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ON THE ABORIGINES OF SOUTHERN INDIA
To the Secretaries of the Asiatic Society.
GENTLEMEN,—In prosecution of the steps already taken by me, and recorded in our Journal, for obtaining ready and effective means of comparing the affinities of all the various aboriginal races tenanting the whole continent of India, I have now the honour to submit a comparative vocabulary of seven of the Southern tongues. Five of them belong to the cultivated class of these tongues, viz., Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu, Carnataka, Tulava; and two to the uncultivated class, viz., .Curgi and Todava. The former are given both in the ancient and modern form, and care has been taken to procure the genuine vocables instead of those words of Sanscrit origin which are now so apt to be substituted for them, especially in intercourse with Europeans. I am indebted for these vocabularies to Mr. Walter Elliot of Madras, whose name is a sufficient warrant for their perfect accuracy.
In regard to these cultivated tongues of the south, Mr. Elliot observes that the aptitude of the people at present to substitute prakritic words for aboriginal ones is such a stumbling-block in the search for affinities as it requires pains and knowledge to avoid ; and he instances (among others) the common use of the borrowed word rakta, for blood, in lieu of the native te rm néthar, by which latter alone we are enabled to trace the unquestionable ethnic relationship of the Gónds (even those north of the Vindhia) with the remote southerns speaking Telugu, Cannadi, and Tulava.
On the subject of the local limits and mutual influence at the present day of the cultivated languages of the south upon each other, Mr. Elliot has the following remarks "All the Southern dialects become considerably intermixed as they approach each other's limits. Thus the three words for egg used indifferently by the people speaking Canarese (matté, tetti, gadda), are evidently obtained, the first from the Tamulian, matta; the last, from the Telugu, galda. This intermixture, which is of ordinary occurrence in all cognate tongues, is here promoted specially by extensive colonisation of different races, as of the Telugus into Southern India under the Bijaynagar dynasty, where they still exist as distinct communities—and of the followers of Rámánuja Aʼchárj into Mysore, where they still are to be seen as a separate class speaking Tamil in their families, and Carnataka in public. The Reddies also, an enterprising race of agriculturists, have migrated from their original seats near Rajahmandry over the whole of Southern India, and even into the Maharashtra country, where they are considered the most thriving ryots, and are met with as far north as Poona.”
Of the uncultivated tongues of Southern India, Mr. Elliot has been able to procure me on the present occasion only incomplete vocabularies of two, viz., the Curgi and Todava. But further assistance may be looked for from him in regard to this class of tongues, as to which he observes that “the dialects of the Kurumbers and Irulers and other mountain races of the south are well worth exploring." I have likewise myself made fresh application to Colonel Low, to our residents at Baroda and Sattara, and to other parties residing at Gúmsar, the Nilgiris, and Ceylon, with a view to completing the comparative vocabulary of all the Continental and Insular aboriginal languages; and to our authorities in Assam and in various parts of the chain of mountains dividing our provinces from those of Ava, in order to obtain the Indo-Chinese series of border languages all upon one uniform plan,
These shall be hereafter forwarded as received, with such remarks as the study of the whole may suggest.
• For the ordinary and proper locale of the several cultivated tongues of Southern India, see Ellis' Dissertation and Wilson's Mackenzie Manuscripts. Mr. Elliot speaks in illustration of the general and well-known facts of the case.
gáli elaru ghali ghali
kott Ant uravi erumbu
ammu saralu ambu biru Bird pul paravei parva pakki
netturu kenníru netturu nettar chore Boat pakada odam
padava pára doni Ioda
emika elume eluvu
bekku puchche Cow ä, pettam pasu
pogal pokhal Dog nayi naya kukka
náyi náyi náyi náyi Ear kádu káda chevi
kivi, kimi kebi kemi kavi Earth nilam nilam pudami podavi nela
kannu ` kann kann konn
kechchu Fish puzhal min
I min : minu chépat
minu min • Zh is employed, according to Mr. Ellis' plan, to represont tho Tamil
which has the sound of the French j in jamb, Jacques, &c., but is often pronounced likön hard I hy Europeans, Muhammedans, and other foreigners, and also by the Parials. Thus uzual would be alal.
Air kál káttu
8o written, but pronounced chapa.
purva 'puvvu puvvu, or huvvu
pú Foot kazhal adi
Adugu ali hejjo hajji Gont vellei adu
kuri édu Hair kuzbal mayir
kulalu kudalu Hand tol kai kayya cheyi tol
pandi pandi handi panji
do lu, or kombu
koinbu Horso págimá kudirei
kudure kudare Blouso illam manei,uídu
vida, illam illu
mine illa Iron karu mbon irumbu
ire Light oli velichcham velichcham veluturu
belaku bhoksha Man makana ál, see night ál
álu Monkey kaduvan kurangu
kodaga, or mango
ac tingalu tingalu
konda male gudda gudde
báyi bayi Mosquito kosuvu
iralu iral Oil néyam ennei
pole hole tude Road neri vazhi
dári, dova práce hadi sádi Salt uppu | uppa uppu
uppu uppu Skin adal tol
tovalu tolu Sky vin vanam mánam
i minnu mugilu,
bánu • These words signify footstep rather than foot. The common word for foot in all the S. dialects is kal. $ Macacus radiatus.
$ The common word is chandra, Sansc.
riuwer Alar ра
Snake kadsovi pámbul
pámu pávu hávu
parapunu pamb pab Star vin-inin vanmin
poddu pallili lottu polutu
pirri Tooch eyiru
pallo pallu hallu kúli
pall Tree sedi, mar. chedi, cheltu
gida, mara mara mara mén
gnan nénu án nánu én
one Thon ní ni nivu nin
as in it)
avanu áye Sho Aval aval
aval avalu aval
návu enklu eng
avaru ádáin Mine enadu enro nádi
nannadu ennow Thino ninada unadu
nammulu enkulanow Yours numadu umnilu
avara iu ákulunow • Dio-coron alata, porin valli. Malayalam ; D. oppositifolla, avating tiga, Telúgú; D. aculcata, scru valli, Tamil; ganusu, Carnátaka; D. pentaplıylli, nuru kigting, Tamil and Malayalaın.