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fity, we cannot long hefitate in determing wherefore they are so generally practised. There is no instance in which man acts fo contrary to his own interest, as in the performance of exil, for whatever pleasure may be derived from a temporary gratification,-it invari. ably reverts injuriously to himself.-Though facts preach so loudly to us the consequences of vice, and every day prefents us with some teftimony of its deftructive influence,-though it robs us of almost every comfort, our peace of mind, -reputation.-friends,-though it andibilates our most valuable enjoyments, and senders our animal fyf. tem as a diftempered prison,-though it enervates the vigour of youth, and entails the infirmities of age, though it threatens present, and future misery, - yet we blindly pursue it.-If we are thus in facuated in the slavery of vice-it muit indisputably arise from an innate depravity of mind, that surmounis even the dictates of reason, or the fill more powerful voice of self-interest.
• Vice acquired by our first parents is hereditary,-conftitutional,and transmitted to their whole posterity. The coprenders for human dignity deny this glaring truth, but the vitiofly of men abd manners in general are a sufficient testimony.-Far greater than corporeal ruin is produced by it, fince it endangers every mental power, and the soul itself. Not satisfied with the wrecks of plunder and devaltation in the human frame, it extends its poisonous darts unto the seat of life; and that which was formed for blissful immor. tality, is threatens with eternal woe.
• Vice is the friend of Deach, and the fifter of Destruction; the former it has ensured, the latter it defires. It is distinguished from virtue, as the former is the pach to misery, the latter the road to happiness. Vice admits of degrees, and though an oniversal evil, not of equal prevalence. Were it to reign triumphant over the mental More t, and claim unlimited domain, man would exceed the beast, and bracality might claim the preference. The whole five senses become impaired by it, and ruin effected through the whole natural system. The fight or undertanding is blinded to every sense of virtue,-the hearing deaf to the voice of reason, or prudence ; the smelling insensible of the loathsome nature of vice ;-the talte pauseated with the fruits of virtue, so as to loath and abhor it;-and the feeling benumbed by the destroying winter of fin.
• Thus vice threatens every faculty of soul and body with deftruce tion. Happiness and contentment afford no asylum-peace and comfort no retreat, -ruin founds the dread alarm, and the facteredbuilding falls a wretched viêlim. Beauty now becomes deformed, wisdom, foolishness, -and riches, - poverty. It frequently effets these changes.
• Original, as well as actual guilt, is included in the present theme;—the former fome deny, the latter all contess.--Reason proves them true, and Revelation now confirms it.- A man must be apprized of danger, before he seeks relief.--Hence so many are easy in the llavery of vice, fince they are not apprehensive of their danger.
• It Thould have been corporal.
+ Of this metaphor the Author is so fond, that he has twice made use of it.
Philosophers would refer us to reason as a warning; but vice over. rules reason, and drowns it in the depth of madness. Here morality is at a fand, and its limits finish ;-it condemns,-dehorts and reproves ;- but cannot change.- Narure being depraved, cannot be changed by oature. --This is a rational paradox. There múlt be fomething fupernatural to change nature, fince fuperiority of power is required to effect a natural purpose. Learning, fays the sacionalist, is an acquifition; will not that effect the dengn: Prudence is a rational vistue, seated in the mind; will not that produce the change? The negative reafonably replies.--- According to the pbilosophic notions, vice cannot exist in the soul of man, or in the rational part, which they call the mir.d, becaule 'nature opposes it. Na:0:e i:self, being depraved, affents to,-inftead of oppofing, vice.-- The mind itfelf is vitiated, consequepily reason alone cannot eradicate this ingrafted evil.
Vice, so far as it prevails, has dominion over reasop, though the conqueft is not complete. Prudence yields to vice, înce oature is i:self ieclined thereunto. Every human refuge failing, wbither must offenders seeks for pardon ? Revelation, far superior to all other means of knowledge, directs the inquiring penitent to a medium, in which every divine atribute thines with equal lustre. - Jullice and mercy embrace each other, and are mutually exalted. The offender is pronounced righteous, and the offended Deity reconciled. Here human reason is confounded. Nature teaches moral obedience, though in. capacitated for the duty. Reafon seeks for human fatisfacrion, but nature cannot grant it.
• Omnipotence formounts these dificulties, and wish fupernatural wisdom provides a way, in which vice can be atoned for, and the Atmighty juft.-To the anonishment of all ages--and the confusion of the unbelieving world, we are presented in the sacred pages of Revelacion, with a view of perfect equity and consummate mercy, -uniting in one act of divine munificence. Enemies become obe favourires of heaven, and rebels the heirs of an eternal intericance.--The 'offended is the propitia:ory facrifice for offenders, -aod man, who bad no claim to favour enjoys is uninterruptedly. Do we boast of fympathy or compation ?-Is benevolence in anywise the characteristic of man? Does the diftress of others affail our most refined feel. ings? Can we prefer the intereft--the pleasure -- the happiness of others to our own? If a spark of philanthropy dwells in our breast, -what a difislive flame of boundless compassion has appeared in the retoracion of a ruined world!~Every benefit we delive in common -all that we can expect in future,-arises folely from chia fource of uliimate felicity.-While Virtue holds forth every social blefling, - Vice, every impending evil,-may infinite Wisdom direa our choice that while we pursue she one,-avoid the other!',
Those of our Readers who can digeft the absurdity of an offended Deity becoming a propitiatory sacrifice for the offenders, may have a judgment and taste fufficien<ly perverted to approve of our Author's manner of writing. The more rational and judicious will, we believe, equally condemn his style and sentiments. The reflections on the principles of Dcism are indeed Rev. Feb. 1782.
written in rather a more sober manner : but the Author's propensity to the false sublime frequently betrays itself, and the same kind of involved and inconclusive reasoning is here employed as in the effays.
It is with some regret that we give so unfavourable a character of this publication, as the Author appears to have written with a good design, and to be a man of a benevolent and liberal turn
of mind. The ancients, from whom he so frequently quotes, might at least have taught him, that case and simplicity are essential properties of good writing.
Art. III. A Philofophical and Experimental Enquiry into tbe forf and
general Principles of Animal and Vegetable Life: likewise into AtmoSpherical Air, &c. With a Refutation of Dr. Priestley's Do&rint of Air : Proving, by Experiment, that the Breathing of Animals, Putrefa&tion, &c. do not phlogificate, but dephlogisticate the Air ; and that the Office of that sential Organ, the Lungs, is not to discharge Pblogifton to ihe Air, but to receive it from the Air By Robert Harrington, of the Corporation of Surgeons, London. 8vo. 5s. Boards. Cadell. 1781.
S the title-page of this performance, and particularly
the last part of it, wbich indicates a refutation of Dr. Priestley's doctrine of Air, will naturally excite some curiosity among our philosophical Readers; we shall give a fuller account of it than it is intitled to from its intrinsic merits, or importance. It is evidently the work of a person, who, having early adopted a particular hypothefis, afterwards sees every philosophical fact through that particular medium only which beft corresponds with his preconceived theory. Of a philosophical work, founded on such a basis, little is to be said : some specimens, however, of the Author's manner may be expected, in juftification of what we have already intimaced. We shall principally confine ourselves to that part of the Author's work, in which, according to the title-page, be undertakes to thew, ' by experiment, that the breathing of animals, putrefaction, &c. do not phlogisticate, but dephlogisticate the air ;' or rather to two experiments which he adduces, in proof of this strange doctrine.
One animal,' fays the Author, will swallow another when alive; throwing into his fomach all the effete and noxious fumes of phlogiston, which the devoured animal poffested; yet it is so far from killing the devourer, that it is so immediate to its life, it could not live without it. I took a dog, and after making him very hungry, he ferociously devoured two quarts of blood, drawn warm from an ox, when those poisonous fumes, agreeable to the Doctor,'—meaning Dr. Priestley, or rather, we thould fuppose, his doctrine-' were exhaling rapidly; yet he breathed
them; and instead of killing the dog, as from the Doctor's theory might be expected, they fenfibly cherished him, making him eat with greater glee and tapidity. In this fact, the noxious fumes and effece matter not only entered the stomach in immense quantity, but was likewife received by the lungs; yet, so far from taking life was the consequence, it was the fupport and feeder of life.'
The Author was so adventurous and this is his second exa periment-as to introduce his head into a vessel containing some warm bullock's blood. I argued,' says he; • from rational and philosophical principles, a priori, that if this fume is fo very noxious and effece, as the Doctor calls it; that it would kill me, &c.-nobody being along with me at the time, to drag me from those pernicious fumes, in cafe I had been convulsed: but instead of its having that serious consequence, I found not the lealt bad effects from it; on the contrary, I found the living principle entertained by it, feeding its appetite.'
On the strength of these experiments, the Author's good opinion of phlogiston has since carried him so far as to order confumptive patients to attend Naughter-houfes, and to hang their heads over large collections of warm blood; and, that they might imbibe as much of the effluvia as poflible, to give the blood motion with a stick; and their tender diseafed lungs have found the advantage of it.' - Nay, butchers, he tells us, who according to Dr. Priestley's doctrine ought not to live five minutes," in their slaughter-houses, thrive and grow fat there :the lucky, but ignorant, rogues, it seems, owing all their thrift and fat to phlogiston.
Such are the Author's experiments. They incontrovertibly prove that a hungry hound can toss down two quarts of warm blood into his ftomach with great glee, and much to his advantage ; and that a hardy experimenter may snuff up the steam arising from a bucket of blood, without being thrown into convulsions. Farther than this, our logic will not carry us.
We thall give one curious instance more of the Author's mode of reasoning; where he undertakes to prove, that, in respiration, putrefaction, and other phlogistic procefses, as they are called, the air is not phlogisticated, but dephlogisticated, or robbed of its phlogiston. We must beg leave to abridge confiderably bis pompous account of a putrefying animal substances wbich is diffused through four pages.
Take, says he, that part of the animal, which is most fura ceptible of putrefaction, viz. the animal mucus. You will find it to be an infipid, inodorous body, poffeffing little or no phlogifton; nay, if you throw it into the fire, it will absolutely exo tinguish it, like water. Expose it to the air, and you will soon find that it has acquired a fetid cadaverous (mell, and a tafte H 2
most pångent and noxious; and, in short, that it now so teems with phlogiston, that it is becoine inflammable, and will burn.
Here,' says he, 'is a most pointed and wonderful fazi.' Some great and important process in nature must have taken place. Here is a body which, before it was exposed to the air, possessed little or no phlogiston; and now, after such exposure, it contains, comparatively, nothing else. This immense quantity of phlogiston, therefore, has been all stolen from the air ; for the mucus scarce contained an atom of that principle, till it had opportunity and time to rob the air of it; which accordingly has been dephlogisticated by the sinking mucus.—But hear the Au-, thor himfelf exulting towards the end of his demonstration, as he deems it: .
« Where does all this phlogiston come from? Will any one be fo ridiculously absurd as to say it came from the animal mucus ? -If there is any one fo gressly absurd, I pity him; being not desirous, nor shall I offer, to refute him: but, as it is as clear as any demonstration in Euclid it could not come from the mucus, therefore, as there was no third body, it must have come from the air, by decompounding of its in consequence it is not phlogifticating the air, but dephlogisticating of it.'
Will no lagician step forth here--for we scarce seem to want a chemift-- who can find out some other solution of this pointed and wonderful fact?' To a perfon almost wholly ignorant of chemifry, it will naturally occur, notwithstanding the Author's pretended demonftration, that it was posible, at least, that this fame mucus, in its found ftate, might contain as much phlogiston (a chemift would say, more) concealed in it, in consequence of its Itrict union with the other principles; as presents itself afterwards, .when the phlogiston is let loose in the putrefactive process, and is rendered apparent, in consequence of the dijunion of the principles that constitute the mucus. - Sulphur, or flowers of sulphur, for instance, have nearly as little smell, or taste, and exhibit as few of the obvious marks of the presence of phlogiston, as the Author's mucus: but ex pofe this suiphur fimply to fire, as the Author exposed his mucus to air; and presently there will appear abundance of phlogiston (to Yay nothing of the acid). According to the Author's mode of reasoning, we should say, that as the fulphur, before its expoture, icarce showed any figns of its containing phlogifton, it is demonftrable that it must have stolen the phlogiston from the fore, which it has accordingly dephlogisticated, ..
The reasoning throughout the whole of this work is nearly of the lane ikind. Thus the Author will allow little or no phlogistoa to retide in vegetables that conftitude the food of animals; and gives reasons. just as corent as those above alligned. On the other hand, he is exceedingly liberal in betowing this prin