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turns and grinds 1400 ochas of flour: it is the invention of a poor Greek artificer, who had worked with some Frenchmen at Taigan in the Crimea. From the battlements of this castle we had a noble view of the grand plain of Derdpuli, presenting an appearance of fertility and animation that is wonderful in this country. Forty cannon only were as yet mounted, but forty-five more were expected: that end of the fortress which is turned towards the mountain was defended solely by one large traversing gun at the south-west bastion; amongst others we remarked several pieces of English and French ordnance, together with about a dozen brass field-pieces standing on their carriages upon a platform near the south-east corner. I observed to Captain Gianko that the whole castle was commanded by a position on the south-west, and he said it was in contemplation to secure that by the erection of a strong outwork. If artillery could be brought to play upon it from the heights above, on the western side, it could not sustain a siege of two hours: but whilst Turks only are the enemies to attack it, its deep ravines are a sufficient defence against this danger. About 1500 peasants were busily employed in various labours about this building, and by a shamefully oppressive avania were allowed only rations of coarse calamboci bread, by way of remuneration: and this for the forgery of their own fetters!

After having minutely inspected the works, we adjourned to a small house adjoining the serai, for the purpose of paying our respects to Salee Bey, whom we found seated on the divan in company with his tutor. He received the respectful obeisance of our attendants with a dignity that would have surprised us, if we had not known that lessons in etiquette are among the first in which youth of high rank in these countries are instructed: he appeared pleased to see us, and asked many questions respecting his father and brother ; but we thought hini deficient both in manner and acquirements when compared with his nephew little Mahmet Pasha, who is about his own age. Motioning

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Nicolo to sit near him on the sofa, he questioned him, in a low tone of voice, respecting a difference which he observed in Mr. Parker's dress and my own, as why he wore a sabre and I did not, why his pantaloons were blue and mine white; but he desired his informant not to look at us, lest we might think he was discoursing about us, which, he added, would not be courteous towards strangers. The complexion of this youth was fair, his hair and eyes light, and his physiognomy bore a very

a strong resemblance to that of his father; he was considered docile, and rather of a mild disposition, although I understand he has since shewn some traits of that vindictive spirit which distinguishes the paternal character. No pains appeared to be spared in his education; he was not only instructed in the Turkish, Albanian and Romaic languages, but was daily trained in bodily exercises, whilst every opportunity was taken to ingratiate bim with the Albanian tribes that were to be his future subjects. At our departure he promised to send us letters to various governors of cities that might lie in our route, as well as one to his mother, resident at Tepeleni, who, he added, would be proud to entertain Englishmen as her guests. We then look our leave, when the young bey arose and accompanied us to the door of his apartment, wishing us a pleasant journey and every kind of prosperity.

In the evening an Albanian colonel, accompanied by a dozen guards, brought the promised letters to our lodging : our friend Gianko also called, and two or three Greek gentlemen dropping in, we detained them all to pipes and coffee and discussed the valour and politics of Ali Pasha over a flowing bowl of punch made in Antonietti’s best manner.

Next morning we intended to have resumed our journey, but Signore Nicolo complained so much of the state of bis health, that we thought it right to remain another day in Argyro-Castro, to see what turn his complaint might take. Early in the morning, being accompanied by Demetrio, I ascended the mountainous steep behind the city with an intention of gaining the summit; but we found this quite impracticable, on account of so many deep chasms which presented themselves in our

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path. We returned therefore, after having enjoyed a view of the plain which fully recompensed us for our trouble. About noon, Nicolo feeling better, I walked out with him, and we paid a visit to poor Demetrio Athanasi, whose fine house at Ioannina the reader may recollect was seized by Ali for the sake of his nephew the Pasha of Ochrida. A small miserable tenement was now the residence of this wretched family who had been long accustomed to all the comforts and the luxuries of life. Its master appeared gradually sinking under the attacks of a slow fever, nor did any consolation or any medicine afford him relief. The cause of this worthy man's exile and the confiscation of his property, when explained, is enough to make one shudder at the insufferable tyranny under which he was doomed to breathe : it was a refusal to let one of his beautiful children become a victim to the despot's lust within the walls of his accursed harem!

Soon after our return, a person was introduced who had brought, at my request, a paper from the Bishop of Argyro-Castro, containing the number of villages and inhabitants in the valley of the Druno. As I understood the bearer had taken the trouble to copy out this document for my use, I presented him with a small pecuniary remuneration; this he accepted with great good-nature, for I found afterwards, to my utter confusion, that I had been feeing one of the most dignified canons of the church. I had not made such a mistake since the time when I

gave a pair of English razors to the old dragoman at Tripolitza, who prided himself upon the longest beard in the Morea, which steel had never touched since it first sprouted from his chin and which he nourished with more than parental attachment. Besides the statistical

paper, my friend the canon gave me a curious history of the settlement of Argyro-Castro, or rather of Drinopolis, written in excellent Romaic, which refers its foundation to Theseus King of Athens, and contains numberless inconsistencies and absurdities.


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Departure from Argyro-Castro-Fortress of Schindriada— Fountain of

VirouaVisit to the Ruins of GardikiHan of Valiard-Road to TepeleniArrival there and Reception at the Grand SeraiHospitality of the SultanaIbrahim the Albanian Governor— Description of TepeleniSerai burnt downCurious Anecdote of Ali Pasha connected therewithExcursion to JarresiGardens of the SeraiDeparture from TepeleniMad DervishRoute to Berat-Magnificent Scenery, curious Dwelling.Houses and Manners of the People - Approach to

the Valley of the ApsusLodging in the Suburb of GoritzaCurious Fashions of the Women-Visit to Hussein BeyOld Usuff ArapsTurkish ChargersAscent

ир the Acropolis-Buffaloes— Ancient I sodomon in the Fortress-Historical Accounts>Great Plain -Ali's Character in Berat— Extract from Mr. Jones's MS. Journal relating to Apollonia, Delvino, Phæniké, fc.

Berat up

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APRIL 2d.—Signore Nicolo being still indisposed, it was settled that he should remain a few days at Argyro-Castro and then join us on our return at Konitza, where he had a sister married and settled. Accordly we set out this morning, without him, in a northerly direction along the western side of the valley. We left at some distance on our right the fortress of Schindriada crowning the summit of an eminence which rises abruptly out of the plain. This was built by the vizir about nine years before the surrender of Argyro-Castro, for the purpose not only of annoying his enemies but protecting that line of country through which he was obliged frequently to pass. In one hour and a half we came to a deep fountain, close to the road, called Viroua, where the water rises, as it were, out of a profound crater, curling at the surface in broad eddies: it then flows precipitously over a steep rock and forms at once a river: this I have endeavoured to represent in the vignette prefixed to this chapter. In about half an hour more we turned suddenly to the left, through an opening in the mountain barrier; the road was no more than a fiumara, over which at this time a torrent from the melted snow was flowing rapidly towards the plain, and made it sometimes very difficult for our horses to keep their legs. The ruins of many villages both on the right and left scathed by the destructive flames of war, testified the cruel mode of warfare practised by the Albanian soldiery. We toiled for more than an hour up this wild and rugged glen, when the mountains, suddenly taking on each side a bold sweep, formed a perfect amphitheatre and displayed to view the ruins of Gardiki spread over the sides and summit of a conical hill which rises in the very centre of its vast area : high above this fine circumference of hills appeared the huge summits of Acroceraunia whose wintry snows, now melting, allowed the spiry fir here and there to peep out from beneath its resplendent mantle : few cities could boast of so superb a situation. At a little distance from the foot of the hill we passed a large farm house which once served as an outpost to the garrison: the doors and walls, pierced with ten thousand bullets, testified the sharp conflicts it had lately sustained. In the

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