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lieu of all other taxes and claims, seven and a half rupees per house or family. The houses or families are large, so that each can cultivate a great extent of ground. But how much (or little) soever they may raise, each family is free on payment of the annual fixed assessment, which the Rais above noticed collect and deliver. The Rais also administer police and justice among their own people in all ordinary cases. Capital crimes are referred to the Governor of Dhankúta, who must have the Durbar's sanction for every sentence of death or confiscation. Dhankuta overlooks Bijaypúr, the old capital of the Eastern Makwani or Bijaypúr principality, which stands on the skirts of the Tarai of Morang, but within the hills; and no part of the lowlands (Madhés) is subject to the Governor of Dhankúta. The Madhés is administered by Súbahs, of whom there are seven for the whole.*

18th Stage to Bháinsiátár, South-East, 6 kós. A sharp descent of one kós brings you to the banks of the Tamór, which is a large river, though less than the Arún. It is never fordable, and is crossed in boats. It is very deep, rapid, but not clear, and about thirty cubits wide between the hotweather banks. This is the seventh and last of the great feeders of the Cósi, which it joins at Tirbéni, a holy place of pilgrimage, so called from its being the point of union of the three rivers, Tamór, Arún, and Sun Cósi.t The Tamór rises from the western aspect of Káng-chán-júnga. We crossed the Tamór in a boat, and then proceeded half a kós down its left bank. Thence quitting the river, you skirt the base of the Madi hill for one kós to the Tankhudá-nadi, a small hill stream. it to Mámagá Tár, and then travel through this fine extensive flat for two kós. The whole is cultivable, and the most part cultivated by Denwárs and Mánjlis, I and it is situated on the

• The seven zillahs of the Népálese lowlands, which extend from the Méchi to the Arrh, aro Morang, Saptari, Mabutari, Rotabat, Bára, Parra, and Chitwan. These seren constitute the Eastern Tarai. The Western Tarai extends from the Arrah to the Ghagra It has lately been restored to Népal, which lost it in the war of 1416,

+ Of the seven Cosis, the Táin ba aod Likhú are lost in the Sun Cósi, and the Barun in the Arun, the latter four above the route. Tirbéni is immediately above Varáha Kshetra before noticed, as the point where, or close to which, the quited Cónis issuo into the plains.

: See Essays (1874), Part II., p. 60.

banks of the Tamór, to which the winding of the road agun brings you. Quitting the Tár you advance a quarter of a kós to the Rasua Khóla, which forded, you proceed along the base of the Télia ridge for one and a quarter kós to another Tirbéni and place of pilgrimage, where the Cherwa and Telia rivers join the Tamór at Cherwa Glát. A great fair is annually held at Cherwa, to which traders go even from Kathmándú. Thence proceedin, a quarter kós, you reach the halting-place or, Bhainsia Tár. The Tár may be half a kós wide and one kós long; it is very liot and malarious, and is inhabited by the Manjhi tribe.

19th Stage to Lakshmipúr, E.N.E., 5 kós. A quarter kós of slight ascent brings you to the Nawa Khóla, a moderate-sized stream, which is ascended for three kós by a very bad road that crosses the bouldery bed of the river many times. Thence quitting the Khóla, you commence the severe ascent of Lakshmi-chúria, which is climbed incessantly till you reach the halting-place near the hill top. Lakshmipúr is a large and flourishing village of Limbús, where men and goods abound, and the climate is fine and the water cold-a great relief after the burning Társ recently traversed.

20th Stage to Ilhang, East, 3 kós. After a slight descent of one and a half kós, you come to Pokharia Khóla, a small stream, which is at once crossed. Thence a slight ascent of one kós up the ridge of Nangi, along the top of which another half kós brings you to the halting place, which is a Khas village of large size.

21st Stage to Khándráng, East, 4 kós. A slight ascent of a quarter kós to the village of Múlli, inhabited by Khas. Thence a great descent of one kós to Kokalia Biasi, or the Magpie's Glen, which is watered by the Dól-mai, a small stream. Cross it, and ascend the ridge of Timkyá a short way, and then skirting along its waist (mánjh) for one and a quarter kós come to the Léwa Khóla, another of the innumerable streamlets of the lills. Cross it, and proceed for one and a half

kós along the base of the ridge of Khándráng to the village of the same name, which is the halting-place and a small village of Brahmans.

22d Stage to Ilám, East, 5 kós. Descend the Khándráng ridge for half a kós, and come to a small stream called the Ratia Khóla. Cross it, and then make a severe ascent of one kós up to the ridge of Gólákharak, whence Karphók, the great ridge dividing Nepál from Sikim, is visible. Thence an equally difficult descent of one kós to the llám Khóla, a small stream. Thence, crossing the stream, make the severe ascent of Tilkiáni ridge for one and a quarter kós. Thence skirt along the side of the hill (mánjh) for one kós to the halting-place of Ilám, which is a small fort designed to guard the eastern frontier of Népál. The Chatelain is a captain, and has a hundred soldiers under him, with eight artillerymen and one cannon of small calibre. This officer is also the civil authority of the arrondissement, and raises the extraordinary revenues thereof to meet the local expenses, sending the balance, if any, to Kathmándú. The land revenue is wholly assigned to his troops in pay.

23d Stage to Godhak, East, 2 kós. After a steep descent of one kós you come to the Jógmai or Mai River, a small stream, which passed, you commence the steep ascent of Gódhak, and continue ascending to the haltingplace, which is a small village of Brahmans, half-way up the hill.

24th Stage to Siddhi, N.E., 3 kós. Detained much by rain to-day and yesterday, and therefore made short marches. Leaving Gódhak, ascended by a very bad road, loaded with dense vegetation, for one and a quarter kós to Karphók-chouki, a frontier Górkhali post, where eight soldiers always reside. Thence one kós along the ridge or Lekh to Súddúng, which is but another name for the ridge. Thence a slight descent of one kós to the Siddhi Khóla, a small stream, on the banks of which we halted on account of the rain.

25th Stage to the English Chouki, N.E., 7) kós. Crossed the Siddhi stream, and proceeded one and a half kós of slight ascent and skirting the mountain bases to Thaplia. Thence half a kós of descent to the small streamlet of Séchideu. Thence a quarter kós over low hills to the Méchi River. The Méchi is the present boundary of Népal and Sikim. It is a small stream which rises in the Singalélah ridge, a spur of Karphók. Crossed it and ascended the hill of Nágri, by a very bad road and severe ascent of one and a quarter kós to the top. Thence a severe ascent of one kós to the smaller Rangbhang Khóla, a streamlet merely. Thence along the glen to the great Rangbhang, distant one kós. Thence a steep ascent of one kós to Nágri Kót, an old fort in ruins. Thence a painful descent of half a kós to the Balason River. It is a moderate-sized stream, larger than the Méchi. Thence half a kós of rather uneven travelling to the halting-place.

26th Stage to Darjeeling, North, 4 kós. A severe ascent of one kós, and then an easy half kós along a ridge, brought us to the Company's high-road, along which we travelled for two and a half kós to Jellapahár and Herbert Hill at Darjeeling.

Total kós 109.
At 25 miles per kós = 254 miles.

NOTE.—The Népálese standard kós is equal to a) English miles, and the travellers had this standard to refer to along a great part of their way, as being coincident generally with the measured military road several times adverted to on the route. Hence their distances from stage to stage may bo perfectly relied on, though in the details of each stage the same accuracy cannot be expected.

MEMORANDUM RELATIVE TO THE SEVEN COSIS

OF NÉPÁL.

The emuneration of the seven Cósis by the Itinerists is doubtless the accredited one, and what I have myself often heard at Kathmandú. Nevertheless, names are not always applied in strict correspondence with things in geography: Witness the neglected Jáhnavi, the true and transnivean source of the Ganges! Now, if we are to estimate the seven chief feeders of the Great Cósi according to the length of their courses, or their effect on the physiognomy of the country, the enumerations ought seemingly to be as follows:

ist. The Milamchi
2d. The Bhótia Cósi
3d. The Támba Cósi
4th. 'The Likhú Cosi
5th. The Dúd Cósi
6th. The Arún
7th. The Tamór

Local series beginning from the West

This list omits the Bárun of the usual enumeration, and substitutes the Bhótia Cósi for the Sun Cósi, and not without Népalese authority for both changes; for it is generally allowed that the Bárún hardly belongs to the sub-Himalayas, and that Sún Cósi is rather the name of the general receptacle of the Cósis till joined by the Arún, than that of a separate Cósi. The following remarks on each river will make this apparent :

ist. The Milamchi rises above the Bhótia village of that name, and at or near to the eastern base of Gosain-thán, the great snowy peak overlooking the valley of Népál. From the snow's, the Milamchi has a south-eastern course of probably sixty miles to Dallálghát. It is joined from the west by the Sindhu, the Tánd, and the Chák; and from the north and north-east by the Indravati, the Balamphi, and the Jhári. The three former are petty streams, but the three latter are considerable ones, one of them rising in the snowy region, and another having two subordinate affluents. The Indrávati comes from the Ilemáchal at Panchpokri, and flows nearly due south into the

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