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“powers of Joint Magistrate, extending over the jurisdictions of the Thannahs of Purneah above noticed, “ also the Thannahs of Maldah and Bamungola of Dinajpoor, and of Roohimpoor and Chuppye of Raj. “shahee, would be productive of the greatest benefits to the Police of those Districts. Aware however " of the objections which may exist, to the adoption of this arrangement, it is merely suggested, for the “ consideration of Government."
Government at once saw the expediency of what the Superintendent of Police had recommended, and in less than a month from the date of his report, Maldah was formed into a Joint Magistracy and Deputy Collectorate, being under the Revenue superintendence of the Commissioner of Bhaugulpoor.
The District is subdivided into 39 Pergunnahs, one of which Soojainuggur, is detached in Purneah and is under the Police jurisdiction of Thannah Baurshye of that District, the other Pergunnahs adjoin each other, but are deplorably interlaced, not only as regards each other, but with several of the Pergunnahs of the neighbouring Districts. This District is situated on the Northern Bank of the Ganges (a few villages only of Shershabad and Kasimnuggur being on its Southern side) between the degrees of North latitude 24° 31' 50” and 25° 28' 30" and of East longitude, 87° 48' 30" and 88° 33' 30" ; it is bounded on the North by the Districts of Purneah and Dinajpoor, on the East by Rajshahee, on the South by the River Ganges and Moorshedabad, and on the West by the River Ganges and Bhaugulpoor, as well as a small portion of Purneah. The Civil station of Maldah or Angrazabad in Pergunnah Shershabad being in 25° 6' 40" North latitude and 88° 10' 40" East longitude.
Nature of the Survey.--This District having been settled in perpetuity, the demarcated boundary of villages alone have been surveyed, with their interior geographical features.-Except in cases where minute intermixed lands have occurred or of villages being subdivided into Hissas, Khusruh measurements have not been resorted to.
Crops, &c.—Several extensive portions are covered with tree, bamboo, cane and grass jungle, but the general appearance of this District is pleasing, the lands are highly cultivated, and produce abundantly fine crops of wheat, rice of sorts, dal of sorts, the principal of which are arahur, mussoor and moong-pease, til or sesamum, lin-seed or ganja, teesee, dhonna, gram, kullye dal, woorud dal, oats partially cultivated, barley, beans, mustard seed, mulberry, sugar cane, tobacco, ginger, hemp or sunn, huldee or turmeric, bhoota or Indian corn, joondaee, bajeerah, mirwah, kodee, khasaree, and moosaree, (kinds of pulse) jowaree, safflower or koosume, castor oil tree, indigo, pàn, dhunia, onions, garlic and ujwine a small spicy seed.
Vegetables.—Cabbage, red cabbage, pease, beans, kidney beans, French beans, cauliflower, carrots, turnips, parsnips, onions, radishes, white and red, cucumber, mint, artichokes, beet, lettuce, celery, nolkol and a variety of garden herbs, too numerous to mention. European vegetables are becoming common in the gardens of the wealthy natives.
Fruits.—Mangoe, plantain, banana, custard apple, mulberry, mash melon, water melon, lime, citron, tar fruit, leechee, peach, gooseberry, bail or wood apple, kirnee, pomegranate, tamarind, betul nut, cocoanut.
Jungle Trees.—Mangoe, cocoanut, palm, cotton tree, aloe, willow palm, date palm, pepul, babool, jack, accacia, wild plum, burgut, bamboo, tamarisk, hyjal, saul, sissoo, sagoun, or teak, muhooa, toon.
Most Common Trees and Plants in the Vicinity of Gour, and within the Ruins.
.... Amli or Imlee.
Bundarlate Gach'h. .... Kanchum.
Aum. ... Tiol.
Bural. ... Sheora. ... Bukul. ... Khyrnee. ... Gàb.
Algoochlatæ. ... Kudam.
Piráloo. ... Moyna.
... Tillhant. ... Indrajon. ... Chatin. ... Chota Chand. ... Madar. .... Madar Safeia, ... Bèt.
Talgach'h. .... Khajoor.
Reeds.-Nal, Khagra or writing reed, Karee, used for making Charcoal, fences, the walls of houses, &c. &c.
Fuel.-Cow-dung mixed with rice, straw, reeds, stubble, under-wood; Hoating timber is collected by those living near the rivers.
Bamboo. --Bamboo is used in very many ways, the houses of the poor are almost entirely made of it, also masts of boats, boxes, cups, baskets, mats, punkahs, doolies, Hackries, garees, excepting the axles and wheels, and a great variety of useful household utensils ; paper is made of it, by bruising certain parts into a pulp, steeping these in alum and water agitating the water, with a fine sieve, and when all the particles are afloat, separating a sufficiency to cover the sui face of the sieve, this forms a strong and durable sheet of paper. All fences where bamboo is plentiful are made of it, those surrounding the better kind of Bengali houses are made very neatly.
Shola or Solah.-Shola or Solah is found in large quantities, on the marshy plains, diameter from 1 inch to 24 inches, used for making hats, toys, artificial flowers, floats for fishing nets, and various other purposes; I have seen the pannels of a palanquin made of it.
Lime.—Lime made from shells is very common, a few families gain a livelihood by collecting shells, they are generally of the species called Ampularis, Paludena, Unio and Cyreence, and are to be found in large quantities, as the waters dry up from the jheels, the finest stacco is made from this lime, and when carefully applied to pillars, &c. it has a very pretty and polished appearance.
Domestic Animals. The elephant may be called so, Indian bull and cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, a mixture of the Patna and Bengali, pure Bengali, ass, tattoo, pig, dog and cat ; the cattle are very wretched looking, there being very little pasture ground, except in the jungles.
Wild Animals.—The rhinoceros has been seen in Pergunnah Shikarpoor, tiger, leopard, tiger cat, inchneumon, otter, monkey, jackal, porcupine, hare, sambur, bara singha deer, spotted deer, antelope, hog deer, hogs innumerable, wild buffalo, fox, wolf (very scarce) pole cat, civet cat, wild cat, kutass, squirrel, &c. &c.
Domestic Birds.—Goose, duck, common cock and hen, guinea fowl, turkey, pigeon.
Wild Birds.-Wild goose, forty varieties of the wild duck tribe, florican, snipe, cormorant, heran, sparrow, peacock, golden oriel, common green parrot, pelican, partridge, (black and gray,) jungle cock and hen, tern of various kinds, ring-necked paroquets, kite, goshawk, falcon, adjutant, swallow, bulbul, cerleu, gray and black, peewit, koel, blue and green pigeon, rock pigeon, ring dove, king fisher, woodpecker, rook, jackdaw, minah, plover, ortalan, hoopoo, robin, sand martin, jay, quail, button quail, golden plover, widgean, horned owl, white owl, common owl, kyrah, main water crow, night crow, paddy bird (four kinds), brahminee duck, sirus, ground dove, common dove, hornbill, spoonbill, a variety of honey birds, tailor bird, starling, gull, water wagtail, sand lark, byer, and a variety of small birds.
Fish.-Ruhoo, hilsah, katal, kutlah, tingra, mhooa, cowee, mullet (the finest in India are found in the Mahanunda River,) papta, chulwa, crab (kekra, or kamkura) prawn or chingree, seolee, eel or bam, and a variety of others whose names are unknown.
Reptiles.—Boa constrictor, gohsaup sometimes five and half feet long, cobra de capella (brown and black), gorait, dhamňa, water snakes of kinds, tree snake, bishkopra, bloodsucker, chameleon and lizards of various kinds, gheekorain (resembles a snake in its motion, but has two short legs in front,) alligator, crocodile.
Rainy Season.—The rainy season usually lasts from the middle of June to the 20th of October, but frequently, especially in the Northern part of the District, heavy showers fall during the month of May.
Winds. The North wind prevails in winter, and the South during the rainy season ; from the middle of March to the middle of June Westerly winds prevail, and from August to November Easterly.
Poppy and Indigo.—No poppy is cultivated in this District, but there is a vast quantity of land under indigo and mulberry cultivation.
Khusruh Measurement.--228 villages, comprising an area of 139,545 acres or 218:03 square miles, have been measured by khusruh, a variety of luttahs existed, the several lengths of which are noted in returns of the Pergunnahs to which they are proper. The measurements were made by contract ameens, who were paid at the rate of 1-12 per 100 acres of cultivation and Juddeed, and 0-14 per 100 acres of kuddeem and waste, the cost of the whole, exclusive of European superintendence amounts to Co.'s Rs. 1,855-1-5.
Area, Population, &c. &c.—The District of Maldah contains 2,335 uslee mouzahs comprised as above stated in thirty-nine Pergunnahs, the villages of nearly all the Pergunnahs are very much intermixed with each other, as well as with those of the neighbouring Districts, the latter difficulty was much obviated, by including the adjoining Pergunnahs of Dinajpoor, in which are the most interlaced lands, in this survey. The total area of the Maldah District is 8,24,647.2.27 British acres, or 1,288-51 square miles ; the government jumma or land rent is company's rupees 2,53,438-2-1; the average rate of this jumma per acre on the total area excluding lakhiraj lands 4:11, on cultivation and culturable 0-6-0, and on cultivation alone 0-9-6. The number of houses after a careful investigation is 62,379, allowing the average of five persons to each house, gives a population of 3,11,895 or 242-06 souls per square mile. A little more than half the population are mussulmans, divided into the sects of Sheikh and Seyud. The different castes of Hindoos found in this District, are the Brahmin, Kyet, Rajpoot, Chaitree, Khaitree, Kabureest, Charal, Ch’haie, Jailae, Poora, Tailee, Gharal, Sooree or Kulwar, Malee, Dhopa and the Napeet or Hujam.
The Regular Survey of this District was commenced in season 1847-48, and finished in season 1848-49.-One or two Pergunnahs were surveyed so far back as 1840.
The Calcutta Meridianal Series of the Grand Trigonometrical Survey of India traverses this District from South to North, crossing the Ganges River in the vicinity of the Burgachea Dawk Bungalow, and passing in a due Northerly direction a little to the Westward of the Town of Dinagepore, joins the Sonakhoda Base line in the Purneah District near Titalya. The Revenue Survey operations are completely identified with the several stations of the Grand Trigonometrical Survey.
The entire cost of the Revenue Survey amounts to Rs. 37,469-6-4, and the average rate per square mile to Rs. 26-15-3 including khusruh.
No. 1, or Pergunnah Akburpoor, is situated at the North-western extremity of the District of Maldah, and is bounded on the North by Pergunnah Barour of Purneah, on the East by Pergunnah Hutundah of Purneah, and also by Pergunnah Hutundah, Gorhund and Mukraen of Maldah, on the South by Pergunnah Kankjole of Purneah and Kankjole of Maldah, and on the West by Pergunnah Kankjole of Puineah.
Rivers.—This Pergunnah is well watered ; its principal rivers are the Ganges, the Kunkur, the Gobra Gorayeea, the Kalindry, the Dhurumdowla, the Kalkas and the Kàp; there are also uumerous small streams, but all these, and even some