Page images

Milamchi below Hélmú. The Balamphi and Jhári have only sub-Himálayan sources, situated south-east of Parchpokri, but they have longer independent courses than the Indravati before they unite, after which they presently join the Milamchi not far above the confluence of the Chák. The subordinate feeders of the Balamphi, above adverted to, are the Boksia and Lipsia. They have short parallel courses W.S.W. into their parent stream. Thus the Milamchi is a notable river, and it is the more so as forming very distinctly the western boundary of the basin of the great Cósi, of which the equally distinct eastern limit is the Tamór.

2d. The Bhótia Cósi has its sources at Deodliúnga, a vast Himálayan peak, situated some sixty or seventy miles east of Gosain-thán and a little north and east of the Kúti Pass, being probably the nameless peak which Colonel Waugh conjectures may rival Kángchánjunga in height. The river flows from the base of Deodhúnga past the town of Kúti, and has a south-west direction from Kúti to Dallalghát, where it joins the Milamchi after a course about as long as the Milamchi's; the two rivers of nearly equal size forming a deltic basin. In about its midcourse, the Bhótia Cósi is joined by the Sun Cósi from Kálingchok. But Kalingchok is no part of the true Hemáchal, nor is the stream thence flowing equal to that coming from the snow's at Deodhúnga. Consequently the name Bhótia Cósi should prevail over that of Sún Cósi as the designation of one of the separate seven Cósis, and the name Sún Cósi be reserved for the general receptacle, within the mountains as far east as Tirbéni. The Bhótia Cósi is joined at Listi by the Júm Khóla, whilst from the Många ridge another feeder is supplied to it, much lower down or below the confluence of the Sun Cósi from the east. But as the Milamchi, below the junction of the Balamphi and Jhári, is often called the Indrávati vel Indhani, so the Bhótia Cósi, below the junction of the Sun Cósi, is frequently styled by the latter name, which others again with more reason confine to the more general confluence below Dallálghát. There no doubt the name Sún Cósi begins to be tell applied, it being universally the designation of the great receptacle of waters running west and east from Dúmja to Tirbéni. At Dúmjá, which is only a few miles south of Dallálghát, the Sún Cósi receives a considerable affluent from the west. This affluent is called the Rósi. It rises on the external skirts of the great valley under the names biyabar and Panouti, from the respective dales watered by the two streamlets.

3d. The Támba Cósi. It rises at Phallák in the snowy region, about two journeys east and a little north of Kálingchok, or the fount of the upper and pseido Sún Cósi. The Támba Cósi's course from Phallák to Sélaghát, where it falls into the receptacle, is nearly south, and, as far as I know, it has only one considerable affluent, which is the Khimti. The Khimti rises in the Jiri ridge, and flowing nearly south, parallel to the Támba Cósi, joins the latter in its mid-course at Chisapáni.

4th. The Likhú. This river is less than the Támba Cósi, and seems to rise somewhat beneath the snows, though its place of origin at Khali Mungali is said to be a ridge connected therewith. Its course is still more directly south than that of the Támba Cósi, to which, however, its general direction is very parallel. I know but one of its feeders, the Kháni, which comes from the Cháplú ridge on the east of the main river.

5th. The Dúd Cósi. It is a large stream, larger even than the Támba Cósi, though inferior to the Arún or Támor. It rises amid the perpetual snows, but at what exact spot I do not know, and it has a southern course to the Sún Cósi at Rasua. Its feeders are numerous, but I know only those near Rasua, which are the Thotia and the Sisnia on the west and the Rao on the east.

6th. The Arún or Arún Cósi. It is the largest by much of the whole, and consequently the main source of the Malá Cósi, having several feeders in Tibet, one from Darra on the north, another from Tingri on the west, and the third from the east from a lake. The Arún is not only the greatest of the Cósis, but of all the sub-Himalayan rivers, if the Karnali be not its equal. None other can compete with it. The Bárún, often reckoned a separate Cósi, is a mere feeder of the Arún, and joins it so high up that there is little propriety in admitting the Bárún as a member of the Sapt Cósi. The Bárún is lost in

the Arún in the Alpine region at Hatia, the great mart for the barter trade of the cis and transniveans by the very accessible pass of the Arún. Lower down the Arún receives many tributaries, from the west, the Salpa and Ikhua; from the east, the Sawai, the Hengwá, the Pilwa, the Ligua, and the Mümigi. Its course on this side the Himalaya is generally north and south; but in Tibet it spreads to the west and east also, covering and draining a deal of ground there.

7th. The Tamór Cósi. The Tamór, also, is a very fine river, inferior only to the Arún. It is alleged to have more than one Trans-Himalayan source. It passes the snows at Wallungchung, or rises there from the snows. Its course from Wallung to the general junction at Tirbéni is south-west, and it receives many affluents on the way, as the Wallung, the Chung, the Yángmá, the Mewa, the Kabaili, the Kbáwa, the Nhabo, the Tankhua, the Teliá, the Nava, the Chérwa, the Kokaya.

[merged small][ocr errors]






INTRODUCTION. (With a view to obtain correct and authentic information on the sulject of Népálese law, both in its theoretical principles and practical administration, Mr. Hodgson addressed a series of questions to several individuals who were judged most capable of replying to them in a full and satisfactory manner. Copies of these series of interrogatories, with their respective answers, have been communicated by him to the Royal Asiatic Society (together with a separate paper on crimes and punishments); and the following article has been drawn up from a careful comparison of the whole, excluding as much as possible the repetitions unavoidably occurring, in many instances, in the various answers to any particular question. A reference to the works of Kirkpatrick, Hamilton, and others will show how little has bitherto been contributed to the knowledge of Europeans respecting Oriental systems of jurisprudence, as far as regards the kingdom of Népál ; it is therefore particularly gratifying to be enabled to produce bo complete a view of the suliject as has been furnished by Jr. Hodgson, whose perseverance and energy in obtaining an acquaintance with these and other matters hitherto kept sacred from all strangers, are only equalled by the intelligent and liberal manner in which he communicates to the public the information he has acquired. -Ed. JOUR. Roral Asiatic Soc.)

PART I. ON TIIE LAW AND POLICE OF NEPAL QUESTION I.-How many courts of law are there at Kathmándú? What is the name of each ?

ANSWER. — There are four Nyayasab'hás, the first and chief

« PreviousContinue »