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thousands of years. The Hindoo ever be sacred city of Benares. Humanly speaking, holds it in one peculiar aspect, as a place of were the city to abandon its idolatrous usages, spotless holiness and heavenly beauty, where and to embrace the gospel of Christ, the effect the spiritual eye may be delighted and the of such a step upon the Hindoo community heart may be purified; and his imagination has over the whole of India would be as great as been kept fervid from generation to genera- was that produced on the Roman empire tion by the continued presentation of this when Rome adopted the Christian faith. We glowing picture. Believing all he has read shall presently see what signs there are of and heard concerning this seat of ideal the coming of such a day. blessedness, he has been possessed with the The three missions which were established same longing to visit it as the Mahomedan in Benares, upwards of fifty years ago, conto visit Mecca, or the Jewish exile to visit tinue to the present time. Though encounJerusalem ; and having gratified his desire, tering opposition of a varied nature during has left the memory of his pious enterprise parts of this period, all direct opposition has to his children for their example, to incite long since ceased. The people have gradually them to undertake the same pilgrimage, come to regard the missions as permanent faithfully transmitting to them the high am- institutions of the city, to respect the motives bition which he himself received from his and aims of the missionaries, and to enterfathers. It would be difficult to count the tain for them sentiments of friendship and small shrines, the larger temples, and the esteem. The Rev. William Smith, who was sacred niches abounding in the city.; and it appointed to the Baptist mission in 1816, would be an impossibility to enumerate the and continued at his post for forty years, idols worshipped by the people, but they furnished a remarkable illustration of the certainly exceed the number of the people powerful influence which sanctity of life and themselves, though multiplied twice over. unwearied kindness exert upon the minds of You may sometimes see twenty, fifty, and Hindoos in subduing their prejudice, and even a hundred or more idols gathered to- in exciting their confidence and good-will. gether in one shrine or niche, many of which It is a well-known fact, that on occasion of a will receive as much homage as the god who great disturbance in the city, when the is exalted to the chief and most honourable English magistrate durst not expose himself seat. It should always be remembered that to the rage of the populace, on the approach the Hindoo is a religious man of very great of Mr. Smith the crowd parted, and allowed earnestness, but his religion takes the form him to pass harmlessly through. of idolatry. Idolatry enters into all the asso- Many kinds of Christian work have been ciations and concerns of his life. He can performed by the missions in Benares. Much take no step without it. He carries his has been done by them all in the way

of offerings publicly in the streets on his way preaching the gospel in the vernacular lanto the temple in the morning, and receives guages in the streets and bazaars of the city, upon his forehead, from the officiating priest, and in the neighbouring villages. Much the peculiar mark of his god, as the symbol has been done also by the agency of schools, of the worship he has paid him, which he in teaching the youth of both sexes the great wears all the day long. As he walks about truths of Christianity. The Baptist mission you may hear him muttering the names and has been mostly engaged in the former desounding the praises of his gods. In greet-partment of labour, namely, that of preaching a friend he accosts him in the name of a ing, although for many years it possessed deity. In a letter on business, or on any several useful schools, which were closed other matter, the first word he invariably twenty years ago, at the request of one of writes is the name of a god. Should he pro- the secretaries of the society, who thought pose an engagement of importance, he first that missionaries should devote their time inquires the pleasure of the idol, and a lucky and energies more especially to the direct day for undertaking it. In short, idolatry is proclamation of the Gospel. The other two a charm, a fascination, to the Hindoo. It is, missions, however, have always paid attenso to speak, the air he breathes; it is the tion to both branches of Christian effort. food of his soul; it is, alas ! the foundation The Church Society's Mission has taken a of his hopes, both for this world and for very distinguished part in promoting the another.

religious and intellectual welfare of the It was a day of much importance in the natives of Benares. It has ever had a conIristory of Christianity in India when mis- siderable staff of vernacular preachers, consionary operations were commenced in the sisting of missionaries and their native

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catechists, who have day by day expounded been in operation in their midst. the Truth to the people. It has a large exaggeration to affirm that native society in college of six hundred and fifty students, that city, especially among the better classes, Hindoos and Mahomedans, with a few is hardly the same thing that it was a few Christians, all of whom receive a sound years ago. An educated class has sprung Christian and secular education. This was into existence, which is little inclined to conestablished in the year 1817 by the Rev. Mr. tinue in the mental bondage of the past. Corrie, then Chaplain of Benares, afterwards the men composing it may be compared to Bishop Corrie of Madras. The mission has, the bud ready to burst into the blossom in addition, many schools for the education under the united influence of light and heat. of natives of both sexes; a large orphanage, The religion of idolatry, of sculptures, of in which more than a hundred children are sacred wells and rivers, of gross fetichism, of supported, and are trained in the Christian mythological representations of many-handed, faith; a normal institution, in which up- or many-headed, or many-bodied deities, is wards of forty native Christian girls are edu- losing, in their eyes, its romance. They cated, in order to become fitted to teach in yearn after a religion purer and better. the schools of this and other missions; an They want to know God as He is, not as infant school ; two native Christian villages, symbolized in these mystical associations. one for the residence of Christians in Benares, Education, therefore, resting on the sacred the other for those in the country who are Scriptures, has thus produced a revolution of farmers and agricultural labourers; a lace thought in their minds. In the Government manufactory, for the support of widows and college and schools of the city the Bible is other females of the mission; and two not permitted as a text-book; yet it is none Gothic churches, which are in the charge of the less true that the English education they two ordained native pastors. The London impart, by reason of the study of such books Society's Mission, while extensive in its as “Paradise Lost," and the like, which are range and operations, has never been in a suffused with Christian sentiments, is, in no position to attempt the multiform labours slight degree, of a Biblical character. Thus which the members of the Church Society it has come to pass that the light which prehave undertaken, and in prosecuting which cedes and accompanies conviction has been they have been so successful. It should be shed upon many minds in this seat of Hin-added that ladies in connection with two dooism. A new era of intellectual freedom other societies devote their time exclusively and religious life has already commenced. to giving instruction to native women and Of not a few it may be said, that “old things girls in the zenanas, or female apartments, have passed away;" and of the great mass of in the large houses of the city.

the inhabitants, that "all things are becoming Four native Christian communities are now new.” I believe very few indeed of the scattered about Benares and its suburbs, the educated class in Benares—that is, educated fruit of missionary labour, which hold their on the English model-are thorough and Sunday and week-day meetings for the wor-hearty idolaters; and I am satisfied that ship of God through Jesus Christ His Son in there is not one who does not hold Hindooas many churches and chapels. During the ism with a lighter and looser grasp than last twenty years the number of native Chris- formerly, or than would have been the case tians in the city has considerably more than had his mind not been expanded and benedoubled. The three missions had, in 1871, fited by the education he has received. He twenty-nine schools and colleges, with forty- knows too much to be an honest and a coneight native Christian teachers, and in these scientious idolater. He is beginning to be institutions two thousand two hundred and scandalised by idolatry, and also ashamed of twenty Hindoo and Christian scholars, male it. The fact is indisputable, that education, and female, received a good education based especially Christian education, de-Hindooises upon the Word of God. They had likewise the Hindoo, breaks down idolatry, and ina staff of nineteen native preachers or cate- spires him with a distaste for it and a latent chists, of whom three were ordained.

desire to be free from it. As I was conversThese results, however, are no proper ing one day with an educated native gentlecriterion of the great work which has been man of Benares, a near relative of the chief accomplished among the natives of Benares native prince of the city, he made a remark by the influence of Christian truth, of educa- of great significance, as showing the feeling tion, of just government, and of the general of men of his own class, attached by associacivilising elements which for many years have tion to idol-worship, and yet prepared for

something better, if only a movement were spacious stone stairs leading down to the commenced, and if some one of courage, of Ganges, and in the holy streams, with enthuforce of character, and of genuine enthusiasm, siasm and punctiliousness. Nevertheless, it would lead the way. “We need,” he said, “a is undoubted that there are thousands of perLuther among us;

as though he would say, sons in this city alone who, while accounted that under the guidance of a Martin Luther rigid Hindoos, and daily performing the he himself, with the rest, would break away customary rites, are altogether dissatisfied from Hindooism, and that all who were long- with them. In appearance, Christianity has ing for reform, who were ready to be iree, been more successful in many places in but not daring to be so, would rush eagerly India than in Benares; yet, when the pecuto the standard of such a man, and under his liar difficulties and antagonisms which exist leadership a new era of religious reformation in that city are taken into consideration, would be inaugurated in the land.

I believe it is not too much to say that It must not be imagined, however, that it has, in the aggregate, accomplished as the outward manifestations of Hindooism much there as in any city of the land. have undergone much change. The super. One thing is clear and certain, the Gospel stitious observances connected with it are there is sapping, rapidly and effectually, still kept up by the people generally, in the the foundations of the most powerful form temples, at the sacred wells and tanks, on the of idolatry.

THE LOVE OF MONEY THE ROOT OF ALL GOOD,
BY THE REV. A., K. H. BOYD, D.D., FIRST MINISTER OF ST. ANDREWS.

“For the love of money is the root of all evil.”—I TIM. vi. 10. THE THE first thing to be done is to make sure are not too many other roots of evil besides

what the text means. Some men, that; not implying, either, that nothing good trying to expound it, take the broad sense can remain in the man who values worldly which first meets the eye, that the love of wealth unduly. money is a thing standing by itself, so speci- I have never, till now, asked your attenally bad that it tends to lead people to every tion to this grave matter. It is a matter well kind of wrong feeling and doing. A root worthy of some thought. It is worth while, of a mischievous weed, in the vegetable if possible, to clear up our ideas as to what world (it has been said), springs up into only is the New Testament teaching in regard to one kind of evil. But so does the course of worldly wealth, and the desire for it. things in the moral world give an advantage Probably there is no subject on which a to what is wrong, that there one thing may greater quantity of exaggerated and insincere be named as the root of all evil.

nonsense has been talked and written by Several eminent scholars, startled by this good people than the message of Christianity statement, so sweeping and unrestricted, have as to money. I have read it in a discourse recently pointed out that the proper meaning by a good divine, who himself looked careof St. Paul's assertion is, that the love of fully, though not a whit too carefully, after money is not the root, but a root of all evil what some folk call the main chance, that one of many such-one of many tendencies money is not to be wished for by a Christian within us which may cach lead us to many man at all; that the only use of gold is to do wrong doings; it being understood, too, not what they do with it in heaven-trample it that literally all the evils there are spring under our feet ; that there is nothing God from the love of money, but that it may be, hates like a hoarding Christian—that is, a and in fact often is, the cause of many and Christian who tries to lay up a little store diverse evils. What St. Paul wrote, literally against a rainy day, a Christian who has an translated, is this: "For root of all the evils account at the savings bank; that God has is the love of money :" the saying being stood drunken Christians, lying Christians, almost a proverbial one, the like of it occur- unclean Christians, but that there is but one ring many times in the classic writers: a Bible instance of a hoarding Christian—to saying to be understood reasonably by men wit, Lot—and God burned him out of it. of common sense; not implying things Now, the result of that kind of teaching is, opposed to all our experience, as that the that the world, as some call it-meaning by love of money stands alone, and that there the phrase average sensible men-just

quietly put aside the teaching of the Church glimpse of the reviving scenes of sacred and of religion on the matter, and hold by nature; the needful leisure that saves brain the teaching of plain common sense, which and heart from breaking down; the presence is, that money is a useful and good thing, round you of that simple beauty which is an if honestly got and rightly used ; and that education. It means that when

you die

you the desire to get it is the main impulse of will not leave your wife and your little ones all human industry and exertion. The best to the killing anxieties and the sordid shifts work of human hands and heads you get of awful want. My friends, there are certain for money. The eloquent though unwise rich and good human beings, both living and preacher, who declares that money is not to dead, for whom I act as almoner: I am be regarded by Christian folk at all, you get trusted with the administration of what they his valuable services in return for a stipend of gave and give of their kind hearts and from so much money. If, with extraordinary power, their abundant wealth, for the succour of the he shows that worldly wealth is of no ac- deserving poor. I have beheld a gush of count, he may be advanced to a charge where thankfulness that was painful to see, follow his income will be much larger. If, in another the gift of a very little sum. I know what country, he shows eloquently the vanity of money can do, under a kind God. It can do earthly rank, he may be rewarded with a seat mighty good : from building or endowing a in the House of Peers. The book that lifts church down to feeding a little starving you up, that touches and mends your heart child. I will never speak lightly of it: never! —the author was paid for it in money. The “The love of money," says St. Paul, “is root wonderful intuition of that supreme medi- of all evil.” Yes, it may be. There is cal genius that came at an anxious time into love of it which may prompt to infinite your home and saved a precious life-you evil; to fraud and to violence; to the vulcould not have got it except by paying garest and most despicable mammon-wordearly for it. Now I do not say that such ship : which may result in that covetousness, services as these—those of the judge, the which is idolatry; in that purse-pride, which physician, the divine-are rendered only for is hatefullest of all pride. But the reasona price; I know that where things are right able desire for “the glorious privilege of there are motives far above that: and I know being independent," through long, steady too that there are services for which no work and self-denial : for the welfare in this money can pay; we have all received such life and another of the dear ones you will many times. All I say is that you cannot some day leave behind you : I am bold to say have these unless those who render them are it, and I know St. Paul would say amen to it: provided with the means of living; that is, That kind of the love of money is the root with an adequate supply of money.

For of all good. when we say money we do not mean the I repeat it. In the same large, general mere gold and silver : we mean what they sense, easily understood by all candid men, can buy. We mean all the material comforts in which the wrong love of money is the root and refinements of this life : yes, and the of all evil, the right love of money, the manifold moral and spiritual advantages healthy instinct of acquisition, is the root of which result from these. And the desire, all good. within becoming limits, to gain these by fair and honest work, is a right desire, put It is not that St. Paul was behind the preinto our hearts by Him who made them. It sent day in his teaching. I do not say to is not merely that a decent competency will you (what I have heard said from a pulpit), keep the soul from care's unthankful gloom ; “ Yes, St. Paul said what he says in the text, will surround yourself with things needful but he said it because he knew no better. and graceful; will make life modestly enjoy. He was wrong." St. Paul was right. It is able: but that it will enable you to give your just here as it is in fifty other things; there children the priceless blessing of a good is the use of a thing and its abuse. The education ; it will enable you to care for love of anything may be the root of much them when they are sick-many a precious evil. The love of orthodoxy, of sound life I have known lengthened because doctrine, what can be better than that? And poverty was not added to other ills ; many a yet I have known it lead to misrepresentaweary heart I have seen wonderfully lightened tion, lying, slandering, malice, and all unby the gift of a little money. It means for charitableness. The love of country, patriotyourself and others the elevating com- ism, I fear has led natives of both sides of panionship of worthy books; the occasional the Atlantic to ridiculous boastfulness about

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