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whilst the Bahing dialect of Kiránti discriminates the past tense from the other two by the use of an appropriate infix, which is at once the transitive and temporal sign. If such be not visibly the case with the Badaga, Kurumba, and Irula dialects, we may yet discern the cause, partly in the carelessness of barbarians, partly in that fusion of transitive and preterite signs which cultivated Dravidian also exhibits, and not less Ugrofinnic and Turkic. But in the tin-d-é of Badaga and Kurumba, and tid-d-é of Kota = I ate, as in the mad-id-é of Kurumba = I made, not to cite more instances, I perceive that identical preterite sign (t, vel, d) which marks it in Báhing (tib-á, he strikes; tib-d-á, or tip-t-á, he struck), as in endless other northern and north-western tongues.
I will add a few more words on these important points, for I conceive that the passive of the cultivated Dravidian tongues is clearly factitious, and suggested by contact with Arianism. There are still extant long works in Canarese, says Mr. Metz, in which hardly one instance of the use of the passive voice occurs, and the fact that the uncultivated Dravidian tongues have it not, is, I think, decisive as to its adopted character in the cultivated. Again, there can be no doubt that the negative conjugation of the cultivated Dravidian tongues presents the primitive form, and that form is aoristic; e.g., mad-en, I do, did, or will, not make. In Himalaya and Tibet and Sifán the passive is wanting. Its absence is wholly or partially supplied by the use of the instrumentive and objective cases of the pronouns for the active and passive forms respectively. Even Khas still adheres to this primitive and indigenous form, overlaid as that tongue is by Arian forms and vocables; and I have myself not the least doubt that the anomalous né of the preterite of Hindi and Urdu is nothing but the commutative equivalent of the Khas instrumental sign lé. A Khas of Népal invariably says, by me struck for I struck, and me struck for I was struck; and, inoreover, there is still the strongest presumptive proof, internal and external, that this, the present preterite, was a primitive aorist, and the only tense in Khas. Those who are fully conversant with the spoken Prakrits of the plains can testify that the same traits still cleave to the vernaculars of the so-called Arian class of tongues in the plains-traces, I conceive, of primitive Turánianism as palpable as are to be found in the secondary terms (bhat-wat, mar-dal (vide infra), kapra-latta, &c.) of the Prákrits, and which their grammarians can only explain by calling them tautological sing-song. That all such terms are really genuine samples of the double words so common throughout the Turánian area, and that the latter member of each term is Turanian, I trust by and by to have time to show. Meanwhile, and with reference to the Tartar substitute for the voices, here are a few examples
By me struck = I struck, active voice.
Tibetan, ng gi dùng; Newari, jing dáye ; Háyu, glua tolomi; Khas, mailé kútyo; Urdu, main né kúta.
Ne struck = I was struck, passive voice.
Tibetan, ngála dúng; Newári, jita dála; Háyu, go toh’mi; Khas, manlai kútyo; Urdu, mujh ko kúta (subaudi, usnė).
The languages which employ conjunct suffix pronouns have a form precisely equivalent to the latter, e.g., Sontál dál-éng, and Háyu toh'-múm = struck me. And observe that Sontal dál, to strike, reproduces not only the widespread dá vel tá root of the north, but also the l of Newari dala,* as to which see remarks on the transitive and preterite sign aforegone, and Urdu már-dál, with its comment.
With regard to the personal endings or pronominal suffixes of the Nilgirian verbs, their obscurity is sufficiently conformable to the cultivated Dravirian models, with due allowance for mistakes on the part of the rude speakers of the former tongues. Something may also be ascribed with probability to decomposition and disuetude. But upon the whole we cannot doubt that these tongues belong to the pronomenalised class, and that, for example, the ni and mi of Toda tinsbi-ni, I eat;
Observe also that Jita ddla reproduces the objective sign, ta vel da, abore spoken of. Compare latada and Cicero t. As a transitive sign of verbs it is most widely diffused, and nearly as widely are ka vel 82, and pa, vel ba, vel ra Sa vel cha is a very widely diffused neuter sign wbich also can be traced indubitably to tbe third pronoun used to denote the object-in this cane, the agent himself or itself. The French forma, Je lève and Je me lère, &c., very well serve to indicate the latter form, though not the former of Turávian verbe.
tinsbi-mi, we eat; with the an, al, ad of nidre-madut-an, madutal, maqut-ad, he, she, it sleeps, of Kurumba, are instances of suffixed pronouns. And now, having already remarked sufficiently upon the other peculiarities of the Nilgiri pronouns under the head of “pronoun,” I shall here bring these remarks, suggested by the Nilgirian vocabularies, to a close.
P.S.–Of the many resembling or identical words in the llimalayan and Dravidian tongues I say nothing at present. Those who inean while wish to see them, have only to consult the several vocabularies printed in the Journal.
But with reference to what I have stated above, that there exists an authentic tradition (reduced to writing some five hundred years back) identifying the people of the Malabar coast with those of Népál proper (or the Newár tribe), I may just point to such words as wá vel vá = come, and sumaka silent, as perfectly the same in form and meaning both in the Newár language and in that of the Nilgirians.
SUPPLEMENT TO TIE NILGIRIAN VOCABULARIES.
tennu tinnu tinnu tinnu
tinnave, tinduko (the
latter to a superior) únú kudi
koveko vorg voragu vorage (8 = German 8 nidre, madu (sleep kadandukove, kadan.
symaniru (silent be) maniade iru (speech
less be) itva i vá (it-va = come ba, iti ba? (iti-ba váge
hogu = go there) = go there) mklo Iyettu méke yedda
yéndu kove neshkir (be down) kuli kúkiru (be down) kutukó
nade = walk there)
bóngu burv hui puiyo hui
• The brackets denote muggestions of my own. 1 Ch = kh. English ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.
Kill birshkir, koddu kodd bóku
tavarsidado kondu bóku
bhodu put there)
bi = put there) Hear voratir kte, voratiru (hearing vóruttulle
buiya boda puiyade huiya béda
adio-venda To strike burken huiya puikede huiya
adia Striking burthtp huiyuva puika huiyuva
adika Stricken burtht (used actively huida
fore, are but one)
huiyuva alu Having stricken burthtudd huidu, buidundu possutle
hui du gondu
ná adi kallare
ní adide I will strike No future
Present tense is used Present tense is used Present tense is used pá adike • Ch = kh. Englimh ch represented by tsh. Former = guttural Scotch ch in loch, &c.
| Esh-t is absolutely the same with Máyu lsh-to, the t being the transitivo sigu!' And morcover in Toda, as in Ilayu, this is active and passive! Sco burth-t = stricken,