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ایا کمکی جہی خواہش پا روسيا جلب زخم بی شمشیر نیري پرسيامي بان بہت سے ان کی تو ان سی رنکس نوسيني

Muddaîè hemsè fokhan sáz bi sálúsì baà ab tai2017à yelbàn mazoedei máyust ban áh ab cafrati déghi gbemi kbúbán temàm s'afb'aï sínah mérà jilwaï t'áúsì baż baì mérì l'arah jigar knúni térd muddatsè b’innà ciscà tuj khwábishi pábúsì baż awaži derd mezè wah bherè bain súrè jis lebi zakbam ne shemshiri téri chúsì hai tohmati isbk ábas carte bain mujhper Minnat bán yely fecb milne kbubàn tủ tục kbusbat.

The Translation.

1. My beloved foe speaks of me with disfimulation ; and now the tidings of despair are brought hither to the desire of

my

foul. . 2. Alas, that the smooth surface of through the marks of burning in the fad absence of lovely youths, is become like the plumage

of a peacock.

my bosom, , 3. Like me, O Hinnà (the fragrant and elegant shrub, with the leaves of which the nails of Arabian women are dyed crimson), thy heart has long been full of blood : whose foot art thou desirous of kissing ?

4. Instead of pain, my beloved, every wound from thy cimeter sucks with its lips the sweetness, with which it is filled.

5. The suspicion of love is vainly cast on MINNAT-Yes; true it is, that my nature rather leads me to the company of beautiful youths.

Thus have I explained, by observations and examples, my method of noting in Roman letters the principal languages of Asia; nor can I doubt, that Armenian, Turkish, and the various dialects of Tartary, may be expressed in the same manner with equal advantage; but, as Chinese words are not written in alphabetical characters, it is obvious, that they must be noted according to the best pronunciation used in China; which has, I imagine, few sounds incapable of being rendered by the symbols used in this essay.

ON

THE GODS OF GREECE, ITALY, AND

INDIA,

WRITTEN IN 1784, AND SINCE REVISED,

BY

THE PRESIDENT.

We cannot justly conclude, by arguments preceding the proof of facts, that one idolatrous people must have borrowed their deities, rites, and tenets from another; since Gods of all shapes and dimensions may be framed by the boundless powers of imagination, or by the frauds and follies of men, in countries never connected; but, when features of resemblance, too strong to have been accidental, are observable in different systems of polytheism, without fancy or prejudice to colour them and improve the likeness, we can scarce help believing, that some connection has immemorially subsisted between the several nations, who have adopted them : 'it

my design in this essay, to point out such a resemblance between the popular worship of the old Greeks and Italians and that of the Hindus; nor can there be room to doubt of a great fimi.

is

larity between their strange religions and that of Egypt, China, Persia, Phrygia, Phænici, Syria; to which, perhaps, we may safely add some of the southern kingdoms and even islands of America ; while the Goihick system, which prevailed in the northern regions of Europe, was not merely similar to those of Greece and Italy, but almost the same in another dress with an embroidery of images apparently Asiatick. From all this, if it be satisfactorily proved, we may infer a general union or affinity between the most distinguished inhabitants of the primitive world, at the time when they deviated, as they did too early deviate, from the rational adoration of the only true God.

There seem to have been four principal sources of all mythology. I. Historical, or natural, truth has been perverted into fable by ignorance, imagination, flattery, or stupidity; as a king of Crete, whose tomb had been discovered in that island, was conceived to have been the God of Olympus, and Minos, a legislator of that country, to have been his son, and to hold a supreme appellate jurisdiction over departed fouls; hence too probably flowed the tale of CADMUS, as BOCHART learnedly traces it; hence beacons or volcanos became one-eyed giants and monsters vomiting flames; and two rocks, from their

appearance to mariners in certain positions, were

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supposed to crush all vessels attempting to pass between them; of which idle fictions many other instances might be collected from the Odysley and the various Argonautick poems. The less we say of Julian stars, deifications of princes or warriours, altars raised, with those of APOLLO, to the basest of men, and divine titles bestowed on such wretches as CAJUS OCTAVIANUS, the less we shall expose the infamy of grave senators and fine poets, or the brutal folly of the low multitude: but we may be assured, that the mad apotheosis of truly great men, or of little men falsely called great, has been the origin of gross idolatrous errors in every part of the pagan world. II. The next source of them appears to have been a wild admiration of the heavenly bodies, and, after a time, the systems and calculations of Astronomers : hence came a considerable portion of Egyptian and Grecian fable; the Sabian worship in Arabia; the Persian types and emblems of Mihr or the fun, and the far extended adoration of the elements and the powers of nature; and hence perhaps, all the artificial Chronology of the Chinese and Indians, with the invention of demigods and heroes to fill the vacant niches in their extravagant and imaginary periods. III. Numberless divinities have been created solely by the magick of poetry ;

whose essential business it is, to personify

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