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to the fleet, and a ftipend from the citizens for giving lectures in botany. The biographer obferves, that the establishment of the Royal Academy of Sciences at Stockholm, of which Linnæus was appointed the first president, served not a little to favour the advancement of his fame, by the opportunity which it afforded of displaying his abilities. In 1741, upon the resignation of Roberg, he was constituted joint professor of phyfic, and physician to the king, with Rofen, who had been appointed the preceding year.
Dr. Pulteney afterwards gives an account of the Iter Oelandicum & Gotlandicum, Iter Scanicum, Flora Suecica, Fauna Suecica, Materia Medica, and Philofophia Botanica ; the history and nature of which works he briefly explains.
In 1755, Linnæus was, honoured with a gold medal by the Royal Academy of Sciences of Stockholm, for a paper on the subject of promoting agriculture, and all branches of rural oeconomy; and in 1760, he obtained premium from the Imperial Academy of Sciences at Petersburg, for a paper relative to the doctrine of the fexes of plants.
The author of the General View, afterwards gives a large analysis of the Systema Natura, and of the Genera Morborum; with a short account of the papers written by Linnæus, in the Asta Upsaliensia. The last of this great man's treatises was the Mantisa Altera, published in 1771.
We are told that Linnæus, upon the whole, enjoyed a good constitution ; but that he was sometimes severely afilicted with a hemicrania, and was not exempted from the gout. About the close of 1776, he was seized with an apoplexy, which left him paralytic; and at the beginning of the year, 1777, he suffered another stroke,' which very much impaired his mental powers. But the disease supposed to have been the more immediate cause of his death, was an ulceration of the urinary bladder; of which, after a tedious indisposition, he died on the 11th of January, 1778, in the 71st year of his age.
• In the commemoration-speech, delivered by Dr. Bæck, phyfician to the king of Sweden, Linnæus's ftature is described as being “ diminutive; his head large ; his look ardent, piercing, and apt to daunt the beholder. His ear not sensible to mulc; his temper quick; his memory good, though in the latter period of his life liable to fail him fometimes; his knowlege of languages confined, yet no interesting discovery escaped him. In summer he used to sleep from ten to three o'clock, in winter from nine to fix, and instantly to cease from his labours when he found himself not well disposed for them. He was an agreeable companions, of quick sensibility, but easily appeased." Vol. LII. Sept. 1781.
The remaining part of the volume contains an account of the Amoenitates Academicæ ; with observations, tending to shew the utility of botanical knowledge in relation to agriculture, and the feeding of cattle : accompanied with a translation of Linnæus's Pan Suecus, accommodated to the English plants, with references to authors, and to figures of the plants.
In this volume, Dr. Pulteney has given such a detail of the various works of the celebrated naturalist, as must not only render them more generally known, but afford the fatisfaction of tracing the progress of that illustrious philosopher through his different researches and improvements, in the fciences which he cultivated. Judicious observations are likewise frequently interspersed in the work; and the whole, we doubt not, will prove both acceptable and useful to those who take delight in the pleasant pursuits of natural history...
A Tour through Monmouthshire and Wales. By Henry Penruddocke Wyndham. The Second Edition. 4to.
il. in boards. Wilkie. FROM a very small size, this Tour is now enlarged to a
quarto volume ; not by means of dull and frivolous narrative, as is too frequently the case in the recital of travels, but by defcriptions of what are curious, and remarks of what are interesting to a reader desirous of information.
The author gives the following account of coracles, a fingular fort of boats used in some parts of Caermarthenshire.
• They are generally 5 feet long, and 4 broad; their bottom is a little rounded, and their shape ncarly oval. These boats are ribbed with light laths or split twigs, in the manner of basket work, and are covered with a raw hide, or strong canvas, pitched in such a inode as to prevent their leaking. A seat crosses just above the centre, towards the broader end. They seldom weigh more than between 20 and 30 pounds. The men paddle them with one hand, while they fish with the other; and when their work is completed, they throw the coracles over their thoulders, and, without difficulty, return with them home.'
We are told that the neighbourhood of Haverfordwest claims the merit of having practised inoculation of the small-pox before it was even known to the other counties of Britain ; for while the London physicians, on the recommendation of Lady Mary Wortley Montague, were cautiously trying the experiment on some condemned criminals, the more hardy native of Pemibrokeshire dared to inoculate himself, without the assistance of pither physician or preparation. In order to procure the distemDer, they either rubbed the variolous matter, taken from ripe puftules, on several parts of the skin ; or pricked the skin with
needles, needles, previously infected. They called this buying the smallpox, as it was the custom to purchase the matter from each other.
We shall present our readers with the subsequent account of the Welch horses.
• The little horses, which we employed in this expedition, were exceedingly hạrdy, and possessed a strength much superior to their appearances. They would constantly travel with heavy burdens forty miles a day, even without the assistance or refreshment of a single feed of corn. A horse, that did not appear equal to more than eight or nine stone, sometimes carried all our baggage in a fort of panniers, with our postman riding between them; and though his flesh lay like furrows between his ribs, and his back was as sharp as a wedge, yet he pursued his stages, with the weight of at least thirty stone, without stop or fatigue. These horses are no sooner disengaged from their saddles, than they are turned into a common pasture for the night; no consideration being had, either to the , weather, or to their journey, or to their heat, which might have arisen from it.
• Every inn in the country is provided with a paddock for this purpose ; and lest any accident should happen to the mares in this common field, where horses, as well as geldings, are promiscuously admitted : the people have a custom to modrwy y calleg, that is, to ring the mares, which they perform with a small leather thong, and which, preventing all mischievous intercourse, intimates a fimilar prohibition to that of the padlock among the jealous Spaniards.'
The condition of the inhabitants about Conway is reprefented as extremely deplorable.
• Their habitations, says the traveller, are low, mud-built ho. vels, raised over the natural earth, which is as deficient in point of level within, as without. Notwithstanding the severity of the climate, the windows are frequently deftitute of a single piece of glazing. If the inhabitants wish to enjoy the light, they must at the same time suffer the cold : they wear neither shoes nor stockings, and chiefly subfist upon the coarse dier of rank cheese, oat bread, and milk. Such penury anticipates old age, and I have seen persons of forty, from their decrepid and wrinkled features, appear, as if they had passed their grand climacteric. A melancholy dejection is spread over their countenances, which are strangers to the smiles of chearfulness and pleasure.
• If we carry our observations to the inountains, we shall find, among those dreary wastes, a poverty fill more extreme than below; in many of those parishes a grain of wheat has never been seen; even the cheap luxury of garden greens is unknown ; and according to the strong expreísion of a lowland Welshman, there are hundreds of families, who have never tasted a leek. They continue in the same unimproved state, as in the time of Giraldus, who thus describes them ; They neither live in towns, in streets, nor in camps. It is not their custom to erect grand palaces, nor large and superfluous buildings of stone and mortar. They are otherwise content with roofs of thatch, fufficient from year to year, and
which will answer all their purposes, with as little labour as ex. pence. They are ignorant of the luxuries of either orchards or gardens."
• Notwithstanding this apparent misery, we cannot pronouncē these mountaineers miserable; if content be happiness, they are certainly happy : they are all equally poor, and while poverty is not particular, it cannot be considered as a misfortune. They are obuft, healthy, and live to a great age, and as they are ignozant of those many refinements, which civilized luxury has, taught us to consider as neceffaries of life, they have therefore no want of them, there is
“ No craving void left aching in their breast." For this reason, we see mirth and chcarfulness, united with poverty, in the most humble cot upon the highlands, when a smaller degree of poverty has spread a discontented gloom, over the whole face of the lowlands. All happiness is by comparison ; 'fo these lower people are comparatively miserable: for they are tantalized with appetites which they cannot gratify, while they behold with envy, many pleasures enjoyed by others, which partial nature has forbidden them even to hope for.
But how happens it, that they should not attempt to relieve their wants by alking charity ? for, I believe this is the only country in Europe, in which the traveller can escape the folicitations of such abject wretches. If there was any neglect in the execution of the poor laws, beggary must be the consequence : 'or, if it was common, (as, however incredible it
may appear, I was tell informed) for these miferable beings to hoard up froin the scanty profits of their daily labour, and starve themselves to indulge their avarice; we should think, they would then naturally apply to charity in order to gratify that paffion. We must have recourse to the first principle of this country to resolve the question ; it has been observed, that this barbarous mode of life has continued for a long succession of generations, and, probably, the present may find come comfort in the reflection, of living as well as their ancestors; and perhaps, it is as difficult to make a nation, fo bigotted to opinion as the Welsh is, change the smallest article in their manners, (however beneficial it might be to them,) as it would be to force them to abolish their dress, or their language.'. : This volume is. ornamented with a number of plates well engraved.
Remarks on the Influence of Climate, &c. on the Disposition and
Temper, &c. of Mankind. [Concluded from p. 107.) IN the eleventh chapter, the author considers the effects of a
warm climate upon manners and behaviour. He remarks, that warm climates have been long ago observed to be earlier, and more completely civilized, than cold ones ; but he is of opinion that this politeness has always consisted in the obfervance of certain fixed and stated ceremonials, adapted to
the situation and character of the people. A circumstance no less observable, refpecting the manners of the people of hot climates, is their immutability. Montesquieu, who has attempted to account for this principle, assigns, as one reason for it, the high degree of sensibility which a hot climate na: turally inspires, and which is almost constantly joined to an indolence of mind, connected with that of the body. An. other reason is derived from tbe nature of the government, which in such countries is generally despotic. But perhaps the most powerful cause of this immutability, as the author observes, is the confinement of the women. Whatever cause we admit, it is highly probable, that the uniformity of manners contributes not a little to preserve the mode of government unchanged.
The next chapter treats of the influence of a cold climate on the manners. The author observes, that the manners of the northern nations, compared with those of warm climates, appear rough and austere. Their address is usually blunt and unpolished, and they have few ceremonials to regulate their behaviour. This character results from the temper of the people, who are endowed with little sensibility, are of a bold and resolute spirit, and accustomed to strong bodily exertions. It is also observed, that the manners of cold climates are much less permanent and uniform than those of the opposite temperature.
In the fucceeding chapter, the author takes a view of the effect of temperate climates upon the manners. For what the author advances on this subje&t, we shall have recourse to the work.
· Politeness and elegance of behaviour have always attained to the greatest perfection in temperate climates : this has been owing in some measure to the greater periction of arts in general, But I apprehend, that the disposition of the people to activity, joined with a degree of sensibility; and a government with some Thare of liberty, and which consequently admits of a free communication of sentiment, are the principal reasons.
• The last of these, as far as relates to a free intercourse of company and conversation between the sexes, is perhaps the most active cause of any, and fublists only in moderate climates ; the female sex, in cold ones, being disregarded, and in hot ones, being in a state of confinement. While in Alia the fair fex are confidered only as a poffeffion, in Europe they are objects' of tenderness, esteem, and rational attachment. This inspires a habit of attentive and respectful behaviour; their beauty excites admiration and love ; and even their very weakness adds force to their influence, under the idea of delicacy. Generosity prevents' oppression, where there can be no resultance; and roufés valour and gallantry in their defence. Whatever they say is heard with peculiar attention; and even their foibles are construed into per