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ON THE ABORIGINES OF SOUTHERN INDIA

AND CEYLON.

To the Secretaries of the Asiatic Society.

GENTLEMEN,—In prosecution of the steps already taken by me, and recorded in our Journal, for obtaining ready and effective means of comparing the affinities of all the various aboriginal races tenanting the whole continent of India, I have now the honour to submit a comparative vocabulary of seven of the Southern tongues. Five of them belong to the cultivated class of these tongues, viz., Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Carnataka, Tulava; and two to the uncultivated class, viz., .Curgi and Todava. The former are given both in the ancient and modern form, and care has been taken to procure the genuine vocables instead of those words of Sanscrit origin which are now so apt to be substituted for them, especially in intercourse with Europeans. I am indebted for these vocabularies to Mr. Walter Elliot of Madras, whose name is a sufficient warrant for their perfect accuracy.

In regard to these cultivated tongues of the south, Mr. Elliot observes that the aptitude of the people at present to substitute prakritic words for aboriginal ones is such a stumbling-block in the search for affinities as it requires pains and knowledge to avoid ; and he instances (among others) the common use of the borrowed word rakta, for blood, in lieu of the native te rm néthar, by which latter alone we are enabled to trace the unquestionable ethnic relationship of the Gónds (even those north of the Vindhia) with the remote southerns speaking Telugu, Cannadi, and Tulava.

On the subject of the local limits and mutual influence at the present day of the cultivated languages of the south upon each other, Mr. Elliot has the following remarks "All the Southern dialects become considerably intermixed as they approach each other's limits. Thus the three words for egg used indifferently by the people speaking Canarese (matté, tetti, gadda), are evidently obtained, the first from the Tamulian, matta; the last, from the Telugu, galda. This intermixture, which is of ordinary occurrence in all cognate tongues, is here promoted specially by extensive colonisation of different races, as of the Telugus into Southern India under the Bijaynagar dynasty, where they still exist as distinct communities—and of the followers of Rámánuja Aʼchárj into Mysore, where they still are to be seen as a separate class speaking Tamil in their families, and Carnataka in public. The Reddies also, an enterprising race of agriculturists, have migrated from their original seats near Rajahmandry over the whole of Southern India, and even into the Maharashtra country, where they are considered the most thriving ryots, and are met with as far north as Poona.”

Of the uncultivated tongues of Southern India, Mr. Elliot has been able to procure me on the present occasion only incomplete vocabularies of two, viz., the Curgi and Todava. But further assistance may be looked for from him in regard to this class of tongues, as to which he observes that “the dialects of the Kurumbers and Irulers and other mountain races of the south are well worth exploring." I have likewise myself made fresh application to Colonel Low, to our residents at Baroda and Sattara, and to other parties residing at Gúmsar, the Nilgiris, and Ceylon, with a view to completing the comparative vocabulary of all the Continental and Insular aboriginal languages; and to our authorities in Assam and in various parts of the chain of mountains dividing our provinces from those of Ava, in order to obtain the Indo-Chinese series of border languages all upon one uniform plan,

These shall be hereafter forwarded as received, with such remarks as the study of the whole may suggest.

• For the ordinary and proper locale of the several cultivated tongues of Southern India, see Ellis' Dissertation and Wilson's Mackenzie Manuscripts. Mr. Elliot speaks in illustration of the general and well-known facts of the case.

katta

gáli elaru ghali ghali

kott Ant uravi erumbu

irumba chima

irivi
pijin

erbb
Arrow kanei ambu

amba

ammu saralu ambu biru Bird pul paravei parva pakki

pitta

hakki
pakki

pakki pull
Blooil sennir udiram

chora

netturu kenníru netturu nettar chore Boat pakada odam

vanji, or

padava pára doni Ioda

vallam
Bone | enpu
elumbu
ella

emika elume eluvu
Buffalo kárán erumei

eruma
enumu

emme
erme

ir
Cat púsei púnei

púchcha
pilli

bekku puchche Cow ä, pettam pasu

payya

ávu
ávu hasuvu, petta payyu tanma

ákalu
Crow karumpil. kakka

kákka
káki
kági khakke

kak
lei
Day el
pagal
pagal
pagalu pagalu hagalu

pagil

pogal pokhal Dog nayi naya kukka

náyi náyi náyi náyi Ear kádu káda chevi

kivi, kimi kebi kemi kavi Earth nilam nilam pudami podavi nela

nelan
Egg
sinei mutlei

mutta
guddu
tatti, or mutte, or

mukshu
motte, or tetti

guddu
Elephant kalira Ane

ana
éniga

áne áne

ane
Eye náltam
kan
kanna

| k
kannu

kannu ` kann kann konn
Father endei tapdei, ta-

achchan
tandri
appa, tande amme

eyyan
gappan,

appan
Fire
azhal•
neruppu
tiyya
nippu

benki, tu

kechchu Fish puzhal min

I min : minu chépat

minu min • Zh is employed, according to Mr. Ellis' plan, to represont tho Tamil

q

which has the sound of the French j in jamb, Jacques, &c., but is often pronounced likön hard I hy Europeans, Muhammedans, and other foreigners, and also by the Parials. Thus uzual would be alal.

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Tamil,

English.

Ancient.

Modern.

Air kál káttu

8o written, but pronounced chapa.

sevi

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kudre

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kadar
arra

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kodant

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purva 'puvvu puvvu, or huvvu

pu

pú Foot kazhal adi

ndi

Adugu ali hejjo hajji Gont vellei adu

vallaria méka

kuri édu Hair kuzbal mayir

talamudi ventruka

kulalu kudalu Hand tol kai kayya cheyi tol

kayi kai
Head sonni talei

tala
tala

talo

tare
Hog
kézhal
panri
panni

pandi pandi handi panji
Horn kodu kombu

komba kommu

do lu, or kombu

koinbu Horso págimá kudirei

kudira gurramu

kudure kudare Blouso illam manei,uídu

vida, illam illu

mine illa Iron karu mbon irumbu

irumba
inumu

kabbina karba
Leaf
adei
elei
ela
áku

ele

ire Light oli velichcham velichcham veluturu

belaku bhoksha Man makana ál, see night ál

álu Monkey kaduvan kurangu

koranga koti

kodaga, or mango

manga
Moon pirei tingal tingal 8

nela, or

ac tingalu tingalu

zábilli
Mother inral táyi or hyi
amma

táyi,

or appe

Avva
Mountain varci
malei
mala

konda male gudda gudde
Mouth
váyi
váya
Doru

báyi bayi Mosquito kosuvu

doma

solle
Namo
pór
péra
péru pesaru

hesaru

pudar Night

ráv réyi

iralu iral Oil néyam ennei

en8 núne

enne

enne
Plantain
vázhei
vázha
Arati

bále bálo
River raru punal áru

puzha

eru

pole hole tude Road neri vazhi

vazhi

dári, dova práce hadi sádi Salt uppu | uppa uppu

uppu uppu Skin adal tol

tola itolu

tovalu tolu Sky vin vanam mánam

i minnu mugilu,

b, or

bánu • These words signify footstep rather than foot. The common word for foot in all the S. dialects is kal. $ Macacus radiatus.

$ The common word is chandra, Sansc.

riuwer Alar ра

talli

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minu

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pili

pal

palli

...

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Snake kadsovi pámbul

pamba

pámu pávu hávu

parapunu pamb pab Star vin-inin vanmin

minganna
chukka
chukki dáráya

ponémín
Stone kan
kal
kalla
ráyi
kallu kalla

kall.
Sun
pakalon
súrya(con-

poddu pallili lottu polutu

mon)
Tiger
pul puli

puli
puli puli huli

nari

pirri Tooch eyiru

palla

pallo pallu hallu kúli

pall Tree sedi, mar. chedi, cheltu

gida, mara mara mara mén
am

maram
Village
pekkam úr

tnra, dósam
uru
halli, uru úru

modd, or

mort
Water
puna? tanni

vellam
nillu
píru nír

nír
Yam

valli
I
yán nán

gnan nénu án nánu én

nán

one Thon ní ni nivu nin

ninu
(pro- nin

ni
nounced

as in it)
Ho
&van
avan

vádu
avam

avanu áye Sho Aval aval

ame

aval avalu aval
It
akudu adu

ada
adi

adu
We
yám nám

gnangal, or
mému ám

návu enklu eng
nám
Yo
nivir nir

ningal
míru ním
nivu inukulu ning

namma
They
avar
avara

váru
avar
avaru ákulu

avaru ádáin Mine enadu enro nádi

nannadu ennow Thino ninada unadu

ninra
nidi

ninnadu innow
His
avanadu
avanro
válidi

ivana Kyanow
Ours emadu pamadu

nanganie mádi

nammulu enkulanow Yours numadu umnilu

ningade
milli

nimmudu linkulanow
Theirs
lavarudu
avarude
varidi

avara iu ákulunow • Dio-coron alata, porin valli. Malayalam ; D. oppositifolla, avating tiga, Telúgú; D. aculcata, scru valli, Tamil; ganusu, Carnátaka; D. pentaplıylli, nuru kigting, Tamil and Malayalaın.

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