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He stated that there were upwards of ten thousand Protestant Christians belonging to the Tanjore and Tinnavelly districts alone, who had not among them one complete copy of the Bible; and that not one Christian perhaps in a hundred, had a New Testament; and yet there are some copies of the Tamul Scriptures still to be sold at Tranquebar: but the poor natives cannot afford to purchase them. When I mentioned the designs of the Bible Society in England, they received the tidings with very sensible emotions of thankfulness. Mr. Horst said, if only every tenth person were to obtain a copy of the Scriptures, it would be an event long to be remembered in Tanjore. They lamented much that they were destitute of the aid of a printing-press, and represented to me that the progress of Christianity had been materially retarded of late years by the want of that important auxiliary. They have petitioned the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge to send them one. They justly observed, If you can no longer send us Missionaries to preach the Gospel, send us the means of printing the Gospel.* The Tranquebar Mission and the Madras

* The Brahmins in Tanjore have procured a press,

" which they dedicate (say the Missionaries in their last letter) to the glory of their gods :" but the Missionaries, who first introduced the civilization of Christianity at the Tanjore capital, are still without one. Printing is certainly the legitimate instrument of the Christian for the promulgation of Christianity. We Protestants have put it into the hands of the Brahmins, and we ought to see to it that the teachers of our own religion are possessed of an equal advantage.

Mission, have both possessed printing-presses for a long period; by the means of which they have been extensively useful in distributing the Scriptures and religious publications in several languages. The Mission Press at Tranquebar may be said to have been the fountain of all the good that was done in India during the last century. It was established by Ziegenbalg. From this press, in conjunction with that at Halle, in Germany, have proceeded volumes in Arabic, Syriac, Hindostanee, Tamul, Telinga, Portuguese, Danish, and English. I have in my possession the Psalms of David in the Hindostanee Language, printed in the Arabic character; and the History of Christ in Syriae, intended probably for the SyroRomish Christians on the sea-coast of Travancore, whom a Danish missionary once visited, both of which volumes were edited by the Missionaries of Tranquebar. There is also in Swartz's Library at Tanjore a grammar of the Hindostanée Language, in quarto, published at the same press; an important fact, which was not known at the College of Fort-William, when Professor Gilchrist commenced his useful labours in that Language.'

Tanjore, Sept. 3, 1806.

Before I left the capital of Tanjore, the Rajah was pleased to honour me with a second audience. On this occasion he presented to me a portrait of himself, a very striking likeness, painted by a Hindoo artist at the Tan

jore Court.*---The Missionary, Dr. John, accompanied me to the palace. The Rajah received him with much kindness, and presented to him a piece of gold cloth. Of the resident Missionary, Mr. Kolhoff, whom the Rajah sees frequently, he spoke to me in terms of high approbation. This cannot be very agreeable to the Brahmins ; but the Rajah, though he yet professes the Brahminical religion, is no longer obedient to the dictates of the Brahmins, and they are compelled to admit his superior attainments in knowledge.--I passed the chief part of this morning in looking over Mr. Swartz's manuscripts and books : and when I was coming away, Mr. Kolhoff presented to me a Hebrew Psalter, which had been Mr. Swartz's companion for fifty years; also a brass lamp which he had got first when a Student at the College of Halle, and had used in his lucubrations to the time of his death ; for Mr. Swartz seldom preached to the natives without previous study. I thought I saw the image of Swartz in his successor.

Mr. Kolhoff is a man of great simplicity of manners, of meek deportment, and of ardent zeal in the cause of revealed Religion, and of humanity. He walked with me through the Christian village close to his house, and I was much pleased to see the affectionate respect of the people towards him; the young people of both sexes coming forward from the doors on both sides, to salute him and receive his benediction.'t

* It is now placed in the public Library of the University of Cambridge.

+ That I may give to those who are interested in the promotion of Christianity in the East, a more just view of the cha

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September 4, 1806. Leaving Tanjore, I passed through the woods inhabited by the Collaries (or thieves), now humanized by Christianity. When they understood who I was, they followed me on the road, stating their destitute condition,


racter of Swartz's successor, the Rev. Mr. Kolhoff, I shall subjoin an extract of a Letter, which I have since received from the Rey, Mr. Horst.

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" The Rev. Mr. Kolhoff is sometimes rather weak, on account of so many and various cares that assail him without ceasing. He provides for the wants of this and the Southern Missions (Tritchinopoly excepted) by disbursing annually upwards of one thousand pagodas (about 250l. sterling) out of his private purse, partly to make up the difference between the income and expenditure of this and the Southern Mission (of which I annexed an abstract), and the rest in assisting the deserving poor, without regard to religion ; and for various pious uses. To him as Arbitrator and Father, apply all Christians that are at variance, disturbed from without or from within, out of service or distressed ; for most of our Christians will do any thing rather than go to law,

“All these heterogeneous, but, to a Missionary at Tanjore, unavoidable avocations, joined to the ordinary duties of his station, exercise his mind early and late ; and if he be not of a robust constitution, will undermine his health at last. Happily several neighbouring Churches and new congregations, belonging to the Mission of Tanjore, afford Mr. Kolhoff frequent opportunities to relax his mind, and to recruit his health and spia

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in regard to religious instruction. They were clamorous for Bibles. They supplicated for teachers. "We don't want bread or money from you,' said they, but we want the word of God.'--Now, thought I, whose duty is it to attend to the moral wants of this people? Is it that of the English nation, or of some other nation?'

Tritchinopoly, September 5th.

The first Church built by Swartz is at this place, It is called Christ's Church, and is a large building, capable of containing perhaps two thousand people. The aged Missionary, the Rev. Mr. Pohlé, presides over this Church, and over the native congregations at this place. Christianity flourishes; but I found that here, as at other places, there is a famine of Bibles.' The Jubilee was celebrated on the 19th of July, being the hundredth year from the arrival of the messengers of the Gospel. On this occasion their venerable Pastor preached from Matt. xxviii. 19: Go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptising them in the name of the Father, and of the

sils, by making occasional short excursions to see these new Christians, who were professed thieves only a few years ugo, and many of them are now an honour to the Christian profession, and industrious peasants. It is pleasing to behold the anxiety with which a great number of our Christian children inquire at such times when their father will return; and how they run se. veral miles to meet him with shouts and clapping of hands, and hymns of thanks to God, as soon as they discern his palankeen at a distance."

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