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councils, both of the house of of great or regular armies; the Austria and the republic of Ve- dangers of advancing into an hofnice, for most of their European tile country, with such a river as provinces. The people, from this the Danube, and such an enemy caufe, generally preferred a sub- as the Tartars in the rear, are so mission to the Mahometan 50. obvious as not to require any illusvernment, (which was favourable tracion. enough to them in religious mat- Those who had talked of the

ters, and perhaps not more op- Rufian's penetrating speedily and prestive in civil) than to the irto- eally to Conitantinople, seem, lerant principles of their Chriftian along with numberless other diria neighbours. Now that Rusia is culties, to have overlooked the arrived at great power and dignity, situation of Romania, which is these people look up to her, not fe. ced by nature with such bounonly as the preferver of their reli- daries, as make it nearly impreggion, but as their natural pro-onable on the land side. So great tector, and the restorer of the Greek an operation would require their empire.

being first masters of the Black Sea ; Notwithstanding these appear- nor is it to be supposed that the ances, the Porte is not yet wholly other European powers would bedeftitute of resources boih in mo- hold with a total indifference, so ney and men; nor did the Turkish great an accession of power, to a soldiers seem to want their ancient tate which they already regard as valour in the last campaign, till too formidable. the continued ill conduct of their Such seems to be the situation commanders, put an end at once and mutual difficulties of the two both to hope and to courage. The great contending powers. In numenemy are also obliged to carry on ber of troops, in discipline, in the operations of war, at a vast marine, even in pecuniary redistance from the source which fources, Ruília seems much supe, supplies it. To support a great rior. The Turks derive their adarmy in such a situation, to guard vantages from the difficult nature the convoys, and preierve the ne- of their pontic country ; from the cessary communications, must be jealousy of other European states; attended with almost insuperable and from the unsettled state of the difficulties. These will itill be in- throne in Russia. creased in a manifold degree, if The unhappy country of Poland the Russians attempt to extend the continues a victim to all the cala, war to the Bulgarian fide of the mities that attend a weak govern. Danube. Without considering the ment, and the nearness of too podoubtful chances of war, and the tent neighbours. Plundered alike uncertainty of continuing at all by friends and foes, without a hope times maiters in the field; or with- of advantage from the success of out taking into account the favage . either, her best blood Aows in torface of that province, every where rents, thed by unavailing efforts interíected by the great branches which are only expressive of her of mount Hemus, and forming a despair. The cruel manners of the natural check upon the operations contending nations, add to the hor

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rors of her situation, which are land, and have just as much right heightened by national animosity, to do one as the other. Can the and the mortal hatred that recipro wretched name of king, the empty cal injuries have excited between title of republic, or the ridiculous the Russians and Poles.'

pageantry of a court, be thought It is the interest of all the potent equivalent to the calamities to ftates, that surround this large and which the miserable Poles are every once great country, never to fuffer day subject ? it to emerge out of its present The emperor of Germany, tho' wretched fituation. The oficious deeply interested in its conseneighbours have too great a regard quences, has not interfered in the for its conftitution, to admit the war. His conduct however seems natural physicians to prescribe any mysterious. His armies are large, thing for its benefit. Its original complete, and ready for a&tion ; misfortune was the pride and ty- camps are frequenly formed in ranny of the nobles, which pre- Bohemia and Hungary; the mayented them for several ages, while gazines are kept fored, and great it was in their power, from esta- bodies of troops lie upon the fron. blishing a happy form of govern- tiers. The present situation of the ment. If this had been done, they war, being upon the Danube, brings might have been one of the greatest it home to the Austrian dominions nations in Europe ;. they are now Many occasions will necessarily folthe moit miserable, and little less low of communication and interthan a miracle can ever afford anos ference, and opportunities must be ther opportunity of making trial given of thewing favour or dislike. of their virtue.

A powerful neighbour, supported The success of the Russians againf by great military force, and not the Turks, and the apparent in. afraid of either of the warring parg difference of the other neighbours ties, is almost as troublesome to ing powers, must cut off everythem, when his territories lie inhadow of hope from the confe-! termingled with those in contenderates. By this means it is pro- tion, as they are ruinous and de. bable that the people may enjoy Itructive to a weak and defencea Yome quiet, if not security. What less state in the same situation. would be deemed the greateft mis- Chance, heat, or danger, neceffaa fortune to all other nations, seems rily occasion a violation of territo be the greatest happiness that tory, and irregular troops will could befal this; to become a pro- commit excesses in the most friendvince to some neigboaring power, ly country; all which produce would at present be a blessing in- altercations, and often something deed. This, in the natural course worse. of things, muft sooner or later hap- Nothing could be more opposite pen; and though it should be to to the interest of the house of the most defrotic of them, which Auftria, nor perhaps so dangerous probably will be the case, still it to its security, as that Russia should would be a happy exchange. The extend its power on the side of Russians now appoint a king of Turky. Its obtaining any footing oland as they do a duke of Cour- near the Danube, would be a cir.

cumftance of the most alarming intentions, that we have before had nature. It is not then to be sup- so much pleasure in taking notice posed, that an active youthful of. The time he spent in his tour prince, at the head of great ar- to other countries, he shews was mies, 'and pofTeffed of great re- wisely laid out for the good of his sources, would look famely on, at own, He is now accordingly co. fo dangerous and unwelcome an pying in his own dominions, those intrufion. It is rather to be ima- institutions whose utility more im. gined, that, prepared as he is for mediately struck him when he was all confequences, le views atten- abroad. Among other instances of tively the course of the war, and this nature he has established a waits till the temper of the hostile Royal Society of Agriculture, and powers will admit of his effectual- to honour and encourage it has ly employing his mediation for a declared himself its protector. This peace,

fociety, which includes arts as well The king of Pruslia observes the as agriculture, the king has ensame reserve in this respect, that dowed with a considerable sum, the emperor has done. He is also which is to be disposed of in prizes, armed, and equally guarded againt for the encouragement of experiall events. It is posible, that as ments in agriculture, and of inthese princes seem now to be upon genious artificers. His majesty bea very friendly footing, this object ing also ftruck at the light of the may appear to them both in the royal foundation at Chelsea, he has fame point of view. This would given direction for the building an certainly be their interest; how- hospital, for the reception of super, ever their connections, their alli. annuated soldiers; and adds to this ances, and their mutual jealoufies, munificence, by forming an eilamay prevent it.

blishment for soldiers widows and The king has however apon all children. The same humanity has occasions condemned the conduct induced him to order two hospiof the Polish confederates, and tals, one at Copenhagen, and the feverely reprehended, and some other at Bergen, to be founded times chafized, some parties of for the reception of disabled feathem that made accidental incur. men. frons upon his territories. In other We have before taken notice of respects this prince pays his usual the attention the king of Denmark attention to the good of his sub- shewed in the beginning of his jects, and to the increasing of the reign, to the oppreslions which the commerce in his dominions; and peasants suffered; as well as the among other regulations for the pains he had taken, and the examease and conveniency of the mer- ple he had set, to free them from chants, has established a bank and their servitude.

He has this year lombard at Embden, and a parti- paffed an ordinance which has cylar bank at Berlin, besides the given the moft universal satisfacgeneral one already there.

tion, and which regards the fhar. The king of Denmark proceeds ing their estates and effects among in the fame good difpofitions to their children. By this decree, the his people, and the same patriotic eldett child, male or female, fhall,



upon the decase of its parents, be' which it is probably the opposite en'itled to one half, and no more, parties feare i or hoped. No change of their effe&is and possessions ; and has been made in the form of gothe other noiety is to be divided vernment, nor has the king's power equally among the rest of the chil- been en'arged. He is however dren, whether male or female; but emancipated out of the hands of if there be but two children, then an arbitrary senate, who were dethe estate and efects of the deceased termined to thwart him in every åre to be equally shared.

instance, and whose insolence he These numerous regulations and experienced upon every occasion, establishments have not diverted The French interest, which had a his attention from commerce ; a principal share in calling the diet, subject which mankind at length has fully succeeded in establishing begin to understand, and which its own influence, which now preseems now to occupy the thoughts dominates, and will probably conof almost every civirized nation. tinue to do so, in the counciis of Upon this principle he has de- that kingdom. clared Cuckitat, a Itrong town Great heats arose between the fituated near the mouth of the river king and the senate, about the Elbe, a free port, and has abolished place to be appointed for the afall duties on vessels that may pais iembling of the states. The king the winter there, as well as on wished and proposed Stockholm ; merchandize, whether brought to but the senate appointed Norkiothe place, or only passing through. ping for the place of meeting. It How much more liberal as well as is true that this place had been politic are there fentiments than appointed, at the breaking up of those of his anceitor, who attempt- the laft diet, for their next meet. ed to make all fhips that pafed ing; but this agreement was not up or down the river, to pay a at all binding on the king and toll!

senate, who might appoint any In respect to foreign affairs, the other place that was more convecourt of Copenhagen seems inti- nient. The king shewed the great mat:ly connected with that of Pe- inconveniences that would attend terburg. In consequence of this meeting at this town, which is connection, upon fome extraordi- above ninety miles from Stock, nary apj earances in Sweden, and holm. That the senate, who are the a parent prevalence of the obliged by their duty to fit in

rench party there, the king fitted Stockholm, ale obliged by the out early in the season, a squadron same duty to compose a part of of right men of war of the line, the diet, and that to fulfil both at and iwo frigates. . This fleet con- once, would be to effect an importinued armed and ready for service fibility. Nothing could however the whole fummer, and probably conquer the obtinacy of the sehad a great effect upon the mea- nate, who seemed mechanically to fures pursued in that country, oppose the king in every thing,

The extraordinary assembly of Without perhaps confidering, that the ftates in Sweden, was not seasonable and rational concellion, attended with the consequences, would better answer the purposes


of the Rufian and Englih interest, confidence of the states, and conwhich they had been supposed to demned to pay the extraordinary espouse; and would give fewer, expences that attended their meetand less plausible pretences to their ing at Norkioping. The principal enemies. They, however, ablo- charges agiinit them were, their lutely refused a compliar.ce with oppofing the convocation of the the king's request, and contended, fates; their making Norkioping that the senate thould be divided, the flice of meeting in spite of one part of it to remain in Stock- the king; and 4 declaration they holm, and the other to attend the had made to the different colleges, diet.

in the preceding December, that The king upon this delivered a the kingdom might be governed declaration to he fenate, which by the fenate without the king, he got printed and published ; in and their afterwards upholding the which he fhewed that this proposed same principle in feparating the division of it,' was not only con- senita trary to the fundamental laws of In the mean time, some motions the kingdom, but in itself impof- that were made in the disposition of sible ; that the senate ought to the troops, and some measures that have the king at the head of it: were taken for completing the regithat he could not be at two places ments, having alarmed the reighat the same time : and, therefore, bouring powers of Ruisia and Dens that part of the senate, where he mark, the king caused a declaration did not prefide, could not be au

to be delivered to all the foreiga thorized to traníact any business of ministers, in which he tothe state. He farther declared, tally disclaimed the imall. May 6. that he could not but consider this est intention of disturbing the public ftep as an alteration of the contti- tranquillity. He declares that the tution of the state; as an infringe- interior affairs of the kingdm were ment of the royal prerogative; and the sole motive for convoking the as an usurped authority, which states; and that from the liarneny never was, nor never could be ac- that prevailed in their deliberaknowledged, while the regal power, tions, he did not doubt but all their and that of the states, remained resolutions would concur with his entire.

own patriotic views.

He conThe diet was cludes by declaring, that if any Apr. 19th. length opened at Nor- thing hould happen to disturb the kioping. The firit business the tranquillity of the north, he never states went upon, was the conduct would have any occasion to of the senate. The secret committee proach himself with having been brought 24 articles of accusation in the least the cause of it. against all the senators but two, Notwithftanding the good huand allowed them but forty-eight mour of the assembly, the court hours to prepare for their defence. failed in the grand point for which Nothing could withstand this tor- it was convoked.

Several new sent; they were all, except those ordinances were proposed, which two, degraded from their seats in would have made a great, if not the senate, declared unworthy the a total alteration in the present




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