Page images
PDF
EPUB
[graphic]
[ocr errors]

Hot
Raw
Ripo
Sweet
Sour
Bitter
Handsome
Ugly
Straight
Crooked
Black
Whito
Red
Green
Long
Short
Tall
Short
Small
Great
Round
Square
Flat
Fat
Thin
Wearinosa

lamme gudorong gunáme
tái

leda
táman
mindo

minda
tánang tido

tidak
sonla
kune

kudák
paklá kónam kodák
chongthang kampodo kangkáne

aimang

guyokdák
kõikolo
nyakla
masang
malamla

yalung lüdák
tacham

gedák
lángkolo baddol6 aiárdák
ánangla adedi ándudák
lánglá

aiárdák
ánanglá adedi

ándüdák
tesu
angid

ámedák
tapé
bóte

áttadák
litükpu

| átumdák
tangik
madamka neing sudó omandák
tabók udo

juiname
apo

gidák

amírse
ngüchaho

molámak
chebalé
chuale

tuling tülüng chulale

kinong konóng

Thirst
Hunger

[ocr errors]

SECTION VI.

ON THE INDO-CHINESE BORDERERS

AND THEIR CONNECTION WITH

THE HIMALAYANS AND TIBETANS.

To the Secretary of the Asiatic Society.

SIR,—In further prosecution of my purpose of recording in the pages of our Journal a complete set of comparative vocabularies on an uniform plau, I have now the honour to transmit to you two fresh series, one for Arrakan, and the other for the Tenasserim provinces. The first comprises six tongues, viz., the Burmese, the Khyeng, the Kámi, the Kúmi, the Mrú, and the Sák; the second five, viz., the Burmese, the Talien, the Túng-lhú, the Shán, and the Siamese.

It is needless, I presume, to apologise for thus recording provincial dialects of well-known languages such as the Burmese and Siamese, because such deviations of a known kind afford inestimable means of testing those which are unknown, and of thus approximating to a just appreciation of the interminable varieties of speech that characterise the enormously-extended family of the Mongolidæ.

I am indebted for these vocabularies to Captain Phayre, whose name is a warrant for their authenticity, and who has kindly added to their value by the subjoined explanatory note upon the Arrakan tribes. On those of the Tenasserim provinces the only elucidatory addition is the important one that the Túng-lhú are “ Hillmen," that is, dislocated aborigines driven to the wilds, or, in other words, broken and dispersed tribes, like the Khyeng, and Kámi, and Kúmi, and Mrú, and Sák of Arrakan, whose vocables constitute the greatest part of the first half of the vocabularies herewith forwarded.

In the course of recording in our Journal these numerous vocabularies, I have purposely avoided any remarks on the affinities they suggest or demonstrate, intending to take up that subject when they should be completed; but the high interest * excited by my Himalayan series, in connection with the bold and skilful researches which are now demonstrating the unparalleled diffusion over the earth of that branch of the human family to which the Himalayans belong, has induced me on the present occasion to deviate partially from that rule, and to at once compare Captain Phayre's Arrakanese vocables with my own Himalayan t and Tibetan ones. Having been so fortunate as lately to procure an ample Sifánese series, comprising the tongues of the several peoples bordering on China and Tibet between Konkonúr and Yúnán, and having, moreover, made some progress in a careful analysis of a normal and of an abnormal sample of the Himálayan tongues, with a view to determining the amounts of the Turánian and Arian elements, I shall ere long find occasion to recur to the general affinities of the Indian Mongolidæ. In the meanwhile, the subjoined comparison of several Arrakanese tongues with those of Tibet and of the Eastern Himalaya will be read with surprise and pleasure by many who, accustomed to regard the Himálayans as Hindus, and the Indo-Chinese, like the Chinese, as distinct from the people of Asie Centrale, and from the Tibetans, will be astonished to find one type of language prevailing from the Káli to the Koladan, and from Ladakh to Malacca, so as to bring the Himálayans, Indo-Chinese, and Tibetans into the same fainily.

That such, however, even in the rigid ethnological sense, is the fact will hardly be denied by him who carefully examines the subjoined table, or the documents from which it is taken, because not only are the roots of the nouns and verbs similar

• Latham's History of Man and Ethnology of British Colonies.

+ My own Himalayan series will be lound in the Journal, No. 185, for December 1847. The Arkanese series is annazed hereto.

to identity, but the servile particles are so likewise, and that as well in themselves as in the uses made of them, and in the mutations * to which they are liable. It should be added that the resemblances cited are drawn not from “ransacked dictionaries,” but from vocabularies of less than 300 words for each tongue.

To those who, not content with this abstract, shall refer to the original documents, I may offer two remarks suggested by their study to myself. Ist. The extraordinary extent to which the presently contemplated affinities hold good has been made out by the helps afforded by the series of cognate tongues, whereby the synonyma defective in one tongue are obtained from another, whilst the varying degrees and shades of deviation are a clue to the root or basis.t 2d. The other remark suggested by the comparison of the vocabularies is, that it is the nouns and verbs, and not the pronouns and numerals, which constitute the enduring part of these languages; and that consequently, whatever may be the case in regard to the Arian group of tongues, we must not always expect to find the best evidence of family connection in regard to the Turanian languages among the pronouns and numerals. Indeed the confused character of these parts of speech seems to be a conspicuous feature of the Mongolian tongues.

Comparison of Tibetan and Himálayan tongues on one hand,

and of the Indo-Chinese on the other. Blood.Thak in Bhotia, Thyak in Lhópa, Vi in Lepchat

Thwe in Burinese, The in Sák, Ka-thí in Kluyeng, A-ti

in Kámi, Wi in Mrú. Boat. Thủ in Sérpa.

Thé in Burmese.

• In order to appreciato this remark and to trace the elements of tho vocablea, see analytic observations of the following paper on Caucasian and Mongolian Words, appended to the list of those worde.

+ Take the radical word for dog, ua sample. We have kbyi, khia, khi, ki, thrẻ, vé, k, tủ, 1-che, kd-chu, thô, tó, cho-i. For the prended Articles and their mutations I must refer to the original documents, and to the futuro con. firmations to be supplied by my Sifanese series of worde.

The first line gives the Northern series, the second the Southern.

Cat.--Si-mi in Bhotia, Si-mi in Sokpa.

Min in Khyeng, Min in Kámi.
Crow.—O’-la in Lhópa, A'-wá in Limbu.

O-á in Kúmi, Wá á in Kámi and in Mrú.
Day.Nyi-ma in Bhotia, Nhí in Newári, Nyim in Lhópa.

Né in Burmese, Ni in Mrú.
Dog.—Khyi in Bhatia, Khi in Lhópa, Ku-chú in Kirinti,

Ki-cha in Newári, Khia in Dhimali.

Khwé in Burmese, Ta-kwi in Mrú, Kú in Sák. Ear.—Ná in Bhotia, Na-vo in Lhópa.

Ná in Burmese, Ka-ná in Sák,
Eye.-Mig in Bhotia, A-mik in Lepcha, Mó in Múrmi and

Gúrúng.
Myé-tsi in Burmese, A-mi in Kámi and Sák, Min in

Mrú.
Father.-Phá in Bhotia, Amba in Limbú.

Phá é in Burmese, Ampa in Kúmi.
Fire. Mé or Mi in Bhotia, and in all Himalayan tongues.

Mí, Má, Má i, in Burmese, Kámi, and Mrú.
Fish.—Nyá in Bhotia, Ngyá in Lhópa, Ngó in Lepcha, Nyau in

Súnwár.

Ngá in Burmese, Ngu in Khyeng, Nghó in Kami. Foot.—Káng in Bhotia, Káng in Lhópa, Khwe-li in Súnwár.

Khyé in Burmese, Ká-kó in Khyeng, Khou in Kúmi. Goat.-Rá in Bhotia.

Ta-rá in Mrú.
Hair.—A-chóm in Lepcha, Chúm in Magar.

A-shám in Kámi, Shám in Mrú and Kúmi.
Head-G6 in Bhotia.

Ghóng in Burmese. Hog.–Phak in Bhotia and Lhópa and Kiránti, Wak in Magar.

Ta-pak in Mrú and Vak in Sák. Horn.

Ar-kyok in Sérpa, A-róng in Lepcha.

A kyi in Khyeng, A-ring in Sák.
Horse.—Tá in Bhotia and Lhópa, Sa la in Newári.

Tá-phú (phú, male suffix) in Kámi, Sapú in Sák (puidem). House-Khyim in Bhotia and Lepcha Yúm in Magar.

Kyim in Sák, Kim in Mrú, Um in Kúmi.

« PreviousContinue »