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what I had before heard, that so great a God is this, that the dignity of high cast disappears before him. This great king recognizes no distinction of rank among his subjects; all men are equal in his presence.'

Juggernaut, 21st June, 1806. • The idolatrous processions continue for some days longer ; but my spirits are so exhausted by the constant view of these enormities, that I mean to hasten away from this place sooner than I at first intended. ---I beheld another distressing scene this morning at the Place of Skulls ;---a poor woman lying dead, or nearly dead, and her two children by her, looking at the dogs and vultures, which were near. The people passed by without noticing the children. I asked them where was their home. They said, “they had no home but where their mother was.”---0, there is no pity at Juggernaut! no mercy, no tenderness of heart in Moloch's kingdom! Those who support his kingdom, err, I trust, from ignorance. “ They know not what they do.”'

As to the number of worshippers assembled here at this time, no accurate calculation can be made. The natives themselves, when speaking of the numbers at particular festivals, usually say that a lack of people (100,000) would not be missed. I asked a Brahmin how many he supposed were present at the most numerous

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festival he had ever witnessed, “ How can I tell,” said he, “how many grains there are in a handful of sand ?”

'The languages spoken here are various, as there are Hindoos from every country in India : but the two chief languages in use by those who are resident, are the Orissa and the Telinga. The border of the Telinga Country is only a few miles distant from the tower of Juggernaut.'*





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Chilka Lake, 24th June. "I felt my mind relieved and happy when I had passed beyond the confines of Juggernaut. I certainly was not prepared for this scene. But no one can know what it is who has not seen it.--From an eminencet on the pleasant banks of the Chilka Lake (where no human bones are seen), I had a view of the lofty tower of Juggernaut far remote ; and while I viewed it, its abominations came to mind. It was on the morning of the Sabbath. Ruminating long on the wide and extended empire of Moloch in the heathen world, I cherished in my thoughts the design of some Christian Institution, which, being fostered by Britain, my Christian country, might gradually undermine this baleful idolatry, and put out the memory of it for ever.'

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* It will give pleasure to the reader to hear, that a translation of the Holy Scriptures is preparing in Orissa and Telinga, the languages of Juggernaut.

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Annual Expences of the Idol JUGGERNAUT,

presented to the English Government.

[Extracted from the Official Accounts.]

Rupees. fo. Sterling. 1. Expences attending the table of the idol 36,115 or 4,514 2. Ditto of his dress or wearing apparel 2,712

339 3. Ditto of the wages of his servants 10,057 1,259 4. Ditto of contingent expences at the dif

ferent seasons of pilgrimage 10,989 1,373 5. Ditto of his elephants and horses

3,030 378 6. Ditto of his rutt or annual state carriage 6,713


Rupees 69,616 £ 8,702

In Item third, 'wages of his servants,' are included the wages of the courtezans, who are kept for the service of the temple.

Item sixth.-What is here called in the official account • the state carriage,' is the same as the car or tower. Mr. Hunter informed me that the three state carriages' were decorated this year (in June, 1806) with upwards of 2001, sterling worth of English cloth.

• Of the rites celebrated in the interior of Juggernaut, called the Daily Service, I can say nothing of my own knowledge, not having been within the temple.'*

* At the Temple of Juggernaut, the English Government levy a tax on pilgrims as a source of revenue. The first law JUGGERNAUT IN BENGAL.

Lest it should be supposed that the rites of Juggernaut are contined to the Temple in Orissa, or that the Hindoos there practise a more crimi

opacted by the Bengal Government for this purpose, was entitled, A Regulation for levying a Tax from Pilgrims resorting to the “ Temple of Juggernaut, and for the superintendence and “management of the Temple.- Passed 3d April, 1806." Another Regulation was passed in Bengal, in April, 1809, rescinding so much of the former as related to the “ interior management and controul" of the Temple ; but sanctioning the levying the tax from pilgrims for admission to the temple; allotting a sum toward the expences of the idol; and appointing an officer of Government to collect the tax. Of this second Regulation, the author received no intimation until the third edition of this work was put to press. In the former editions, it was stated that the Temple was under the immediate management and controul of the English Government, which he is now happy to find was not the fact at the time. Whether the account of the new Regulation had reached England before the 1st of July, 1810, when he had occasion first to notice the subject, he does not know. But he has it now in his power to communicate to the public the following authentic information, which, in justice to the Honourable Court of Directors, as to the part they have taken in this matter, ought to be known.

When the Bengal Government first announced their Regu. lation of the 3d of April, 1806, to the Court of Directors, (which they did by letter, dated 16th of May, 1806,) they com



nal superstition than they do in other places,

proper to notice the effects of the same idolatry in Bengal. The English nation will not expect to hear that the blood of Juggernaut is known at Calcutta: but, alas! it is

may be

municated their intention of making the following alterations therein ;-namely, to permit “ certain officers of the Temple “to collect their fees directly from the pilgrims agreeably to “ former usage, instead of receiving the amount of those fees " from the public treasury: to allow the Pundits, who are to “superintend the affairs of the Temple, to be elected by par“ ticular classes of persons attached to it, instead of being

appointed by the Government; and to vest in the Pundits

so elected, the entire controul over the Temple and its mi" nisters and officers, as well as over the funds allotted for its " expenses ; restricting the interference of the officers of " Government to the preservation of the peace of the town, " to the protection of pilgrims from oppression and extortion, « and to the collection of the tax to be appropriated to the use rs of Government."

When this subject came under the notice of the Court of Directors in the year 1808, they thought it proper to propose a distinct statement of their opinions upon it to the Bengal Government, and they prepared a letter, wherein they enjoined, that the Government should not elect the priests who were to superintend the affairs of the Temple, or exercise a controul over its ministers and officers, or take the management of its funds, and that the exercise of the authority of the Government should extend only to objects falling directly within the province of the magistrate, as the care of the policę, the administration of justice, and the collection of such

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