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are no more.
fectious. Besides, by their being at liberty, they are enabled to take a part in the business of the world; to manage domestic affairs, which are there regarded as their peculiar province; and to bear an almost equal part in the adventures of life, and thus to render themselves objects of esteem, when their personal attractions
• Another circumstance highly favourable to the influence of the fair sex, in moderate climates, is, that in them their beauty and understanding accompany each other; so that a woman is at the fame time an object of passion and of respect. This circumstance, joined to that of their being but one object, (polygamy not being practised) and of consequence the hopes of offspring depending on her only, inhances much their consequence in fociety: and of course tends to render the manners of the other sex such as are agreeable to them ; that is, attentive, polished, and elegant.
• In Asia, the case is directly the reverse; the women are there fecluded from conversation with the other sex, and are regarded chiefly in the light of an obje&t for the gratification of pallion ; and even this regard is divided among a humber. Their beauty is tranfient, their manners disposed to be profligate, and their minds uncultivated; they bear no part in the affairs of life, and are esteemed to be in an inferior station in point of rank; confequently, they can neither be objects of respect, esteem, or rational attachment. No wonder then, that the other sex should he little disposed to cultivate a mode of behaviour adapted to their inclinations. In very cold countries, the fair sex, though under no restraint in point of personal confinement, are, as I have before remarked, but little respected ; and of consequence their intercourse with the other sex has but little effect
the manIn Russia, until of late years, they were held to be scarcely superior to domestic servants; were accustomed to be beaten, at the pleasure of their husbands ; and even the sign of espousal itself, was an instrument of chastisement. By communication with other nations, this brutality is in a great measure worn off; and Russia, in consequence, rises in the esteem and respect of Europe : enough, however, is yet left to thew the natural disposition of the people.
Some respectable writers have attributed this situation of the female sex in cold climates, to the rude state of the people, but without reason. Our ancestors, the ancient Germans, whose country, though cold, was not extreme in degree, held the fair sex in the highest estimation, and even veneration; and the same is the case with the savage nations in some of the more temperate climates of America.'
Dr. Falconer afterwards considers the influence of climate upon the intellectual faculties; and treats first of a hot cliInate ; beginning with observations on literature. He observes, that the same causes which influence the disposition and manners, have also a proportionable effect upon the intel
lects. The great characteristic of the inhabitants of hot climates is sensibility; the influence of which extends to the mental powers. Hence, our author observes, the fruits of fancy and imagination have always abounded most in the South; in support of which remark, he produces several authorities : but that the severer studies, and such as require diligence and perseverance, as well as genius and sensibility, have been less successful in hot climates.
The author next examines the effects of a hot climate on the intellectual faculties, with respect to inventions and arts. The sensibility and vivid imagination of hot climates, he remarks, have been favourable to suggesting discoveries ; and this he endeavours to evince by a variety of examples.
In the subsequent chapter, Dr. Falconer traces the effect of a cold climate on the intellectual faculties, in regard to literature and the arts; and in the sixteenth, he pursues the same enquiry, relative to a temperate climate. He observes, that the inhabitants of temperate climates, of Europe especially, have far excelled the rest of the world in almost every article of literature ; and that, though we allow to hot climates the priority in most inventions, yet, that the application and improvement of discoveries is due in a much superior degree to temperate climates..
In the six chapters immediately succeeding, Dr. Falconer considers the influence of climate upon laws, customs, the form of government, and religion ; in accounting for the various modifications of all which, he has recourse to the different degrees of sensibility, that distinguish the inhabitants of hot, of cold, and of temperate climates.
After treating of those subjects, the author mentions the in- , fluence of the properties and qualities of the air, which he had hitherto only confidered in respect of its temperature. But he observes that the air may affect us by other means, viz. by its weight, and peculiar impregnations. Of the latter, however, our knowlege is too imperfect to admit of much observation.
In the second book, consisting of four chapters, the author treats of the influence of situation and extent of a country ; which, as well as its climate, is supposed to have some effect in several of the respects above mentioned. The third book, containing five chapters, is employed in explaining the influence of the nature of the country itself; and the fourth book, comprehending two chapters, is devoted to the inAuence of population. The author endeavours to fhew, that the greater or smaller number of inhabitants in a country, in proportion to its extent, is an active cause in influencing
the people. But not being guided in this enquiry by such fixed and determinate principles, as admit of a clear and systematic elucidation, we must refer our readers, for what the author advances on this subject, to the work itfelf. The fifth book, containing likewise two chapters, is employed on the influence of diet. From this book, we shall select what the author advances relative to the use of tea.
• Tea appears, from the best experiments, to produce sedative effects upon the nerves, diminishing their energy, and the tone of the muscular fibres, and inducing a considerable degree, both of sensibility and irritability, upon the whole system. It also promotes the thinner evacuations very powerfully, and diminishes the fiesh and buik of those who use it. These effects tend to impair the strength, and promote the other consequences of it upon the nervous system above described. Hence the use of tea has been found very agreeable to the studious, especially those engaged in the composition of works of genius and imagination, and hence is emphatically styled the poet's friend. But, on the other hand, I believe that, at least with us, it has had the effect of enfeebling and enervating the bodies of our people, and of introducing several disorders that arise from laxity and debility ; and has been of fill more consequence in making way for the use of fpirituous liquors, which are often taken to relieve that depression which tea occasions.
From these effects of tea, I cannot but think that its consequences, on the whole, have been highly prejudicial. It evidently injures the health, and, by the consequences last mentioned, tends to corrupt the morals of the people: and, in my opinion, by the effects it produces upon the nerves, contributes to abate courage, vigour, and steadiness of mind: circumstances surely of themselves sufficient to discredit its use, with those who are engaged in any situation of life that requires exertion and resolution. Perhaps, however, in the hot climates of China and India, the use of this liquor may not be so prejudicial as in the colder oncs ;
there tend to abate the weariness occafioned by heat, and, as a grateful diluent, promote the thinner evacuations ; which possibly may, hy causing it to pass off quickly, counteract, in some measure, its bad efects. But the noxious qualities of this plant are not unknown even in its native coun. tries. The Japanese are subject to the diabetes, and to confumptive disorders resembling the atrophy, from its ufe; and the Chinese, it is faid, are fo fenfible of these consequences, that they rarely drink green tea at all, which is the most remarkable for these effects. Perhaps the diminutive stature, and cowardly, and at the same time acute and tricking disposition of the Chinese, may be owing, in no small degree, to the use of this vegetable.'
The subject of the fixth book, which occupies almost the half of the volume, is the influence of way of life. In treat
ing upon mankind.
iug of this subject, the author confines himself, in general, to the various degrees of civilisation among mankind; adding, however, some remarks on the different occupations and modes of living, that usually occur in the progress of improvement. The first chapter treats of the influence of a savage state ; the second, of the influence of a barbarous state, or way of life,
The latter state the author distinguishes from the former by some particular circumstances, which it is unnecessary for us to mention. The third chapter delineates the effects of a life of agriculture upon mankind; the fourth, the effects of a commercial life ; the fifth, the effects of literature and science; and the fixth, the effects of luxury and refinement.
On a theory fo extensive as that which Dr. Falconer has attempted to elucidate, many are the arguments supported by satisfactory observations ; but numerous, likewise, must be those which are entirely conjectural, and are indebted for their origin only to the ingenuity of the writer. He has, however, treated this curious fubject, of the influence of cliinate, with great plausibility; and, thcugh we cannot always agree with him in opinion, in respect to the efficacy of the causes which he assigns, we acknowlege that he, in general, applies with judgment the various facts collected for the eitablishment of his doctrines; and he discovers an extent of enquiry, which must place his industry in the most favourable point of view,
The Beauties of Spring. A Poem. 4to. 35.
E do not know a more unfortunate circumstance for
young author, especially an anonymous one, than an injudicious title to his performance. If the greatest genius of the present age should produce a very excellent epic poem, and name it Paradise Lost, he would not perhaps receive more for the copy than Milton did for his immortal work on the same subject; and the dramatist who should write a good tragedy on the story of Lear, or Macbeth, would hardly obtain a third night. We are much afraid that the author of the Poem before us has taken a great deal of pains to very
little purpose. The beauties of spring have already been so amply defcribed, and so nobly treated by Thomson, that few readers will bring themselves to imagine that any other writer can treat this subject with equal force, elegance, and propriety.-The poem, 'notwithstanding, though it is too long, has many fine passages, and is, undoubtedly, the work of a very able writer. The language throughout is pure, the senti
ments natural, and the numbers harmonious. The following description, from the ancient and well-known monarchy of the bees, is full of fine imagery, and is written fo much in the style and manner of the author of the Seasons, that it might, perhaps, without injustice, be ascribed to him.
Thrice noble race ! who in small room possess
The filmy wing in many a short essay.