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ments of the court, hoped that former distinctions would now be abolished. Even the circumstance of the king's being a native of this country, contributed not a little to his popularity. This, in itself, to a thinking inind, will appear a matter of no great moment; and especially when it is considered, that some of our best princes have been of foreign birth. . However, in the enthufiasm naturally attendant on a new reign, it was likely to have its effect; and accordingly, it was artfully enough laid hold of, to captivate the minds of the people. The language, used by his majesty in his speech to his parliament, “ born and educated in this country, I glory in the name of Briton,” though it might almost seem to convey a reflection on our preceding monarchs, was repeated in rapture through the land; and was echoed back to the throne in many of the addresses which, according to custom, are presented from every quarter, on a fresh succession to the crown.
• The instant of the king's accession was distinguished by the carl of Bute's being sworn of the privy council, in conjunction with his royal highness the duke of York. This, perhaps, was no more than what might be expected, and, indeed, what ought to be done, from the station which his lordship had held, as groom of the stole, about his majesty's perfon, when prince of Wales. Nevertheless, fpeculative men would attend to it; and others would be looking up to a nobleman, who had been always understood to have great influence at Leicester-house, and who would probably arise to the plenitude of power.
" The first proceedings of the new reign:did not indicate any great purposes of change in the measures of government. The king declared his refolution of prosecuting the war with vigour, and of supporting his allies ; and public affairs continued apparently to be managed by Mr. Pitt, in connection with the duke of Newcaitle and his party. The only considerable alterations that happened were the displacing of the earl of Holdernesse, in a few inonths, to make room for lord Bute's being introduced into the responsible office of secretary of state; and the removal of Mr. Legge, from the posts of under-treasurer and chancellor of the exchequer. The dismission of Mr. Legge, who was an excellent minister of finance, and in high esteem with the public, gave oca cafion to some speculation and dissatisfaction. It was imputed, at the time, though without any just ground, to foine disputes having arisen between him and Mr. Pitt concerning the supplies. neceffary for the service of the year. The real cause of his removal was the disgust he had excited at Savile-house in the preceding reign, by refusing to resign his own pretentions to the representation of the county of Hants, in order to give way to fir Simeon Stuart. This sacrifice had been urged upon him by lord Bute, supported by the authority of the prince of Wales; and when the transaction came to be known, it was much infifted upon as an indication of a disposition not favourable to Whiggism.
• Not long after his majesty's accession, a bill was passed which
very popular, and honourable to government; and that was, the act for extending the independence of the judges. The king himfelf went to the house, and in a speech to his parliament, recommended the consideration of this object. It had been enacted, in the reign of William the Third, that the judges should hold their commissions during their good behaviour; a wise provifion, which prevented their being removeable, as had heretofore been the case at the will of the sovereign. However it was still understood that their offices were determined at the demise of the crown, or at the expiration of fix months afterwards. By the present bill, their commissions were rendered perpetual, during their good behaviour, notwithitanding any such demise. We have reason to believe that Sir Michael Foster, at that time one of the justices of the King's Bench, and a gentleman of eminent legal abilities, considered this act as unnecessary ; it being his opinion that the design of it was virtually included in the act of King William. But, upon the whole, it was thought better, and we imagine wifely, that the matter should be settled by express statute.
The many arrangements and regulations that necessarily take place on a new reign, and the public ceremonies to which it gives birth, serve to excite the attention, and even to increase the loyalty and affection of the people. Besides the common circumfances which contributed to the splendor of his majesty's acceffion to the crown, this splendor was not a little increased by his marriage. It was an event, likewise, in itself fingularly happy. The invariably excellent character of the queen, whilst it hath secured the king's personal felicity, hath obtained for her the univerfal esteem of the nation; and the numerous race of princes and princesses with which the royal nuptials have been blessed, will, we trust, add ornament and support to the throne, and afford farther stability to the general welfare. The admirable pattern set by their majesties in private life cannot be too greatly applauded. Whatever may be thought of the administration of public affairs, every friend to his country must regret, that such an example of good order, fidelity, virtue, and domestic harmony, hath been so little followed by those who ought to have looked up to it with reverence and emulation,
• Whilst the attention of the court was so much employed by the marriage and coronation of the king and queen, and by other objects of ceremony and regulation, the great national concerns were not neglected. The war under the auspices of Mr. Pitt, was carried on with its usual vigour; though the events of 1761, were not altogether so splendid as those which had taken place in the two preceding years. Belleifle, the largest of the islands. belonging to the French king in Europe, was taken ; and the rea duction of Pondicherry álmost totally destroyed the power of that monarch in the East Indies. In the West Indies, Dominica was added to the acquisitions we had already made in that part of the world.
• But, notwithstanding the success of our arms, the restoration of peace began to be a very desirable object. The large expences of the hostilities carried on by us in different quarters
of the globe were felt by the public; though the amazing extent and prosperity of our commerce rendered them far less burthen. fome than they would otherwise have been. The drains of men and money occasioned by the German war and our continental connections, were particularly complained of; and by degrees excited much disfatisfaction. The inconsistency of Mr. Pitt's conduct, in this respect, with his former professions, became a frequent topic of declamation ; and it was urged in so powerful a manner, as to make a deep impression on the minds of great numbers of persons. In 1761, the belligerent powers appeared sincerely desirous of coming to an accommodation. Accordingly, a negociation was opened between England and France ; for which purpose Mr. Hans Stanley was sent to Paris, and Monsieur Buffy came to London. At first the prospect of terminating the war was very favourable ; but, in the course of the negociation, fresh difficulties continually arose, which, at length, occasioned it to be entirely broken off. It is observable, that in the terms of peace prescribed by Mr. Pitt, he did not wholly exclude the French from North America. Louisiana was still to continue in their poffeffion. Whether this was owing to that great man's fuperior fagacity, or to whatever cause, every friend to his country must regret that the treaty which was afterwards concluded, was not constructed on the same principles; as those calamitous events would in all probability have thereby been prevenied, which have fince shaken the British empire to its foundations.
• It appeared, in a little time, that the war, instead of being put an end to, was likely to become more extenfive. During the late negociation, Spain had displayed an evident partiality in favour of France; and, indeed, had interfered in a manner which afforded just cause of offence to the English court.
The famous family compact was now forming, which hath been attended with consequences fo hoftile to Great Britain. Mr. Pitt, who had the fullest conviction and intelligence of the designs of the Spanish crown against us, insisted upon an immediate declaration of war against that crown. But in this he was opposed by all the cabinet council, excepting his brother-in-law, Earl Temple. The measure was deemed too bold and precipitate ; and it was understood that even the king himself, if his council had agreed to it, would have found it extremely difficult to con fent to their resolution. Mr. Pitt, being thus counteracted in a matter of such great consequence, refigned his post of secretary of state, and was succeeded by Lord Egremont. At his refignation, he was prevailed upon to accept a pension of three thou. sand pounds a year, and a peerage for his lady. Nothing was Vol. LII. Aug. 1781.
ever better merited than this penfion; and
the acceptance of it was injurious to his popularity.'
From the various merit, and judicious plan of this work, we entertain the most favourable expectations of its being well received by the public.
P Q E T R Y.
The American War, a Poem ; in Six Books. 8vo. 45. fewed.
American war, Reviewers have too much cause to lament the multiplicity of bad productions, both in verse and prose, which it has occasioned. The poem before us consists of no less than fix tedious books, and makes one large octavo volume. Every transaction is here faithfully recorded, and every battle and skirmish minutely described; though there is not, at the same time, a page worth reading, or a line worth repeating, throughout the whole. We will give our readers a Mort specimen, which, we dare say, they will think long enough, of this perforinance.
$ More than one hour a solemn silence reign'd;
Tho' from their fcoppers to the briny tide,
Which storm to thun, we from our quarters fly!' No part of this poem, (for we have toiled through it all) is better than the lines above quoted. Is it not astonishing that any man fo totally void of all poetical abilities as the author of the American War,, could ever prevail on himself to publish such intolerable jargon? A Descriptive Poem, written in the West Indies. By George
2. Dodfley. If any of our readers be fond of that species of writing,
• Where smooth description holds the place of sense, we recommend to them the perufal of this poem, in which all the peculiar phænomena, birds, plants, beatis, &c. of the Weftern world are accurately delineated. It may afford some instruction to the curious investigator of nature, but will not give much entertainment to a lover of the Muses, as the following specimen will sufficiently convince the impartial critic.
• To thee, Flamingo, in descriptive course,
And some with sable blue, and red-caped crown.'
may, for ought we know, be a very just and exact de. scription of these extraordinary birds ; but the whole would perhaps found full as well in plain prose, especially as the lines have nothing in them very pleasing or poetical –We have afterwards a minute account of the millepedes, tarantula, saw-fly, fire-fly, and twenty other wonderful infects.- Walk in, ladies and gentlemen, and see them all for the small price of two shillings; and if you are not satisfied with our author's description, and willi to view the originals, you have only to ftep into a velel and crofs the Atlantic.