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and canvassing these different notions has rendered the work very dry, and unentertaining, and will abridge me of many a reader. I had often observed, that the main cause of failure in those learned writers, was their engaging in schemes too extensive and universal, where, each took in hand singly, what required the joint labour of numbers, and which should have been the work of an age. I have therefore confined myself within narrow limits, that I might not be bewildered in too wide a field : yet have not so closely restrained myself as to refuse the pleasure of sometimes expatiating, when a fair opportunity has invited me. The first traet is concerning the wind mentioned by St. Luke under the name of Euroclydon ; wherein I endeavour to shew, that the common and accepted reading in the original Greek is the true one.
The second is a dissertation on the two islands, Melite Illyrica, and Melite Africana ; in which I take upon me to prove, in opposition both to Bochart and to Cluver, and to all the traditions of the Church of Rome, that the former was the island, on which the apostle St. Paul was shipwrecked. The last, and far largest treatise, contains a partial history of Egypt in its earliest state; in which an account is given of the Shepherd Kings, and of the precise district, which they originally occupied in that country, and to which after their expulsion the children of Israel succeeded. In this detail the situation of the land of Goshen, as well as of Zoan, is stated ; and a particular description exhibited of Onium and Heliopolis, and of the three provinces, which lay towards the upper point of Delta.
In the determining the situation of these places, the chief of my geographical labour is expended. Many respectable writers have favoured the world with their opinions upon these subjects ; of whom there are some, that I have not had the good fortune to meet with. Among these are the works of Jablonski ; -and whatever P. Sicard may have exhibited to this
purpose. M. D’Anville's learned treatise did at last reach me; but not till my work had been some months in the press; and the far greater part was printed. I have the mortification to find, that I differ from him in many articles. His book however would have been of great use me in several particulars, which had escaped my notice, and his maps of considerable service, For, however I may be obliged to dissent from him, yet there must necessarily be found mata ter of great edification in a writer so curious,
and so knowing, who takes in a far greater compass than that, which I engage in. Much about the same time I was favoured with a sight of Muller's tracts, intitled 'Satyra Observationum Philologicarum ; wherein are contained many things to my purpose. It is
misfortune likewise to differ from this singularly learned man; but in a point of the greatest consequence we are nearly of the same opinion, I mean, the situation of the Israelites in Egypt. In respect to M. D'Anville, I am obliged to dissent from him particularly about the situation of one place, which I have made great use of in the following investigation, and upon which a great deal depends. He places Phacusa towards the bottom of Delta to the east of the Nile, in contradiction to the situation which I find was attributed to this place by P. Sicard, and which I have likewise given it; Je suis étonné de voir dans la carte du P. Sicard, une position bien étrange de Pracusa en la remontant jusq' au-dessus de la division du Nil, au sommet du. Delta, peu au-dessus de la Babilone d'Egypte. But with due deference
* Muller Satyra Observationum Philologicarum. Lugduni Bat. 1752.
? Mémoires sur l’Egypte Ancienne et Moderne, par M. D'An. ville de l'Academie Royale a Paris, 1766. p. 107.
to his learning and experience, this was the true situation. In reality there were two places of this name; the one a village, taken notice of by Strabo, and situated at the commencement of the great canal under the hill of Arabia, and consequently over against the point of Delta. The other was a city, the metropolis of a province (if the reading in Ptolemy be quite genuine) in situation opposite to the former, standing at the extreme point of Lower Egypt, where the Nile was first divided. This was in Delta, the other to the east without; yet both in the vicinity of Babylon, Of each I shall give an ample description. Many have thought that I should have rendered my work more entertaining, if I had banished all quotations from the text, or at farthest had given the meaning only of what I refer to instead of the original words. But as the whole is matter of close and dark inquiry, I thought it highly requisite, as I proceeded step by step, to bring my authorities immediately under the eye of the reader, that he might see both the propriety and truth of the evidences, to which I appeal, and form a judgment of the inferences, which I make, in order as I produce them. As I have presumed to point out errors in guilty of
the works of many eminent writers, I must necessarily suppose that I am liable to similar failures, and must be prepared for a like detection. But I hope that I shall not be found
any dangerous mistakes, such as may affect my argument, and ruin my purpose: I likewise hope that I have no where delivered myself with undue warmth, or severity. There are many authors of whom I have spoken freely, but I believe it needs no apology. In respect to those of real eminence, however I may
differ in some particulars, I flatter myself that I have every where paid a due regard to their superior merit. For I should be guilty of great ingratitude, if I did not upon all occasions render every just acknowledgement to persons, who have laboured so much for the public good : by whose learning I have been greatly enrichied, and by whose very errors I have profited.