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monster the Druids were mighty men, and occurred on the occasion of great festivals Moelmud a true pillar of the Isle of might be seen by the tribes around. Britain. There seems reason to believe that The divination of the Druids by the flight he built Caer Oder, and the calendar of of birds or the motion of serpents, or by yet Ricart tells us that Bryn, his son, “ builded darker methods involving human sacrifices, Bristowe," and set it upon a high hill
. Bryn and their midnight processions, have been and Beli, his brother, are better known by thus pictorially and faithfully described by a their Romanised names of Brennus and sister poet of the Isle of Jersey :Belinus, and their quaint and serene figures,
“Three times nine the Princes be, carved probably about 1357 A.D., are still to
And the Priests are three times three. be seen on the tower of St. John's, Broad
Princes, with the club and shield,
Arm'd as for the battle-field. Street, the smallest church in Bristol.
Priests, with mystic fillet crown'd, The camps of the ancient Britors were
Flowing white or azure vest;
Snowy beards that swept the ground, not, like those of the Romans, merely places
And the serpent's egg their crest. of occasional protection for marching armies.
Prisoners three, in silence follow,
Up the hill and down the hollow. They were residences and hill-folds sur
“Over Dundry's sacred height, rounded by a rampart, into which they drove
Clamber they at dead of night: their cattle when threatened by banditti.
And the priest and princely band
Round the solemn altars stand! They generally chose commanding heights,
Hark! a hollow gurgling moan;
Hark! a fainter-fainter groan. and their fortifications of turf still remain.
Now the distant Future's cast They held hill-to-hill communication by
From the way the life-blood past.
Has it flowed from East to West? beacon fires. Blaize Castle thence derives
Peace is broken, war expressed. its name; the Worcestershire and Hereford
Did it spout towards the skies?
Direful mischief hidden lies. shire beacons, on the Malvern Range, recall
Does it slowly leave the vein ?
Justly is the victim slain, such times of yore; and there was a British
And his death his country's gain. camp at Caer Oder, where the observatory
Morning breaks, and hushed and still, now stands at Clifton.
Echo sleeps on Dundry's hill. Many of us have looked down thence on
Has the midnight hid the crime
From the dark records of time? St. Vincent's Rocks, to the Avon winding
Still o'er many a stone-crowned height
Bursts the tempest, beams the light: below, and over to the rich Leigh woods,
Seven-and-twenty circling stones, where here and there a grey cliff towers above
Witnesses of dying groans,
Guard the sacred altars three the oaks of the forest, and reveals the wild
With their antique mystery.
Ages since have rolled away; grandeur of the precipitous banks.
Priests and people—where are they?". In the west the sun-to heathen eyes a God in heaven-may be sinking, still as of These ancient circle-builders used no tool in old, in gold and crimson, and to the left we the construction of their altars, and thereby look over the valley to Dundry Tower, aware obeyed the precept in Exodus xx. 23, enforced that two miles on the other side of the ridge upon the Israelites—" If thou lift up thy tool lies Stanton Drew, the “stone town of the upon it thou hast polluted it." The British Druids," with its three circles of stones, in “ doom-rings” were the counterparts of the their time not fallen prostrate and half buried Court of Judicature at GilGAL— which means underground, but crowning the hill as open-circle-one of the places where Samuel air courts of judgment and temples for wor- judged Israel, the site of the first Israelite ship of the ancient Britons.
camp, and of the twelve stones taken from Near to the church of Stanton Drew there the Jordan. Here was kept their first Passis, or was within twenty years, a cove ten feet over; here was enforced the rite of circumwide and eight feet deep, formed of three cision, and the camp remained there during large stones, which, though somewhat sunken, all the early part of the conquest. It may has endured through all the Bristol ages, and also be inferred that Joshua returned there at stands as a relic to bind them together now the conclusion of his labours. that the heads of those who sat there to How often were the Israelites worshippers administer justice to the neighbouring tribes of Baal, and how much of his idol worship have long mouldered into dust.
we know to have been transferred to Britain ! Dr. Stukeley considers Stanton Drew as far There probably was much very early Phoemore ancient than even Abury itself
. We nician emigration to Britain, in the times of may suppose that the Druids sat in this cove, the kingdom of Israel, and possibly not a or within the “ Doom Rings,” to decide suits little that was Israelitish also, for Dan “abode or complaints, questions of property, peace in ships," and he also “ leaped from Bashan ” or war; and on these heights whatever -and with them came many of the customs both of the “chosen people” and the un- to declare by symbol their union with chosen. We may find a tolerable outline of Gomeric or Japhitic peoples (ch. i.), that Druidical customs in our sacred writings (see God would visit upon them the days of Isaiah lvii. 5)—“Enflaming yourselves with Baalim, and that they should be swallowed idols among the oaks, slaying the children in up among the Gentiles as a vessel wherein the valleys under the cliffs of the rocks." is no pleasure (Hosea viii. 8); that their
Like the heathen of old, they may have feast days, their new moons, their Sabbaths, thought human sacrifices most acceptable to should cease; therefore the exiles would not God. “Shall I give my first-born for my be known as a Sabbath-keeping people, or as transgression, the fruit of my body for the the Lord's “chosen people ;” and yet that sin of my soul?” (Micah vi. 7.) And to being “driven into the wilderness ”—such a Britain the Lord's voice had not then been wilderness as Britain then was—the merciful uttered, further than that, as a people trading Lord would open for them a door of hopefreely with both Syria and Palestine, indi- "give them vineyards” from that wilderness, viduals in the priesthood especially) may and teach them to know the Lord. That have had knowledge not only of the idola- God did thus deal with our own forefathers, trous customs of the Canaanites, but also the early Britons, very soon after the birth of something of the scriptural worship of the our Saviour, and at what chief points of our Jews. It is said by Hosea, the prophet to islands the good news found entrance, we the exiled ten tribes, who was instructed hope to explain in our next chapter.
“FEARFULLY AND WONDERFULLY MADE."
Glimpses of the Marbels of the Human Frame.
BY MISS CHESSAR.
I. -THE HEART AND ITS ACTION.
the least of those with which we are the heart through these, it gives to each part surrounded. True it is that the sentence, of our structure just that exact nourishment “Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou which it needs. Thus the bones get their return,” has been spoken about our bodily due material, the flesh has its waste made up framework. But, between the dust out of to it, the brain has new matter given to it to which they have sprung, and that into which take the place of what has been used; and, day by day and hour by hour they are pass-in a word, every part of the body is fed. If ing, what marvellous changes do the materials the heart were to cease its action, to stop of our bodies undergo, and into what perfec- sending moment by moment these fresh tion of form and working are they not supplies of new matter, we could not live. brought! The more we get to know about Our bodies waste away far faster than most our bodies, the more are we struck with the people imagine. There is not the smallest way in which they are suited for the work action that we do, nor is there the least that they have to do. Not only are we con- thought we think, which does not cause some strained to say with the Psalmist, “I am little waste of the substance of our bodies, fearfully and wonderfully made," but we and this constant waste must be met by an exclaim, “Marvellous are Thy works, and equally unceasing supply. It is not difficult that my soul knoweth right well.”
to see the importance of the heart's work in Of all the parts of which our bodies are feeding the body. built up, none is more worthy of notice than But the blood has to come back to the the heart. This part or organ by its steady heart after it has fed the body. The little action forces the blood through every part of finer-than-hair vessels (capillaries), of which our body. Great tubes or vessels go out mention has been already made, exist everyfrom it, dividing and dividing as they get where except in the nails, the hair, the farther away from the heart, and entering enamel of the teeth, and some parts of the into every substance of the body-flesh, eye. These tiny vessels make a kind of netbones, skin, nerves, every part. The tubes work, and pass back again from the various into which the blood vessels are finally divided parts of the body. Then they come toare very small and fine, far finer than the gether, just as little pipes may be made to unite to form larger ones, and so coming body; and then, when the heart makes the together they at last form themselves into great effort that sends the blood out of it two great tubes, one from the parts of the again, both sides contract at once, and two body below the heart, and one from the parts great jets rush out, one from each side, with above. These two tubes bring back to the a force like that of the water in a fountain. heart all the unused blood. This, however, This force is so great that it shakes the is not fit to be sent out at once again to feed whole body a little. We feel the jerk under the body; for it has come back poorer by all our finger when the pulse moves in our that it has given out, and with certain im- temples, or wrists, or ankles, and we feel it purities which it has collected during its more strongly just between the fifth and return journey. Before it goes again into sixth ribs of our left side, where the point of the body, it is sent into the lungs to be made the heart tilts up, and knocks with all its force pure, and this second sending out is also against the ribs. Beat, beat, the heart goes done by the force of the heart. The blood regularly, and jet, jet, does the blood rush this second time is driven out through vessels out along the great vessels (or arteries) which which also divide all through the substance lead out from the heart. Each beat of the of the lungs, and while rushing through these heart, or of the pulse, that we feel means that vessels it is purified. As in the other parts the heart has contracted once-squeezed its of the body, the little vessels reunite, and sides together with force—and propelled the large tubes bring the blood back to the heart blood through lungs and body. If either fit once more to go on its journey of feeding part of the heart's action were to cease we the body.
should die, for the body would cease to be We see then that the heart has in it blood fed in one case, and in the other the blood of two kinds—(1) That which is pure and itself would not be made pure and fit for fit to nourish the body, and which is to be use. How marvellously do the various things sent out to feed it in every part; and (2) | hang together! that which has come back poor and impure A few words have been said on the quickfrom all over the body, and is going to be ness with which the body wastes. Note now sent into the lungs to be made fit for use the quickness with which the waste is supplied. again. These two kinds of blood are quite Put your finger on your pulse; take your different to look at; the pure blood, feeding watch in your hand, and count the number the body, is red, bright scarlet red, quite of times that your pulse throbs while the dazzling to look at; the other is dark, minute hand of your watch travels over the purplish-what people sometimes call “black space marked for one minute only. You will blood.” In the heart these do not mix; the find that the throbs vary according to many pure fresh blood is always on the left side of circumstances. The pulses of men differ the heart-that is, the side nearest our own from those of women. Little children's left arms--while the impure blood is all in pulses are very rapid, because of their quick the right side. The two sides are quite dis- eager movements, and the extra supply of tinct, for a fleshy wall divides the heart into blood which has to help to build up their two parts which have no direct connection bodies and make them larger, as well as to with each other. It is as if we had two make up for waste going on. Old people, hearts, which, for saving of space and work, slow in movement, and with the body shrinkare united into one. There is never any ing from its fair proportions, have slow pulses. waste of power in the marvellous economy of The pulse varies according to the state of our bodies.
health, the hour of the day, and many other The heart has sometimes been compared things; but, taking one with another, it will to a pump, because it sends out its contents be found on an average to beat seventy times with force to a great distance from itself. in a minute. Seventy beats in a minute ! It would be better to compare it to a That means seventy strong contractions of somewhat firm but elastic bag with a divi- the heart, so strong as to send the blood sion in the middle. If both sides of this rushing through the largest blood vessels at bag were filled with fluid, it is clear that the rate of a foot in a second, and even two streams could at the same moment through the smallest and most distant tubes be squeezed out from the bag, one from each at the rate of an inch to an inch and a side. In our heart that is pretty much what half in a minute. At each contraction of happens. The two sides fill at the same the heart, between three and four fluid time, one with the pure blood from the lungs, ounces are sent out from each side of the the other with the impure blood from the
• A fuid ounce is two tablespoonfuls.
heart; and this movement goes on from birth weight of a hundred and twenty tons could to death, regularly, steadily, and when we are be listed a foot up from the ground. Some in good health without a moment's pause, learned persons who have searched into a work with the ordering of which our wills the matter think that even more is done; have nothing to do; and steadily through some say twice as much. Just think of all the minutes of each day, through all the the time that it would take a strong man days of each year, through all the years of the to lift a hundred and twenty tons, and life, does it keep on its regular beating. In the weariness which would follow his days the course of seventy years it will have of hard work ! But the heart goes on beaten thousands of millions of times. What unwearied, unstopping—for weariness and machine of man's making or devising can go stopping would be death. Again, the force on so steadily and so long as this? The with which the heart drives the pure blood machinery made by men has to be taken to out of its left side into the great vessel which pieces now and then to be altered, and is to branch all over the body, is equal to cleaned, and repaired; but our hearts go on, the pressure of a weight of thirteen pounds. repairing their own waste while we live, and How strong must be the walls of the heart working with marvellously equal strokes in which can contract with such power! How all that they have to do. Even tempers, strong, and yet how elastic, must be the quiet dispositions, regular habits, help the tubes into which the blood is driven with heart to go on steadily with its work. The such force, so often, and at such a rate, and injunction is applicable in a bodily as well as yet without injury! Seventy times in a in a spiritual sense—“Keep thy heart with all minute are these strong blows given ; seventy diligence ; for out of it are the issues of life.” times in a minute does fresh blood pour out
Not only is there much to wonder at and to renew the waste caused by the actions of to admire in the steadiness, the quickness, our bodies. Truly there are wonders within and the constancy with which the heart does us of which we take but little heed ! its work, but the force which it uses in filling The strength of the heart is shown not all the vessels of the body is marvellously only in the force with which it sends out great, and all the more astonishing when we blood, but in the way in which some of its remember the small size of the organ. Close parts resist pressure. The heart has hitherto your hand tightly, and look at its size; that been spoken of as if it were merely a double will show you as nearly as may be the size of bag into each side of which tubes come to your heart. Put your hand on your breast-fill it, and out of each side of which tubes bone about the middle, and you will be very go, through which it empties itself. It nearly opposite the place where, in the centre is necessary now to think of each side of your chest, your heart lies surrounded by as again divided into two parts, one upper the lungs. Put your finger-tip between two of chamber and one lower. So that there are your ribs on the left side, and you will feel really four hollows or chambers in the heart, where the point of the heart strikes in beating. two upper and two lower. These must, All who have ever noticed the shape of a sheep's however, be thought of as in pairs. The heart will know the shape of the human heart. two chambers of the right side are quite Those who have not must imagine it to be separated from those of the left by a wall, something of the shape of a short thick in which there is not the smallest openpear. The thick end, which is called the ing. But the chambers of each side base, is turned towards the back-bone, and have only doors between them, doors which, the point, or apex, is downwards, and a on the right side, are three-leaved, and on little inclined to the left. It has no bones, the left side two-leaved. These doors, or but is held in its place by the tubes valves, swing back freely in one direction. which come to it and go out from it. It They let the blood go from the upper to the is made of flesh or muscle, not quite the lower chamber of each side very easily. But same as that of our arms or legs, but still when that is done, they swing back to their capable of contracting or squeezing itself places, and they are held there so strongly together with very great force. If we want by cords attached to them, and to the walls to say how much work any machine can do, of the lower chambers, that all the force we often speak of it as being able to lift so with which the lower chambers of the heart many tons a foot up from the ground. Now contract, all the force with which the blood so strong are our hearts, that if all the is pushed against the doors, avails not to push work a heart does during twenty-four hours them open in the wrong direction. Nay, could be concentrated into one effort, a | the pushing of the blood up against them
only shuts them tighter. How marvellous and then the under ones in their regular here is the adaptation of means to the re- order. It was at one time thought that the quired end ! Again, the parts of the heart presence of the blood in the heart excited which we may call the walls of the upper the walls and made them contract, so that chamburs (though they are movable, contract- when one of the chambers got filled with ing, fleshy walls) are not nearly so strong blood, the walls were uneasy until they had and thick as the walls of the lower chambers. squeezed together and pushed it out again. That is because the walls of the upper But, although it is thought that some effect chambers have comparatively little work to of that kind may help the heart in its condo. These chambers have only to receive traction, still it is known, and has been seen, the blood as it comes into the heart, and the that the heart, even when all the blood is walls, in contracting, have to push it gently out of it, continues to contract while any through the valves or doors into the lower force is left in the nerve-masses that lie on chambers. But the lower chambers have it. Here, then, we see the constant moving much harder work to do. The lower cham- power of the heart provided for. ber on the right side has to send the blood remarkable thing about these nerves is, that throughout the structure of the lungs, they are not directly connected with the while that on the left side has to send the brain, or with the nerve-cords over which blood into every part of the entire body. So our wills exercise control. These heartnumerous are the vessels which its efforts nerves form part of a system which only have to fill that no part of the body can be sympathizes with our brain, which our brain wounded by even so much as a pin-prick only touches indirectly, but which controls without injuring some tiny vessels. This not only the motion of our heart, but the left lower chamber is said to perform three-motions of all the other parts of the body fourths of the work of the heart, so that, if that move without being moved by our wills. the whole heart could lift a hundred and But although the constant movement of twenty tons, this portion, by its work of one the heart is thus provided for, and is wisely day alone, could raise ninety tons. Yet how taken out of our hands, we know very well smoothly and quietly does this all go on! that our thoughts do affect the movement of
What is it that makes the heart contract our hearts. Sometimes they beat rapidly, and beat? We know that our legs and arms sometimes slowly, according to what we mové as we will that they should; but our think about; and so direct is the influence will can neither stop the heart nor make it of our feelings on the action of our hearts, go on.
Its movements are what are called that we speak as if our hearts really did the involuntary; our wills have nothing to do action. We heartily love or we heartily with them. Is this not a wise provision for hate, our hearts are full of joy or overour comfort and well-being? We have seen whelmed with fear. Now, really, these feelings how important the work of the heart is, and are in our minds, and they touch our brain we can see further how well it is ordered first. But from the brain there go out nerves that we should not have to think about it to which pass down into the body, and run set it going, nor that our mere forgetting to even to the organs which are not under the think about it could stop it. Our Creator will's control. Two nerve-branches go from has wisely ordained that all the work of our the brain to the heart—one of these acts bodies which must be done in order that our upon the heart so as to make it beat more life may go on should be taken out of our slowly; the other, when it is excited, makes own management, so to speak, and should be the heart beat quickly. So that when a ruled by means to which He Himself has strong feeling excites the brain, the excitegiven the power of government. The heart ment runs like a message to the heart, and is a self-governing body. All over its surface makes it beat either more siowly or more there are found greyish-white cords called quickly according to the nerve by which it nerves, and connected with these are small comes. Sometimes mere bodily feelings, such masses of nervous matter. These nerves as cold or the pain of a blow, will set the and nerve-masses act by themselves. How nerve in action which makes the heart go they act is still one of the mysteries of slowly, and may even stop it altogether. which there are so many in even things But as a rule these nerves counterbalance about which we think we know most. But each other, and enable the constant steady it is certain that so long as these nerve- motion to be kept up. How marvellous is masses have any life in them, they cause the this arrangement ! heart to contract—the upper chambers first, A few only of the chief wonders of the