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of those named, dry up during the hot season. The Kunkur abuts on this Pergunnah, from Kankjole of Purneah at the Western boundary, at the village of Joth Muhesh Kasimpoor, to which it forms a natural boundary for nearly a mile; it then leaves the boundary, and flows for a short distance in an Easterly direction through Kankjole, and again enters Akburpoor, 11 miles above the village of Belgachee, and runs in a South-easterly direction for 41 miles, to the confluence of the Gobra Gorayeea with the Kalindry; here these rivers assume the name of Kalindry, which forms the natural Western boundary for 4 miles, it then enters a detached portion of Pergunnah Kankjole of Maldah, near the large town of Bazeedpoor, after flowing through which it again enters the Akburpoor Pergunnah near the town of Khidurgunge, runs South-easterly towards the boundary, on which it abuts near Debeepoor Arazee, and flows on, forming for some distance the natural Western boundary of Pergunnah Mukraen, towards its confluence at Nema Suraie with the Muhanuda. This river during the rainy season is rapid, but during the dry weather the stream is very sluggish, and where the water is deep, scarcely perceptible; it is known by several names, viz. the Reega, Punar, Kunkur, &c.; boats of 400 maunds can easily pass up, as far as Ekamba, about 12 miles North of the town of Purneah, during the hot weather ; much timber is floated down this river, and it is navigable throughout the Purneah District during the rains. The Gobra Gorayeea is an insignificant stream, and forms for a short distance, the natural Western boundary of this Pergunnah. The Dhurumdowla is merely a branch of the Kalindry, from which it disengages itself a little to the West of Thannah Gorgureebah, which is situated in a detached portion of Kankjole of Maldah.
Roads.—There are no good roads, that excepted from Purneah to Maldah, which passes through the towns of Khidurgunge and Debeepoor.
Towns.—The capital is Hyatpoor, in which is a thannah and a Moonsiff's kutcherry. The principal towns are Sooltangunge, Hurischunderpoor, Bhegaul, Bhulookarae, Khidurgunge, (from this latter there is a line of thickly populated villages to Hyatpoor Thannah,) Debeepoor and Kumulpoor; in all these towns, weekly markets are held, as well as in the villages of Talgaon, Mulewur, Kasimpoor and Narotum poor.
Soils, &c.—The soils are Muteear, Dorus and Baloo; the harvests are Bhuddooee, Khureef and Rubbee ; and the principal crops, barley, pease, gram, pulse of various kinds, teesee, mustard-seed and juneera, cut in April.
Paddy, kullye, jawara, mukaie, bajra, murooa, moong dal, khodo, mutanee cut in September.
Paddy, koorthee, moong, tel, kullye, cotton (very partial,) sugar-cane, cut in the cold weather ; tobacco is not generally cultivated, but almost every village or rather havellee has its little plot for home consumption.
Vegetables.-All the village gardens produce vegetables in abundance, the most common are toraie, pulbul, kuddoo, a kind of pumpkin, kuraila, gooea, kukree or cucumber, khonda (a pumpkin), saag of many kinds, brinjall, sem or flat bean, shukur-qund or sweet potato, ram toraie, cumhurwa, rut alloo or yam, kukoree, gajur or carrot, udruk or ginger, &c. These are common to all the gardens of Maldah.
Irrigation.—Irrigation is not resorted to in the Southern part of the Pergunnah, but the most simple process is observed in the Northern part.
Indigo Factories. There are three indigo factories, Koondy, Ajgura, and Sheebpoor; part of Koondy, subsequent to the Survey, has fallen into the river.
Climate.The climate is very damp and insalubrious. August September and October are considered the most unhealthy; the people suffer dreadfully from fever during these months.
Thannah.—The Police jurisdiction of Thannah Gorgureebah prevails in this Pergunnah.
Inhabitants. The inhabitants appear to be simple in their manners, but in every respect there is a marked difference between them and the people of the North-west, or indeed of Behar, Patna or Shahabad; they appear to be quarrelsome among themselves, and extremely litigious ; if you enter into conversation with any villager, he is almost sure to advert to some lawsuit he is or has been engaged in, for some very petty affair; these lawsuits are generally carried on with the greatest virulence.
Houses.—The village houses are neatly built, generally, the walls are made of reed tatties, and plastered over with a thick coat of mud, which is so composed as to be very adhesive; some of the houses are not plastered, and again the walls of others are built of mud, all very neatly thatched, and whatever materials they may be constructed of, all have the bowed ridye pole, which is peculiar to Bengal; almost every homestead has its little plot of ground, generally very neatly fenced in, in which tobacco, vegetables, &c. are cultivated; few of the villages are compactly built, for besides the gardens, the houses are intermixed with trees of various kinds, for the most part those that are useful, either as yielding fruit or affording shade—the most common are, mango, jack, tamarind, bamboo, banian, palm, pepul, byre, papaiya and plantain ; the whole site very often occupies many acres, and the villages from a distance have a very picturesque appearance, but all pleasurable feelings are quickly banished on a nearer approach or on entering them, for they are dirty to excess, and the squalid miserable appearance of the poor, is really pitiable.
Cultivation, &c.—About one-third of this Pergunnah consists of grass and tree jungle, and unassessed waste; the remainder is highly cultivated.
Area. The total area amounts to 94,129.1.21 British acres or 147.07 square miles; it has detached lands, which are included in the above area amounting to 13,074.1.27 British acres, and lands of other Pergunnahs situated within its limits, which have been deducted, amounting to 18,450.2.22 British acres.
Local Beegah.—The beegahs in use at the time of survey, are as follows :
1. Luttah of 4 haths or cubits of 18 inches each=1,600 square yards per beegah.
Ditto Ditto =3,025 Ditto Ditto.
This Pergunnah is decidedly in a very prosperous state; many of the land-holders ack nowledge this.
The rate of assessment appears in the General Statistical Return
No. 4, or Pergunnah Hutundah.—Only two villages of this Pergunnah are compact, the remaining four are detached in Pergunnahs Hutundah and Barour of Purneah and Akburpoor of Maldah. The town of Dowlutpoor is its Capital, in which there are several shops, all its villages are highly cultivated and produce rice in great abundance ; they are under the Police jurisdiction of Thannah Gorgureebah.
The total area is 3,239-1-23 B. Acres, or 5.06 square miles.
1. Luttal of 4 cubits of 18 inches each, = 1,600 square yards per beegah.
The rate of assessment is furnished in the General Statistical Return.
No. 2, or Pergunnah Murkraen, is bounded on the North by Pergunnahs Akburpoor and Gorhund, on the West by Akburpoor and a detached portion of Kankjole of Purneah, and on the South and East by Sumulpoor of Purneah, Pergunnah Kasimpoor of Dinajpoor and Pergunnah Bhalasuree of Maldah.
Rivers.—The principal rivers are the Kalindry, the Murra Mahanunda and the Mahanunda, the latter enters the village of Burael Melik, at the Eastern extremity of the Pergunnah, from Pergunnah Maheenuggur of Purneah, and for about 14 miles, it runs through the village, and then forms its Western boundary for about another mile, after which it flows into Pergunnah Bhalasuree. The Kalindry abuts on the Western boundary from the village of Debeepoor of Akburpoor, forming the natural boundary for about a mile and a half, it then passes through the villages of Alpara, Hurgobindpoor, Russoolpoor and Jebnuggur, from the Southern extremity of which, it again becomes the natural boundary on the West, for 34 miles, entering the Pergunnah again at Shamdalpara, from whence it flows in a South-easterly direction, towards the boundary of Sumulpoor of Purneah, which it crosses near the village of Sumla; all this part of the river is deep, and the stream very sluggish; it abounds with fish of various kinds and tortoise. The Murra Mahanunda forms the natural Eastern boundary of this Pergunnah, until it turns off abruptly East to join the Mahanunda, this confluence takes place within a mile of the large village or rather town of Pokhureea, Pergunnah Bhalasuree; this arm of the Mahanunda is called murra or dead, not because its stream has dried up, but on account of boats having ceased to frequent its channel, for the wider and less tortuous modern stream. The channel of the ancient stream is very deep, and abounds with fish of many kinds, which are caught by the line, the net, and very frequently at night by torch-light. This method is very common on all these rivers, and is thus performed ; a boat is paddled to the middle of the stream, a musshal or torch is then placed over the stern, so that its full glare alights on the surface of the water, the fish attracted thereby, without the smallest timidity, approach the treacherous flame ; the larger ones are instantly speared by the practiced fishermen, while the smaller are caught in landing nets ; ruhou and hilsah of enormous size are sometimes taken in this manner ; at the confluence of the Mahanunda and Kalindry this method is
much practised. In the vicinity of Maldah, Nema Suraie, and Angrazabad, line-fishing with bait is much resorted to, and with considerable success, several hooks are attached to one line from 50 to 60 yards long, which has a stone or piece of lead attached to one end, for the purpose of throwing the line to its full extent into the stream. The fish in all the rivers of Maldah are of the very finest description, and are exported to Moorshedabad in large quantities; the finest mullet in the world are to be found in the Mahanunda.
Roads.—Only one decent road exists, that from Purneah to Maldah, which is kept in pretty good repair by the Ferry Fund Committee.
Towns. The principal towns are Nijgaon, Pranpoor, and Arheedanga; the former is considered to be the Capital
Climate.—The Eastern part of this Pergunnah is low, unhealthy and uninhabited, the people have removed close to the banks of the Kalindry; from Kootubpoor to Bukra of Pergunnah Bhalasuree, there is one continued line of villages along the public road for nearly three miles. The jungly or Eastern part of this Pergunnah affords excellent grazing ground for cattle, large droves of which are to be seen in every direction. There are several modees' shops in Pranpoor and Arheedanga, and weekly hauts are held in various parts of the Pergunnah.
Soil.—The soils are muteear, dorus, and on the banks of the Kalindry a little baloo ; the lands are very fruitful and yield fine crops of rice, wheat, mustard-seed, mulberry, pulse of various kinds, Indian corn, barley, johara, pease, tobacco, paun, and indigo ; where irrigation is necessary, the water is raised from tanks and jheels, and distributed by small water-courses through the fields ; but this part of the country is so low that the earth retains it moisture throughout the year.
Harvests.—The Harvests are Bhuddooee, Khureef, and Rubbee.
Inhabitants.—The people of the North-eastern part of the Pergunnah have a very sickly appearance, and are much afflicted with spleen; those residing near the Kalindry, are more robust and healthy.
Thannah.This Pergunnah belongs to Thannað Gorgureebah:
Factories. There are four indigo factories, viz., Jannuggur, Chandpoor, Arheedanga, and Jogneegaon ; the first is situated on a Dhar which flows from the Koojlee jheel, and is about a mile from the town of Debeepoor of Akburpoor ; the second near Pranpoor, on the Kalindry ; the third about of a mile South-east of Arheedanga ;, and Jogneegaon, on the Saulmaree jheel ;, all these factories produce excellent indigo. Altogether this Pergunnah is in a prosperous state, although more than j is covered with jungle; in favorable places throughout the jungle boro dhan is cultivated.
area.—The total area by survey is 41,510-0-32 British acres; its detached lands amount to 213-2-21 acres, and the included lands of other Pergunnahs to 994 acres, leaving the recorded area, 40,786-3-26 acres or 63:73 square miles:
Beegah.—The beegahs in use at the time of Survey are as follows:
Assessment. The rate of assessment appears in the General Return.
No. 5, or Pergunnah Akburnuggur, consists of six Uslee villages and eleven arazees, which are all intermixed with the lands of Pergunnahs Kankjole of Purneah and Maldah as portrayed on these maps. The total area of the Pergunnah is 1558-3-22 British acres, or 2.43 square miles; its soils are Muteear and Dorus; the harvests, Bhuddooee, Khureef, and Rubbee; and the crops, rice, wheat, mustard seed, Indian corn, johur, peas, kullye, and tobacco. Irrigation is not practised. The beegah in use is as follows:
Luttah, 4 haths of 18 inches each,
1,600 square yards per beegah.
The rate of assessment is entered in the General Statistical Return.
No. 7, or Pergunnah Bhalasuree oorf Shush huzuree, is situated to the East of Pergunnah Mukraen, on which it abuts on the village of Burael Melik; it is bounded on the North by Pergunnah Radhabulubpoor of Dinajpoor, on the West by Pergunnahs Maheenuggur and Sumulpoor of Purneab and Mukraen of Maldah, on the South by Pergunnah Rookunpoor of Maldah, and on the East by Pergunnahs Rajnuggur of Maldah and Dinajpoor.
Lakhiraj or Rent-free. --This Pergunnah is Lakhiraj or Rent-free ; it was granted by the Emperor Shujaa in 1648 or 1058 Heejree to Suruffadeen, for what cause does not clearly appear, and the grant has always been respected by the Honorable Company.
Rivers.—The Mahanunda forms the natural Western boundary of the whole of the compact portion, except where it breaks through Burael Melik of Mukraen, which as above stated, abuts on Bhalasuree.
Roads and Ruins of Purood.—The Main road from Maldah to Dinajpoor passes through the South-eastern part of this Pergunnah; on both sides of the road lie the ruins of Purooa which are very extensive;, there is little to be observed now but heaps of broken bricks, for the most part covered with brush-wood; dense jungle extends on either side of the road, and it is very difficult, unless attended by an intelligent guide, to find out the ruined mosques and monuments ; several of the latter are in a good state of preservation, especially those of Mukhdum Shah Jelal and of Kootub Shah, two men, much venerated for their devout lives ; their tombs are shrines to which many Mussulmans resort to this day; these monuments have considerable endowments, but from whence derived it is next to impossible to elicit from the more than demi-barbarous and insolent fakeers, who frequent the neighbourhood. With great difficulty Kootub Shah's dwelling can be traced ; but from appearances, it must have been extensive. Leopards and wild hog are now its denizens. Several rude inscriptions are to be found, some on rough slabs prostrate with the ground, others in a half standing position. Some again deeply embedded in the roots of the peepul or burgut tree, while a few have withstood the shocks of time and retain their position in the ruined gateway or mouldering tomb; these evidently are the spoils of Gour.