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ening abhorrence of Hinduism, with all its Calcutta would allow the obnoxious Enquirer follies and tyranny. The Enquirer news to enter his house. But the religious discuspaper, edited in English by a Kulin Brahman, sions continued for months. Very patiently Krishna Mohan Banerji, was one of the did Mr. Duff listen to every infidel and boldest of the newspapers. “We sail in atheistic argument the young men
emquest of truth and happiness," said he in his ployed; and step by step several of them first number. Then soon after, “The rage drew nearer to the truth. This continued of persecution is vehement. Excommunica- for several months; till, in August, 1832, tion is the cry of the fanatic.” The atmo- Baboo Mohesh Chunder Ghose was pubsphere was electric. The news of the intro- licly baptized. The next candidate for adduction of the Reform Bill into the House of mission into the Christian Church was the Commons in 1831 almost caused an explo- editor of the Enquirer—a man of the highest sion that would have shattered Hindu society rank in the Brahmanical caste. A third case into fragments. Tyrants, aristocrats, and of baptism soon followed. Others who were priests, all the world over, let them howl; not baptized were brought at all events into for their day was over. In August, 1831, a totally new position. The unblushing several of the more excitable spirits were in avowal of atheism entirely ceased; even the the house of the editor of the Enquirer, secret belief of it seemed to expire. Some although in his absence; and they deter- who would not accept orthodox Christianity mined to give a demonstration that none sought refuge in Socinianism. Mr. Duff could question of their superiority to here entered into all their difficulties, and met ditary prejudice. They would eat beef! In them at every point. No wonder if even the estimation of all orthodox Hindus this is his Herculean frame began to give way under worse than cannibalism, seeing a man is but such unremitting toil. After some months a man and the cow is a goddess. They sent of fluctuating health, he was compelled to to the bazaar, got the beef, ate most of it, leave India in July, 1834. and threw the remnant of the unhallowed It would not be possible, and it is not feast into the court of an adjoining house needful, to dwell on the rest of his career so with loud shouts of “ Beef! there is beef !” fully as we have done on the first years he This latter act was of course utterly inde- spent in India. When intelligence of the fensible ; it was a grievous outrage deserving arrival of the vessel conveying Mr. Duff of sharp punishment. The Brahman, for he reached the committee in Edinburgh, the was a man of high caste, who occupied the exclamation of some of them was, “That is house thus polluted, rushed in rage and an end of the India mission." On the conhorror into the apartment from which the trary, his enforced visit to Scotland was to beef had been thrown, and there and then impart new vigour to it. He addressed the violently assaulted the culprits. The editor General Assembly on the subject so dear to of the Enquirer, though not personally his heart, in May, 1835. The speech, as it chargeable with the horrible offence, was reads now, is truly a noble speech ; but, as regarded as the real fons et origo mali; and heard in the Assembly, when the ardent the members of his own family, under the missionary was fresh from the field so little influence of the priests, called on him either known to most, and pleading as one who formally to profess belief in Hinduism, or felt that the very existence of the mission forthwith leave family and home, and become was imperilled unless he could carry with an outcast. It was a fearful trial; but he him the minds and hearts of his audiencewas firm to his convictions. He left-com- it must have been altogether overpowering. pelled to leave—his father's house at mid- Great orators like Dr. Guthrie have said it night, not knowing whither he went. was the most eloquent speech they ever
We have gone into this somewhat minute heard. Thereafter he delivered addresses detail in the hope of giving the reader a all over the country; and as McCheyne clear conception of the very remarkable said, after hearing him some time later, condition of Calcutta at that critical time. " vircs acquirit eundo; he pleads the cause It was a position fitted to call up every of missions more powerfully than ever.” The power of Mr. Duff's nature, He asked the heart of Scotland was roused as from a deep editor of the Enquirer to visit him. The lethargy. Tens of thousands who had hardly result was the appointment of weekly meet reflected on the great commission before, ings at the missionary's house for religious were led to recognise the grandeur of the inquiry and discussion. The rage of the missionary enterprise, and the imperative duty orthodox waxed more furious; no native in of evangelizing the world.
Towards the end of 1835, Mr. Duff short visit to Scotland and seek to stimulate received the honorary degree of D.D. from the zeal of the Church on the great cause of Marischal College and University, Aberdeen. Missions. The offer was gladly accepted. When at home he wrote his largest work, Mr. Duff then visited a great part of India entitled "India and Indian Missions," a for the purpose of inspecting the missions of trork extending to eight hundred and sixty- his own and other Churches ; and then came four pages. He also published a snall home in 1849. In the next six years he volume entitled “ Missions, the great end of travelled over nearly the whole of Scotland, the Christian Church,” which is as charac- everywhere pleading the cause so dear to his teristic of the man and as powerful in plead heart. Instead of gathering funds by an ing, as anything that ever proceeded from annual collection in each congregation, he
pressed the necessity of setting up a MissionHe left Britain for the East towards the ary Association in each congregation, the end cf 1839, reaching Bombay in February | funds to be taken up by collectors every 1840. On arriving in Calcutta he found the quarter, very much as is done every month Institution in a flourishing state; and, as in the great Sustentation Fund of the Free sisted by a remarkable band of colleagues of Church. The plan proposed has been pretty whom Dr. T. Smith is the sole survivor, he fully carried out, and with the happiest proceeded to develop it still farther. He results. threw himself with characteristic energy into Dr. Duff was elected Moderator of the most of his former employments and the General Assembly in 1851. Pressing solicivaried requirements of his position. He tations had reached him that he should visit wrote largely for the press; particularly for America. Accordingly early in 1854 he prothe monthly Calcutta Christian Observer, of ceeded to the United States and afterwards to which indeed he had been co-editor from Canada. He preached by invitation before 1830 to 1834, and for the quarterly Calcutta the President and both Houses of Congress. Review, which was started in 1844 by a His addresses were everywhere listened to young officer afterwards well known as Sir with rapt attention. The Mission buildings John William Kaye. Of the review, Dr. in Calcutta having been lost at the DisrupDuff soon became editor-in-chief. When tion, he was presented by his American the disruption of the Church of Scotland friends with a sum of £5,000 to aid in the took place in 1843, Dr. Duff vindicated with i erection of new ones. The University of great power of argument, and with all the New York gave him the degree of LL.D. fervour of his eloquence, the position assumed By February, 1856, he had returned to by the Free Church. But it is only fair, in Calcutta, and resumed the post which had this connection, to add that although con- now become conspicuous in the eyes of the scientiously and firmly a Presbyterian and a whole Church of Christ. His engagements Free Churchman, he was a man of most soon became as numerous and weighty as expansive sympathies, ever ready to co- they had ever been. Almost immediately operate in active usefulness with all that on his arrival he established a Hindu Girls' loved the Lord Jesus Christ. He had all School. The restrictions to which females along exhibited this spirit as a member of are subjected in Bengal are far greater than the Committees of the Bible Society, the those which prevail in Bombay and Madras. Tract Society, and other institutions in An earnest attempt had been made by Mr. Calcutta.
Drinkwater Bethune to provide a good school On the death of Dr. Chalmers, in 1847, he for girls of the middle and higher classes; was invited to fill his place as Principal and but the element of religious teaching was Professor of Divinity in the New College, intentionally, and, as the benevolent ori--the Theological seminary that had been ginator of the school believed, necessarily, established at the Disruption. He declined excluded. In Dr. Duff's school, of course, the distinguished honour, partly from attach- every effort was made to convey moral and ment to his Indian work and partly because, religious truth to the minds of the pupils. as he expressed it, a mind like his own that The school has been kept up ever since; it had been “ coinpelled to expatiate over all has generally about a hundred pupils; and a manner of subjects," was not so well fitted | very pretty sight it is. Considering the to train students in Theology as others must enormous difficulties with which female edube who had been able to concentrate their cation has to contend in Calcutta, it has houghts on that noblest of the sciences. been a decided success. For the reader will He indicated, however, his readiness to pay a easily apprehend that it is infinitely easier to He ap
find pupils in native houses, when ladies visit the cause of Home and Foreign Missions. these, than to bring the girls out from their In a letter from a gifted minister of the own homes to a Christian school. In the Free Church, I find these words regarding latter case the mountain has to be brought the impression made by Dr. Duff as a proto Mahomet.
fessor: The first year of my attendance on When at home, in 1853, Dr. Duff had Dr. Duff seemed one in which his work had been examined before a Committee of the peculiar power over the students. House of Lords on the practical work-peared to stand consciously as if with one ing of law and police in Bengal, and on the foot in the grave; and to me at least he whole subject of Indian education. Im- seemed like one sent on a hurried visit from portant steps were about to be taken in the spirit-world to warn us how trivial all regard to the latter subject. Dr. Duff was other objects were in comparison with the appointed member of a committee charged cause of Christ in the souls of men.” with the weighty duty of suggesting a draft In 1873 he received the all but unexampled constitution for three great universities that honour of filling a second time the chair of were to be set up, namely, at Calcutta, Bombay, the Moderator of the General Assembly. and Madras. He was appointed one of the Much might be said of the way in which fellows of the Calcutta University, and held he discharged his duties as Convener of the office in the Syndicate while he was in India. Foreign Missions Committee of the Free His influence, along with that of Bishop Church. In that rare combination of gifts of Cotton, induced the University to include which we spoke in the beginning of this Butler's “Analogy” and Paley's “ Evidences” paper, there were several that qualified him as subjects of the examination for honours. in a remarkable degree to guide the affairs of It must not, however, be supposed that Dr. the missions. Almost to the end one saw Duff overlooked the necessity of primary little or no abatement in his quickness and education—the training of the darkened, clearness of perception-no abatement in his toiling masses. Of recent years much has industry even when strength had begun perbeen achieved in this direction; and no one ceptibly to fail. Some of us pleaded with rejoiced over the progress more heartily than him to take rest, and let younger men relieve the missionary of whom it has been some- him at least of harassing details of business. times said—but most erroneously—that his It was of no use ; he could not but work on one idea of education was that it should be till he dropped. conducted through English.
The old fire flashed forth at times so In 1863 Dr. Duff's health began again to brightly that those who were not much in give way. He was invited to return home, for contact with him could not believe that it. the purpose of becoming Convener of the would soon be extinguished. He wrote a Committee on Foreign Missions ; a request striking paper in connection with the Queen's with which he felt it his duty to comply, assumption of the title of Empress of India. although till then he had always wished and Still more powerful, very earnest and nobly hoped that he might work and be buried in eloquent, was a letter written last autumn the land he loved so well. To qualify him- when he was in Germany vainly seeking self for his important office he visited the health, in connection with the famine that missions of South Africa ; and on his arrival desolated so much of India. in Scotland entered at once on his duties as Successive attacks of illness drove him in Convener.
November last year from the bleak north. By his exertions a sufficient sum of money He rested at Sidmouth, Devonshire, hoping was raised to endow a new chair—a profes- to proceed to the south of Europe ; but insorship of Evangelistic Theology. The duty creasing weakness rendered this impossible. of the professor is to lecture every winter on To all around him it soon became evident the subject of missions in each of the three that the end was drawing nigh. Some of us theological halls of the Free Church. In this who had been associated with him in India connection a remarkable fact must be men- or Scotland would earnestly have desired to tioned. Year after year the salary due to be with him at the last and help to smooth him as professor was handed over to a fund his dying pillow. But this was not permitted which he wished to see raised for the estab-us; and indeed it was not needed; for he lishment of a Missionary Institute. This, was tenderly watched over by his son and if it can be established in harmony with the daughter, and others of his nearest and views he took of its character and function, dearest on earth. There was less of physical will yet prove of great and lasting service to suffering assigned him many
fully anticipated. Almost to the last his India—the distant West, the distant Eastmind was clear and strong. And there was have still to speak; and we know that they largely ministered unto him “the peace that will mourn as deeply as we do ourselves. passeth all understanding." "I see,” said he, Not merely to the Christian Churches of " the whole scheme of redemption from India, but to multitudes of Hindus and eternity more clear and glorious than I ever Mohammadans, it will be a great shock to did." "I never said with more calmness hear that he whom, above all living men, in my life than I now do continually day they regarded as the special embodiment of and night, “Thy will, my God, my God, be Christian zeal and love-one of whom it
“I am in my Father's hands.” We might be said that India was written on his will not quote more; for the sanctuary in heart—has been removed from earth ; and which earthly suffering is about to be trans- that none in India or in Europe can now figured into celestial glory is almost too sacred hear that voice, with all its impassioned elofor common men to linger in. Alexander quence and all its earnest pleadings--a Duff quietly passed to his eternal rest on voice that was often so strangely touching Tuesday, February 12th.
in its very tones. A public funeral in Edinburgh, largely
We dwell sorrowfully on our exceeding attended by all classes of the community, loss—a loss not only to the Free Church of showed the profound respect in which Dr. Scotland, but to all missions and all Churches. Duff was held. Representatives of the Let us, however, remember not only that our Church Missionary Society and the Lon- loss is his gain, but that there is that which don Missionary Society came from London is not lost. He has left much behind him; to attend on the solemn occasion. Very much that is imperishable. The prophets beautiful, very touching, have been the die, but their work remains; and their great expressions of admiration for the man, and example, also, never dies; it remains a tower of sorrow over his grave, that have been of strength and a source of spiritual power to heard from every quarter. Space does not coming generations. They live then-live allow us to insert any of these ; we merely with an intenser life, when all that is mortal say that from missionary societies, from of them is committed to the tomb. The pulpits throughout the whole land, and holy dead, as we may call them, are only from men of all shades of opinion who are raised out of the mists and fogs of earth connected with the public press, there has into the pure firmament of heaven, that been one harmonious utterance of the feeling thence they may shine upon us, "like the of which all hearts are full. America and stars, for ever and ever."
LIFE AND DEATH. BY MRS. CHARLES GARNETT, AUTHOR OF “LITTLE RAINBOW." IN gazing on the sea a subdued awe creeps may be because the sea and death are so
over the heart. We never grow familiar joined in our consciousness that we never with the wonderful ocean. We may sail over grow thoroughly at our ease in its presence. its waters, the sunlight sparkling on the sur- Down in those unknown depths lie the dead rounding waves; we may dredge up lovely -our dead. trifies with a fisherman's drag, or spend long A weather-beaten stone church, a rude happy hours on the shelly beach, and yet the little edifice surrounded by a graveyard, stands sea is a friend with whom familiarity breeds on a high bluff on the cliff overlooking the no contempt; for what mysteries are hid in Northern Ocean. its depths !
One sunshiny afternoon we stood there Unknown creatures dwell there, plants and read the inscriptions on the humble such as no mortal eye has seen grow there, headstones. Ah! how sad they were! "Lost and a world of life is hidden beneath its at Sea ;” “Lost on board the brig Betsy in salt waters.
the Baltic Sea, with all hands ;" “ Lost in the But these things do not make up to us all Bay of Biscay,” and so on. Every grave told the mysteries of the ocean. The unknown of one at least claimed by the ocean. But is ever the mysterious; and that which many, many of the loved ones were lying far conveys to us the most mysterious of ideas, away in its depths, and all the fisher folk at because the most unknown, is death. It home could do to show their love was to
have the well-remembered names cut on the turning of the road, and this was its inscripheadstones in the windy churchyard. “And tionthe sea shall give up the dead that are in it." “Verbeiz sacrum Clodius fronto Præf. Coh. II. Lingon.”
We look away from the sea, yet how seldom More than fourteen hundred years ago, the we feel that the earth, sparkling with flowers, memorial was raised near the swift river from dressed in a many-coloured robe, with its whose angry waters the Roman soldier had swelling hills, its fruit-trees, its snow-tipped been saved, and a brave heart turned in mountains and green fields—the earth whose gratitude to a power above its own—a power breezes are musical with the song of bird, which had loved him and whom he longed the lowing of cattle, and the laughter of to thank. Where is the warm heart now? waterfalls, is, in fact, far more mysterious Probably its dust forms part of the old because of its hidden dead than the restless encampment upon which we sat to copy out ocean we turn from with a sigh.
his words. Or as we wander through the How seldom we think of this as we enjoy aisles of this old cathedral and listen to the a country walk on a soft summer's evening organ, as its notes rise jubilant in the high How much less does the thought strike us roof, and watch the sunshine fall in coloured as we hurry along our crowded London streets patches through the painted windows on with the blazing shops on either side, and the pillar and pavement, who dreams that down rush of traffic rolling past us! And yet it is in the oldest foundations a strange secret is true the dead are with us everywhere. They built in ? Not long ago these foundations who loved once as we love now, who had had to be examined for repairs, and an their interests and their lives very much like enormous stone, nine feet long, was found to those we have, Britons, Romans, Saxons, be in truth a coffin, and there the skeletons Normans, were men and women like our- of four girls were found packed tightly togeselves.
ther; their long hair still perfect, and for a This remembrance came strongly over us moment the outline of their forms could be at the sea-side once. A high green hill rose Why were they thus hidden far away, above the sea and there we used to climb on so carefully cemented in one grave, and so the sweet afternoons, and the air laden built up that none would guess human bones with the scent of clover blew softly over our were hidden behind the rough stone wall? faces as we watched the white-winged ships These secrets of life and death we shall sailing up the Channel. The grass was
never unravel. No more than the internal growing scantily, in some spots indeed the life of our brothers and sisters, or our dearest white glitter of bits of spar caught the eye. friends. But death does not horrify us on Rough grass-grown hillocks were scattered the dry land, perhaps because we come as it about. Here once stood a British village. were constantly face to face with it. It is Long years ago bright eyes looked for the known. Everything we see lives and dies; the incoming of the leather - covered fishing flowers blossom then fade, the leaves come out boats from this height, and old women bade then fall. Our friends leave us, but we know children drive the kine to pasturage in the all which dies around us will live again. They green valley below; and two miles away are of the present—so are we. They are are the Barrows. One day careful hands passing away with us, and as we move onward removed their green turf, and this was what together we also pass to a higher life-a fairer they found : a husband and wife-face to and a brighter. Reader ! let the thought face they lay, and with their hands still that we are but units in a mighty host which clasped tight. Ah! how they loved. All has for ages been marching gravewards imin all to each other; death could not divide plant
lso the recollection that them, and there quietly they rest together. life and death are not quite bound up in us
The next was this: a mother with her the children of to-day—but that others have little child. Poor little thing! did it waste felt and suffered and joyed as we do. Let away in her faithful arms ? or did a swift us cultivate a wider sympathy for our fellowdisease mercifully spare her that agony and units, a more vivid interest in their concerns, take her away with that little one ?
a more tender compassion for their faults, Another time we spent our summer holi- remembering that their day and ours will day at a village embosomed within northern soon be past, and so grow to think less of hills, where keen air brings invigoration to ourselves and our own little selfish interests, weary work-worn folk, and straying idly down thus becoming somewhat more fit for the a country road to the river's bank we paused eternal life, and for that land where there surprised. A Roman altar was placed at the shall be no more sea.