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own natural gait: they have not learned the dialect of Persia, but have wholly forgotten that of their ancestors. A very considerable
of the old Tartarian language, which in Asia would probably have been lost, is happily preserved in Europe ; and, if the groundwork of the western Turkish, when separated from the Persian and Arabick, with which it is embellished, be a branch of the lost Oghúzian tongue, I can assert with confidence, that it has not the least resemblance either to Arabick or Sanferit, and muft have been invented by a race of men wholly
distinct from the Arabs or Hindus. This fact | alone oversets the system of M. BAILLY, who considers the Sanscrit, of which he gives in several places a moft erroneous account, as a fine
monument of his primeval Scythians, the precep• tors of mankind and planters of a sublime pbi• lofophy even in India ;' for he holds it an incontestable truth, that a language, which is dead, supposes a nation, which is destroyed; and he seems to think such reasoning perfectly decisive of the question, without having recourse to astronomical arguments or the spirit of ancient institutions : for my part, I desire no better proof than that, which the language of the Brábmans affords, of an immemorial and total difference between the Savages of the Mountains, as the old
Chinese juftly called the Tartars, and the studious, placid, contemplative inhabitants of these Indian plains.
II. The geographical reasoning of M. BAILLY may, perhaps, be thought equally shallow, if not inconsistent in some degree with itself. 'adoration of the sun and of fire, says he, must
necessarily have arisen in a cold region : there'fore, it must have been foreign to India, Per'fia, Arabia; therefore, it must have been de• rived from Tartary. No man, I believe, who has travelled in winter through Babàr, or has even passed a cold season at Calcutta within the tropick, can doubt that the solar warmth is often desirable by all, and might have been considered as adorable by the ignorant, in these climates, or that the return of spring deserves all the salutations, which it receives from the Persian and Indian poets ; not to rely on certain historical evidence, that ANTARAH, a celebrated warriour and bard, actually perished with cold on a mountain of Arabia. To meet, however, an objection, which might naturally be made to the voluntary settlement, and amazing population, of his primitive race in the icy regions of the north, he takes refuge in the hypothesis of M. BUFFON, who imagines, that our whole globe was at first of a white heat, and has been gradually cooling from the poles to the equator; so that the Hy
perborean countries had once a delightful temperature, and Siberia itself was even botter than the climate of our temperate zones, that is, was in too hot a climate, by his first proposition, for the primary worship of the sun. That the temperature of countries has not sustained a change in the lapse of ages, I will by no means insist; but we can hardly reason conclusively from a variation of temperature to the cultivation and diffusion of science: if as many female elephants and tigresses, as we now find in Bengal, had formerly littered in the Siberian forests, and if their young, as the earth cooled, had fought a genial warmth in the climates of the south, it would not follow, that other favages, who migrated in the same direction and on the fame account, brought religion and philosophy, language and writing, art and science, into the fouthern latitudes.
We are told by ABU"LGHA'zi, that the primitive religion of human creatures, or the pure adoration of One Creator, prevailed in Tartary during the first generations from YA'ket, but was extinct before the birth of Oghu'z, who restored it in his dominions; that, fome ages after him, the Mongals and the Turcs relapsed into gross idolatry; but that CHENGIZ was a Theist, and, in a conversation with the Mubammedan Doctors, admitted their arguments for
the being and attributes of the Deity to be unanswerable, while he contested the evidence of their Prophet's legation. From old Grecian authorities we learn, that the Massagetæ worSuipped the sun; and the narrative of an embassy from Justin to the Khákàn, or Emperor, who then resided in a fine vale near the source of the Irtish, mentions the Tartarian ceremony of purifying the Roman Ambassadors by conducting them between two fires: the Tartars of that age are represented as adorers of the four elements, and believers in an invisible spirit, to whom they facrificed bulls and rams.
Modern travellers relate, that, in the festivals of some Tartarian tribes, they pour a few drops of a consecrated liquor on the statues of their Gods; after which an attendant sprinkles a little of what remains three times toward the south in honour of fire, toward the west and east in honour of water and air, and as often toward the north in honour of the earth, which contained the reliques of their deceased ancestors : now all this may be very true, without proving a national affinity between the Tartars and Hindus ; for the Arabs adored the planets and the powers of nature, the Arabs had carved images, and made libations on a black stone, the Arabs turned in prayer to different quarters of the heavens; yet we know with certainty, that the Arabs are a distinct race from the Tartars; and we might as well infer, that they were the same people, because they had each their Nomades, or wanderers for pafture, and because the Turcmans, described by IBNU ARABS H'AH and by him called Tátár's, are, like most Arabian tribes, pastoral and warlike, hospitable and generous, wintering and summering on different plains, and rich in herds and flocks, horses and camels; but this agreement in manners proceeds from the similar. nature of their several deserts and their similar choice of a free rambling life, without evincing a community of origin, which they could scarce have had without preserving some remnant at least of a common language.
Many Lamas, we are assured, or Priests of BUDDHA, have been found settled in Siberia ; but it can hardly be doubted, that the Lamas had travelled thither from Tibet, whence it is more than probable, that the religion of the Bauddha's was inported into southern, or Chinese, Tartary; since we know, that rolls of Tibetian writing have been brought even from the borders of the Caspian. The complexion of Buddha himself, which, according to the Hindus, was between white and ruddy, would perhaps have convinced M. BAILLY, had he known the Indian tradition, that the last great legislator and God of the East was a Tartar ;