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preserving a general overruling similitude, of which the following instance from a Himálayan and a Caucasian tongue is too singular to be omitted. In Georgian the í root for the third personal singular, or he, becomes, by such accretion gradually augmenting, first í-s, and then í-ti-ná; and in Magar the same root with the same sense (ille iste) becomes í-sé and í-sé-ná, according as more or less of emphasis and discrimination is needed. Again, the Georgian ti in iti na is the Burmese thí in í-thi, a word compounded of two synonyms, both meaning this (ille), and conjointly equivalent precisely to iséná as well as itina in Magar and Georgian respectively. Thú, again, means he, the third personal, in Burmese, and this word, which is merely another phase of the thá particle (thá, thí, thú, thó—which last signifies that, and is Tibetan), brings us back to the Tagalan í-tú and the Gyárúng wa-tú, every particle, whether used in a primary or secondary sense, taking the aspirate indifferently (mé, mhé, fire; ni, nhi, day; ká, khá, sky; et cat., ad libitum).
Now, if we look again at the Gyárúng wa tú through the medium of the Malayan and Tagalan í tú and the Circassian rí í and tá, all but the last equally involving a double pronominal root and single sense, we shall see in this identical composition and identical idiomatic use of the third personal pronoun, illustrated on all sides as they are by Altaic, Himálayan, and Indo-Chinese equivalents, reproducing every form and phase of the roots, a marvellous proof of the affinity of all the tongues. But this is not all, for the Circassian ú and í, commutable to t, derives the highest and complete illustration from another and most interesting quarter, to wit,' the uncultivated Tamulian tongues of India, amongst which the Sontál exhibits both ú and í for the third personal pronoun, as well as their commutation into t, whilst the Gondi has ú (w) similarly commutable. For the proof of these most remark
• The transposableness of the particles in these tongues has been already stated and abundantly proved. With this hint, look at the following wonderful sample of analogous structure : t-ab, his father, in Circassian; apa-t, his father, in Sontál. It is needless almost to add that the word for father is ab in the former tongue, apa in the latter. Not one of Bopp's celebrated Arian affinities surpasses the above in beauty and interest.
able coincidences I refer the student to the works of Phillips and Driberg, merely observing in conclusion that it is but a sample of those analogies derivable from the same interesting quarter which I have already made good progress in the development of, and which when fully exhibited will go far to confirm the conviction that the Tartaric family is one and indivisible from the Caucasus to the Pacific.
The prospect of a reunion of all the Tartars suggests the consideration of a fitting designation for the whole; and, whatever my leaning towards the term Scythian,* from veneration for the father of history who first introduced this mighty herd to our view, I prefer upon the whole the more familiar appellation Tartar; first, because it has a sense as ample as our present requirement, in which respect it has no advantage over Scythian; second, because it has an etymological significance thoroughly indigenous and in the highest degree appropriate, as well with reference to the structure of those tongues by the dissection of which we have come at a knowledge of the whole scope of Tartar affinities, as with regard to that characteristic idiom according to which the name of a tribe is the name of our species. Tá means man in a score of extant tongues; and tá designates numerous extant tribes stretching from the Altai to the Gulf of Siam, whilst the same or equivalent names prevail throughout the Mongolian countries and in Caucasus; and, lastly, the reitera
• Essay on Koch, Bódó, and Dhimal, preface, pages 8, 9, where the reader may see that seven years ago I had a strong presentiment of what I now hope to demonstrate.
† Tshá-ri, tshé-tshé-nsh, &c., come from the tá and sá roots for man, and are seen in similar combination, being synonyms, in the Chinese and Georgian tsó meaning man, whereof tsó-s is a diminutive. The Chinese call the Tartars indifferently thá-thá and thá-tsé, and so do the Newárs of Népál, whilst ta-i, tai-mó, ta-i-lúng, ta-i-né, ta-i-yé, names of tribes from Asam to the Ocean, are all not only tá but tá-tá, since the second syllable is in all a synonym, and therefore as equivalent as tshó-tshé and tá-tá, which are reiterations. As instances, familiar to us in India, of a tribe-name signifying also man in the language of that tribe, I may mention a-nam, mru, k lun, ka mi, ku-mi, kong, lau, mó-n, mo-i, bar-ma. These are simple. Mi-shi-mi, mú-r-mi, &c., are compound. Occasionally, as in Burmese, the root may be obsolete in the human sense; but it will always be found in its derivatives or in the proximate tongues, leaving the principle of gentile nomenclature indisputable. In Mishimi we have the mi and
tion whereby the Tá, or Zenghis' clansmen came to be called tá-tá, vel thá-thá (men pre-eminently, quasi Allemanni) is a normal sample of one of the chief constructive principles of these tongues. Wherefore I would abide by that mediaval designation by which all the races beyond the confines of Europe have been known to Europe in modern times, and which from and after the middle ages superseded the classical term Scythian-a term of as wide import as the other and so far equally fitting, but now laid aside, and never so etymologically just as Tartar, the very r of which word, though carped at by half-informed critics, is in fact thoroughly in accordance with the jus et norma of Tartaric speech, everywhere from Oceanic to the Caucasian region.
shi roots for man, the former reiterated. In Múrmi we have the mi root reiterated in different phases (mú and mí). In Burma we have a third phase of the same root (má) with the bá root and synonym preceding it; and lest this etymology should startle my readers, I will add that this very word barma means man in the Magar tongue, that is, in one of those Himalayan tongues whose close affinity to the Burmese language I have lately shown.
A fine young man, but low in flesh from sickness, and the muscles flaccid. Colour a clear ruddy brownish or brunette rather deep hued, as dark as any of the Cis-Himalayans and as most high-caste Hindus. No red on cheeks, which are sunk and hollow. Hair moderately coarse, black, copious, straight, shining, worn long and loose, divided from the top of head. Moustache very small, black. No symptom of beard nor any hair on chest; sufficient on mons martis, where it is black, and on armpits also. No whiskers. Face moderately
large, sub-ovoid, widest between angles of jaws, less between cheek-bones, which are prominent, but not very. Forehead rather low and narrowing somewhat upwards; narrowed also transversely, and much less wide than the back of head. Frontal sinus large, and brows heavy. Hair of eyebrows and lashes sufficient. Former not arched, but obliquely descendant towards the base of nose. Eyes of good size and shape, but the inner angle decidedly dipped or inclined downwards, though the outer not curved up. Iris a fine deep, clear, chestnut brown. Eyes wide apart, but well and distinctly separated by the basal ridge of nose; not well opened, cavity being filled with flesh. Nose sufficiently long and well raised even at base, straight, thick, and fleshy towards the end, with large wide nares nearly round. Zygomæ large and salient, but moderately So. Angles of the jaws prominent, more so than zygomæ, and face widest below the ears. Mouth moderate, well formed, with well-made closed lips hiding the fine, regular, and no way prominent teeth. Upper lip long. Chin rather small, round, well formed, not retiring. Vertical line of the face very good, not at all bulging at the mouth, nor retiring below, and not much above, but more so there towards the roots of the hair. Jaws large. Ears moderate, well made, and not starting from the head. Head well formed and round, but larger à parte post than à parte ante or in the frontal region, which is somewhat contracted crosswise, and somewhat narrowed pyramidally upwards. Body well made and well proportioned. Head well set on the neck, neither too short nor too thick. Chest wide, deep, well arched. Shoulders falling, fine. Trunk not in excess of proportionate length compared with the extremities, nor they compared with the trunk and whole stature. rather long, within four inches of knees. Legs and arms deficient in muscular development from sickness. Hands and feet small and well formed, with instep hollow and heel moderate. Toes not spread, nor splay foot. Mongolian cast of features decided, but not extremely so, and expression intelligent and amiable.
DARJEELING, 30th April 1848.