pasha and released— Again turns KleftesTaken by the Pasha of Ioannina but released-Is again attacked by Kourt, but succeeds in gaining his Favour~His Adventures at BeratEnters into the Service of the Pasha of Negropont_Gains Wealth and attempts to seize upon Argyro-Castro, but failsTakes Libochobo, &c.—Destroys the Town of Chormovo - Attacks the Pasha of Delvino whom he assassinates, but is driven from the PlaceIs made Lieutenant to the Derven-Pasha-His Conduct makes the Pasha lose his Head-Serves against the Russians -Enters into Correspondence with Potemkin—-Guins the Pashalic of TriccalaAttacks IoanninaGains a Battle over the Beys-Succeeds by Stratagem in taking the City-Appointed by the Porte Derven Pasha of RumeliaConquers the Pasha of ArtaTakes Klissura, Premeti, Ostanizza and Konitza, and secures the Course of the Voïussa from Mount Pindus to Tepeleni.

Having proceeded thus far in the journal of our residence at Ioannina, during the course of which I have been necessarily led to bring forward many characteristic traits as well as some political and



domestic anecdotes relating to its celebrated ruler, I am induced to think that a more regular and detailed account of the adventurous life of this extraordinary man, in which the causes of his uncommon success may be connected with their effects, will not prove an unacceptable document to the generality of my readers. The earlier parts of this wild romantic history never can be very accurately and authentically described, since they rest almost entirely upon oral traditions, or accounts which have been compiled from those traditions after a long intervening time: and though I have perused probably fifty of such records, yet I never met with two that agreed with each other, either in the relation of facts or the development of motives. In all such cases it is necessary to be well acquainted with the character of the persons from whom we receive information, and to know what opportunities they themselves have enjoyed of acquiring it. For my own part, I found no persons more able or more willing to impart this information than the old Albanian governors of cities, fortresses, and seraglios which we visited in our excursions through the country: these men were the early friends of Ali in his youth, sharers of his toils, and partners of his success: still even their accounts are subject in a great degree to exaggeration from vain-glory, and their chronological arrangement to disorder from defect of memory: the errors therefore that proceed from these sources must be corrected by a careful and discriminating comparison of written documents*, as well as from the observations of those persons

who have had the good fortune to view and sagacity to connect the chain of political events, in the secluded seats of literature and science. On one occasion, which will be hereafter mentioned, I was fortunate enough to gain some elucidation of Ali's early history from the chief actor in its scenes : had I been a greater adept in the

* I met with a detailed account of the Life of Ali Pasha written by an Albanian poet in Romaic verse, and procured a transcript of it from some of Signore Psalida's scholars ; but the young rogues, in their hurry to get the reward, wrote it in so confused and illegible a hand that it has been of little or no service to me in my labours.



Romaic language, I should not have despaired of receiving an authentic detail of the whole from his own mouth. The latter portion of his history, after its hero had established a name, and connected his dominions in political union with surrounding nations, offers itself much more advantageously to investigation and research.

However before we enter upon the biographical part of this memoir it will not be irrelevant if we take a cursory view of that curious and warlike people, whose valour formed the basis of their chieftain's aggrandizement, and still remains the bulwark of bis power. But in this description it will be necessary for the reader to bear in mind that the character of this people is referred back a few years, to that time when the Albanian, like the Indian hunter, stalked free and lawless over his native mountains. His peculiar habits, manners, and customs have been considerably altered by the despotic sway and consolidated

power of Ali Pasha : though the general elements of his character may remain the same, yet the strong collision of external circumstances has worn down many rough points and prominent features in its configuration.

The country now called ALBANIA is extremely difficult of definition. It was originally confined to the little district of Albanopolis*, (now Albassan) in Southern Illyricum or that region which was afterWards denominated New Epirus. From this insignificant origin, the courage and increase of its inhabitants, shewn especially during the weak disorderly reigns of the Byzantine emperors, bave extended the limits, or rather the name of ALBANIA over greatest part of Illyricum and Epirus ; so that in the present day it borders to the north upon Bosnia, to the east upon Macedonia and Thessaly, to the south upon

Ptolemy the geographer, who flourished in the reigns of Hadrian and Antonious is the first upon record who makes mention of it. Axbávwv Albavorodes: 1. iii. c. 12. Dion Cassius enumerating the Roman conquests in Asia Minor, makes mention of Albania and calls it Axşaviar TNy éxei, as if is contradistinction to an Albania elsewhere.

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