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Democratis, & Secundi Sententiæ Morales ; Joh. Pediafimus de Muliere ; Sexti Pythagorei Sententiæ; Theophraftus, Pythagorcorum Fragmenta; Heliodori Optica. This volume was reprinted at Amsterdam, in ș688. 8vo. with the addition of Eratosthenis Catasterismi, Homeri Vita, [Heraclidis Pontici] Allegoriæ Homeri, &c.

2. Hiftoriæ Poeticæ Scriptores antiqui, Gr. & Lat. Par. 1675. 8vo. These are, Apollodorus, Conon, Ptolomæus Hephæftion, Parthenius, & Antoninus Liberalis.

3. Rhetores Selecti, Demet. Phalereus, Tiberius Rhetor, Anonymus, & Severus Alexandrinus, Gr. & Lat. Oxon, 1676. 8vo.

4: Jamblichus de Myfteriis, Gr. & Lat. Oxon. 1678. 8vo.

5. Pfalterium juxta exemplar Alexandrinum, Oxon. 1678. 8vo.

6. Herodoti Opera, Lond. 1679. fol.

7 * An edition of Cicero's works was revised by him. Lond. 1681. 1684. 2 vol. fol.'

We are not informed upon what authority this is faid ; nor what share Dr. Gale took in the revisal. The preface to the edition of 1681 was written by Adam Littleton ; but Gale's name is not mentioned in it. It is included, we suppose, in the word correćtoribus : exactissima cura in correctoribus non defuit.' Littleton's preface is a piece of pedantic Latịn.-Wę know of no edition in 1684.

8. Hiftoriæ Anglicanæ Scriptores quinque, Oxon. 1687. folio.

This volume contains Annales Marganenfes, Chronicon Th. Wikes, Annales Waverleienfes Historia Galf. Vinesalvi, & Historia Walteri de Hemingford.

9. Hiftoriæ Britannicæ Saxonicæ, Anglo-Danicæ, Scriptores quindecim. Oxon. 1691. fol.—These fifteen writers are, Gildas, Eddius, Nennius, Afferius. Ran. Higden, Gul. Malmesburiensis, Anonymus Malmesb. Anonymus Ramefienfis, Anonymus Elienfis, Thomas Elyenfis, Joan. Wallingford. Rad. de Diceto, Anonymus, Joan. Fordun, and Alcwinus. To this volume is added an Appendix, containing extracts from Ptolemy's Geography, &c.

This is called' by Gale the first volume ; and that which contains the Quinque Scriptores, though published four years before the present, is called the second, as the authors are of a more modern date. It has no connection, as M. Fresnoy and others have imagined, with the volume of English writers compiled by Mr. William Fulman, under the patronage of bishop Fell, in 1684.

Dr.

Dr. Gale was the author of the inscriptions on the monument, in memory of the dreadful conflagration of London, in 1666; a discourse concerning the Origin of human Literature with Philology and Philosophy, in the Phil. Tranf. vol. VI. p. 2231 ; and a Letter concerning two Roman Altars found in Northumberland, No 231.

He left in MS. Originis Philocalia, variis MSS. collata, emendata, & novâ versione donata ; Jamblichus de vitâ Pythagoræ ; Antonini Itinerarium Britanniæ ; Sermons on several occasions, published by his son in 1704, and other MSS. fpecified in the Catalogus Manuscriptorum Angliæ & Hiberniæ, iii. p. 185.

Fabricius, in his Bibliotheca Græca, xiii. 640. has very properly distinguished this learned writer from Theophilus Gale, author of the Court of the Gentiles; but with this inaccuracy, that Theophilus is said to be the father of Thomas : whereas the former was the son of Theophilus, prebendary of Exeter, and of a different family. [Theophilus was educated at Magdalen College, Oxford ; but had his inclinations biaffed towards the Presbyterians and Independents ; and after the Restoration was a professed dissenter, and loft his fellowship for non-conformity. ]

Roger Gale, esq. the eldest son of the dean, was fellow of the Royal and Antiquarian Societies, Commissioner of Excise, &c. Though he was considered as one of the most learned men of his age, he only published the following books and tracts :

1. Antonini Iter Britanniarum, commentariis illustratum Thomæ Gale, S. T. P. &c. Lond. 1709. 4to. This work was much improved by the editor, who, in the preface, has very properly pointed out, what parts of it were his father's, and what his own.-Mr. Gough has three copies of this edition, enriched with many valuable MS, notes by Mr. Roger Gale, Nicholas Man, esq. and Dr. Ab. Francke, fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, and rector of Weit Dene in Wiltshire, 1728 ; and a fourth with MS. various readings from the two MSS. whence H. Stephens first printed this Itinerary.

2. The Knowlege of Medals, translated from the French of M. Jobert, 1697, 1715, 8vo.

g. Regiftrum Honoris de Richmond, Lond. 1722. fol.

4. A Discourse on the four Roman Ways in Britain. Les land's Itin. Vol. VI.

Some other pieces of his are printed in the Philofophical -Transactions, vol. xxx. xliii. Horley's Britannia Romana, P. 332. Archäologia, vol. ii. Gent. Mag. vol. xii. p. 135, &c. He died at Scruton, in 1744, in the 72d year of his

age. 6 Some

age.

His MSS. and Roman coins he left by will to Trinity College, Cambridge, of which he was once fellow.

Charles Gale, the dean's second son, was rector of Scruton, (a living in the gift of the family) and died in 1738.

Samuel, the youngest of the dean's fons, was land-surveyor of the customs, and one of the revivers of the Society of Antiquaries in 1717 ; a man of great learning, and well versed in the antiquities of England, for which he left many valuable collections behind him; but printed nothing in his life-time, except a History of Winchester Cathedral, Lond. 1715, begun by Henry, earl of Clarendon, and continued to that year,

with cuts. His Essay on Ulphus's Horn at York is in the Archäologia, vol. i. and another on Cæsar's Paf{age over the Thames, in the same volume ; criticised in vol. ii. p. 145.—He died in 1754, at the age of 72.

As he was a bachelor, and died inteftate, adminiftration of his effects was granted to his only fifter Elizabeth ; who, in 1739, became the second wife of Dr. Stukeley, and died before her husband, leaving no children. By this incident all her brother's MSS. fell into the doctor's hands. Since his decease, Dr. Ducarel has (by the generosity of Mrs. Fleming, Dr. Stukely's daughter by his first wife) been favoured with feveral of Mr. Samuel Gale's MSS. which are now, 1781, in his possession. Among these are, Mr. Gale’s History of York Cathedral in folio, often mentioned by Mr. Drake in his Eboracum, who also cites a MS. drawn up by Mr. Gale, on the city of York; a Tour through many parts of England, 1705 ; an Account of some Antiquities at Glastonbury, and in the Cathedrals of Salisbury, Wells, and Winton, 1711; of Sheperton, Cowey-Stakes, &c. 1748 ; Observations upon Kingsbury, in Middlesex, 1751 ; an Account of Barden, Tunbridge-Wells, &c. with a List of the Pictures at Penthurst'; an Account of a journey into Hertfordshire, Bucks, and. Warwickshire, 1720 ; and Mr. Roger Gale’s Tour into Scotland,

These are some of the most material circumstances of the literary kind, mentioned in the memoirs now before us.

The remaining part of this publication consists of Mr. Samue! Gale's Tour above mentioned, through Oxford, Gloucester, Bristol, Bath, Salisbury, Portsmouth, the Isle of Wight, Petworth, Hampton Court, &c. which was revised by the author in 1730.

From the observations of this learned antiquary, which in. deed are in general rather cursory and superficial, we shall only extract his opinion concerning the origin of Stone-henge.

in 1739

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? Some writers, he says, will have Stone-henge to be a Roman work; Inigo Jones endeavours, in his book called Stonehenge Restored, to prove it a temple dedicated by them to the god Cælum [Calus]; for which he alledges the order and scheme of the building, consisting of four equilateral triangles, inscribed in a circle, with a double portico: a scheme much used by the Romans. But this has been refuted.

• Mr. Aubrey is of opinion, that it was a temple of the druids, before the Romans entered Britain; that it was a monument built by the old inhabitants of the ille ; suine, that it was a monument built by the Britons in memory of their queen

Boadicea

1; others, that it was the sepulchre of Uther Pendragon, Constantine, Aurelius Ainbrofius, and other British kings; others, that it was a monument erected by Arnbrofius in memory of the Britops here treacherously slain by the Saxons at a treaty. To this laft opinion I should rather adhere, being induced thereto from the name of Ambrosius still retained in the neighbouring town of Ambreibury, once celebrated for its famous monastery of 306 monks, founded here by this very Ambrofius, on condition, that they should pray for the souls of those, that were slain by the treachery of Hengist the Saxon. I think, we have reason to believe him the founder of the one, as well as the other ; and from the rudeness and barbarity of the structure, I conclude it to be a British monument, the Romans always leaving indisputable inarks of their grandeur, elegance, and particular genius ; of any of which our Stone-henge has not the least resemblance: nor was ever any inscription found hereabouts, to give it a rełation to those auguli conquerors; nor indeed could I ever find, that

any of their coins were ever dag up in or near this structure.'

This account of the origin of Stone-henge is the same as that which is given us by Geoffrey of Monmouth, anno 1150, who teils us, that 460 British nobles, treacherously murdered þy Hengist, when they were assembled for the purpose of entering into a treaty with the Saxons, were buried there; and that it was also the sepulchre of Ambrosius himself* ; but that fabulous historian has added many circumstances to it, which are absurd and ridiculous. He relates, that the stones were originally brought from the farthest part of Africa, and placed in Ireland by giants, who inhabited that country, forming a structure, which was called Chorea Gigantum, or the Glant's Dance; that they possessed a mystical or medicinal virtue ; and were removed from Ireland to the place where they now stand, by the art of Merlin the conjurer. Geoffrey adds, contrary to our author's opinion, that when Ambrofius vifited the place, he found a monastery, which maintained

1

Galf. Monumet. Hift. Brit. lib. vi. 15. lib. viii. 9-12. 16.

300

A

300 friars, situated on the mountain of Ambrius, an abbot, who is reported to have been the founder of it, long before that time: qui olim fundator ipfius extiterat *.' Giraldus Cambrensis, an. 1180, and Matthew of Westminster, an. 1360, gravely relate this incredible story +. Giraldus expresses himself in different words ; but, as he says, 'juxta Britannie cam historiam. Matthew evidently transcribes his account from Geoffrey, placing the maffacre in the year 461, and the erecting of the monument in 490. Walter of Coventry, an. 1217, likewise sets it down as authentic history. Nennius, an. 620, relates the story of the massacre ; but says nothing of the monument I. William of Malmesbury, an. 1141, mentions the massacre s. Ranulphus Higden, an. 1350, records the story of the massacre, and the removal of the stones from Ireland to Salisbury Plain, on the faith of British history : secundum traditionem historiæ Britannicæ ll.' Fordun, the Scotch historian, an. 1360, takes notice of the main facre . John of Tinmouth, an. 1366, calls the place Mons Ambrofii : Mons Ambrofii, qui nunc vulgò Stanhenges dicitur**' Polydore Virgil, an. 1533, afferts, that it was erected, not to the memory of the British nobles, but to the honour of Ambrofius, who, according to his account, was buried there +t. John Twine (1550), a diligent and respectable antiquary, speaks of Stonehenge, as the fepulchre both of the British nobles and Ambrosius : “In editiore loco, ex ejus nomine Mons Ambrofii dietus, sepultus eft Aurelianus Ambrofius; ubi ipfe prius, Ambrosii Merlini mathematici, fcientiâ fretus, ut fertur, gigantum choream, vel immenfæ magnitudinis faxa, in memoriam occisorum & fepultorum ibi Britannorum procerum, erexerat 11:

Camden only gives the sentiments of others, and laments, that we have no records now remaining, which might afcertain the origin of this stupendous work: 'De his non mihi fubtiliùs disputandum, sed dolentiùs deplorandum, obliteratos esse tanti monumenti authores $$.'

We have here cited fome of the earliest writers now extant, on the subject. Most of them, we confess, may have taken their accounts from Geoffrey of Monmouth; and confequently their reports depend on the credit of one fabulous historian. Dr. Brady, in his History of England, has ob.

Ibid. vi. 15.
+ Giraldi Topog. Hib. dist

. ij. cap. 18. Mat. Weft. sub. an. 461,490.

| Nennii Hist. Brit. cap. 48. Malmesb. lib. i. cap. 1. # Ran. Higd. Polychr. lib. v. duni Scot. Hift. lib. jii. cap. 15.

** In Vitâ Dubricii. lyd. Verg. Angl. Hist. lib. ii. If Twinus de Reb. Alb. lib. ii. p. 117. Camd. Brit. p. 220. ed. 1600.

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