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'ladder of cords, Katherine the Shrew's well-fashioned gown, and he applies it to elegancy of speech, writing and fashion. Spenser tells of quaint Bellona,' and produces the word in a new sense of fastidious' in company with 'disdainful.' In Howell (1625) we find an approach to the modern meaning of curious' in the quaint difference the ancients did put betwixt a letter and an oration, that one should be attired like a woman, the other like a man. Milton returns to the older sense in describing the quaint enamelld eyes' of flowers; Wood writes of a quaint preacher'; Prior of the 'quaint arguments of logic'; and Akenside of the 'quaint-eyed visage of ridicule. The history of the word is thus brought down to modern times, in which its meaning is altogether changed to that of grotesque and old-fashioned. It may perhaps be owing to the realistic and utilitarian tendencies of the present day that many

works of art of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, which abounding in exuberant fancy would then have been described as beautiful, are now thought worthy only of the almost contemptuous epithet of

quaint'—that is, possessing merely the artistic qualities of a bygone and antiquated style.

Then we find that men and women alike were once described as shrews,' 'termagants,' and 'witches'; Vandyck is an 'artisan’; Archimedes, Catiline, and Galileo are 'artists'; Calliope is "sly'; Ovid is a clerk’; a sword is a bodkin’; an unsafe harbour is

brittle'; St. Dunstan's pincers are 'trinkets'; Troy is 'amiable’; drinkables are viands'; a fountain is a “well’; a knight is a child' or“ infant’; a youth is a • damsel’; manners are 'airs'; tumblers are 'antics.'

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Nephews' meant grand-children; an imp,' a prince; pittance,' a decent allowance; 'to deprave,' to vilify or slander; 'bickering,' open fighting ; 'restive,' stubborn; "unvalued,' invaluable; 'inhabitable,' uninhabitable; niggard' and 'miser,' miserable ; 'miserable,' miserly; 'usury,' lawful interest; 'interest,' usury; demerits,' merits ; "uncouth,' unknown; "amorous,' worthy of love; 'fastidious,' disgusting.

These examples may be sufficient to illustrate the interest as well as the importance of the study of words in their past and present use, whether it be undertaken for the purpose of fully understanding our early writers, or with the view of more surely appreciating the true value and bearing of modern expressions, which can only be ascertained by a knowledge of their former history.

LIST OF AUTHORS QUOTED IN THE

TEXT.

Fourteenth and Fifteenth centuries. Chaucer

1340-1400 Dunbar

1465-1530 Gower

1320-1402 Langland, W., Piers Plowman ..

1332-1378 Lydgate ..

1375–1460 Mandeville, Sir J.

1300-1372 Walsingham, Historian .. Wiclif's Translation of the Bible

1380

cir. 1440

Sixteenth Century.

Bacon
Chapman
Daniel
Drayton ..
Elyot, Sir T.
Fox, J.
Fryth
Gosson, S.
Greene, R.
Hall, E...
Holinshed
Holland
Hooker
Jewell, Bishop
Knollis
Lambard

1561-1629 1557–1634 1562-1619 1563-1631 1495-1546 1517-1587

1533 1554-1623 1560-1592 1499-1547

1580 1551-1636 1553-1600 1522-1571

1596 1536-1601 1472-1555 1553-1599

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xiv

LIST OF AUTHORS

Marlowe
More, Sir T.
Raleigh, Sir W...
Shakspeare
Sidney, Sir P.
Skelton
Spenser
Stow
Surrey
Tusser
Tyndale ..
Whitgift..

1563-1593 1480-1535 1552–1618 1564-1616 1554-1586 1460-1529 1553-1599 1525-1605 1516-1547 1515-1580 1477-1536 1530-1604

Seventeenth Century.

Baillie, R. Barrow Beaumont Boyle, R. Brown, T. Butler, S. Cheyne.. Chillingworth Corbet Cowley Cudworth Davenant, Sir W. Donne Dryden Evelyn, J. Fairfax Fletcher Ford Fuller

1599-1662 1630-1677 1586–1616 1626–1691 1604-1673 1600-1680 1671-1743 1 602-1644 1589-1635 1618-1667 1617-1688 1605-1668 1573-1631 1631-1701 1654-1698

1632 1576-1625 1586-1639 1608-1661

QUOTED IN THE TEXT.

XV

Glanvil
Hale, Sir M.
Hall, Bishop
Hammond
Hobbes
Horsley
Howell
Jonson, Ben
Lee, Nathaniel
L'Estrange
Locke
Lovelace..
Massinger
Middleton, T., Dramatist
Milton
North, R.
Ogilby
Orrery, Lord
Peacham..
Pepys, S...
Philips, Ambrose
Prior
Quarles ..
Randolph
Ray
Roscommon
Sandys ..
Shirley, J.
Smart
Strype
Taylor, Jeremy ..
Temple, Sir William
Waller

1584-1640 1609-1676 1574-1656 1605-1650 1588-1679 1685-1732 1594-1666 1574-1637 1655-1692 1616-1704 1632-1704 1618-1658 1584-1640

1626 1608-1674 1650–1733 1600-1676 1621–1679

1640 1632-1703 1671-1749

1640 1592-1644 1605-1634 1628-1705 1633-1684 1577-1644 1594-1666 17th cent. 1643-1737 1613-1667 1628-1698 1605-1687

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