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The thirty-first chapter of the Mánasára, as well as the twenty-fourth of the Māyāmata, treat of gópuras, or towers on the gateways of temples; from both which works a few extracts will be given below. “There are five sorts of gateways, namely, duárasob'ha (the gate of splendour), duárasāla (the gate of the mansion), duáraprasada (the propitious gate), dwóraharmya (the gate of the palace), and dwóragópura (the turreted gate). The breadth of the principal temple being divided into seven, eight, nine, ten, or eleven parts, six, seven, eight, nine, or ten are to be given to that of the five sorts of gópuras respectively. ‘These five sorts are to be employed in as many courts, by which the temple is to be surrounded.” “A dwarasób'ha consists of one or two stories; a dwarasāla of from two to four; a dwóraprassida, of from three to five; a du'árahamya, of from five to seven; and a dwóragópura, of from seven to sixteen stories.” “And the breadth of göpuras, of the superior sort, may be made twice that of the principal temple, or one and three-quarters, one and a-half, or one and a-quarter of it: or in gopuras of the inferior sort, the breadth of the principal temple being divided into four, five, six, or seven parts, one of these parts should be taken away, and the remainder given to the breadth of the former.” “The breadth of the gopura at the bottom being divided into three parts; let one of them be given to the void space of the gate in the middle. ‘The height of the door-frame being divided into four parts, let one be given to the pedestal, one to the base, and two to the pillars, around the first story. Or, the same height being divided into seventeen parts, let five be given to the pedestal, four to the base, and eight to the pillars.’ The height of the door-frame should be twice its breadth.” “The diameter of the gópura of a single story being divided into six

parts, three to be given to the interior space, and three to the thickness of the walls.”

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 59

“The diameter of the gópura of two stories being divided into seven parts, four to be given to the interior space, and three to the thickness of the walls.” “The diameter of the göpura of three stories being divided into nine parts, four to be given to the interior space, three to the thickness of the walls, and the remainder to the terrace around (álindra).” “The diameter of the gópura of four stories being divided into ten parts, five to be given to the space inside, four to the thickness of the walls, and one to the terrace around.” “The diameter of the göpura consisting of seven stories being divided into thirteen parts, eight to be given to the space inside, three to the thickness of the walls, and two to the terrace around,” and so with the rest. Various denominations are next given to gopuras, such as sricara, ravicánta, sawmya, vijaya, visālaca, &c., and their characteristic ornaments described with too much minutenesss to be here detailed; and to these succeeds a no less minute enumeration of the various parts which compose gópuras of the several heights before-mentioned, of which I shall subjoin the divisions and proportions of those only which consist of one, two, five,

six, and twelve stories, the designs of which accompany this essay.

A DWARASóBHA CONSISTING OF ONE STORY.
(See Plate XXXVI.)

“The height of the principal pillars of the gate should be three-quarters of the breadth of the pyramid at the bottom, and being divided into four parts, one to be given to the pedestal, one to the base, and two to the pillars, and the whole height of the ornaments over this, is equal to the breadth of the ground-plan; and the same height being divided into four parts, one is to be given to the entablature, one to the cant'ha, two to the

cupola, and one to the pinnacles.”

A DWARASALA CONSISTING OF TWO STORIES.
(See Plate XXXVII.)

“The height of the principal pillars of the gate, which should be threequarters of the breadth of the ground-plan, being divided into three and three-quarters parts, three-quarters to be given to the pedestal, one to the base, two to the pillars, and one to the entablature. The height of the pillars in the second story is one-eighth less than that of the pillars in the first or lower story, half of which is given to the entablature, half of that to the upper base, twice that to the cavetto above, twice that to the cupola,

which should be surmounted by five pinnacles equal in height to half of

the cupola.”

A GóPURA CONSISTING OF FIVE STORIES.
(See Plates XXXVIII. and XXXIX.)

“The height of the gate-pillars being divided into twenty-one parts, nine to be given to the pedestal, four to the base, and eight to the pillar, and the remainder of the pyramid, from the entablature up to the pinnacle, is in height equal to one and a-quarter part of the breadth of the groundplan: and being divided into twenty-three parts, two to be given to the entablature of the first story; three and a-half to the pillar, one and threequarters to the entablature of the second; three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the third; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-quarter to the entablature of the fourth: two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the fifth; one to the cavetto, two and a-half to the dome, and

one to the pinnacle.”

A GóPURA CONSISTING OF SIX STORIES.
(See Plate XL.)

“The height of the gate-pillars, which is three-quarters of the breadth of the ground-plan, being divided into four and a-half parts, one and a-half

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 61

to be given to the pedestal, one to the base, and two to the pillars; and the upper part of the pyramid, which is equal in height to the breadth of the ground-plan, being divided into twenty-nine parts, two are to be given to the entablature of the first story; four to the pillar, one and three-quarters to the entablature of the second; three and a-half to the pillar, one and three-quarters to the entablature of the third; three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the fourth; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the fifth; two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the sixth ; one to the cavetto, two and a-half to the dome, and

one and a-half to the pinnacle.”

A GOPURA CONSISTING OF TWELVE STORIES.
(See Plates XLI. and XLII.)

“The height of the gate-pillars is three-quarters of the breadth of the plan, and it being divided into five parts, two to be given to the pedestal, one to the base, and two to the pillar. The upper part is equal in height to twice the breadth of the ground-plan; and the same being divided into eighty-five parts, three and a-half to be given to the entablature of the first story; seven to the pillar, three and a-half to the entablature of the second; six and a-half to the pillar, three and a-half to the entablature of the third; six to the pillar, three to the entablature of the fourth; five and a-half to the pillar, two and three-quarters to the entablature of the fifth; five to the pillar, two and a-half to the entablature of the sixth; four and a-half to the pillar, two and a-half to the entablature of the seventh; four to the pillar, two to the entablature of the eighth; three and a-half to the pillar, one and three-quarters to the entablature of the ninth; three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the tenth; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-quarter to the entablature of the eleventh; two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the twelfth; one to the upper pedestal, one

and three quarters to the cavetto, three and a-half to the dome, and one Having given the proportions of the different parts of pyramidal temples and gateways, we may be permitted to indulge in a few words relative to their general appearance, and to the ideas which this is calculated to impress on the mind. An eminent author makes the architectural sublime to consist “ in magnitude, height of the buildings, and solidity of the materials;” another author, “in splendour, magnificence, and an imposing appearance.” These characteristics of the sublime, most of the Indian temples possess in an eminent degree, independently of that sort of light betwixt gloom and glare which increases the sublimity in architecture; and in beholding these majestic and stupendous works, we are struck with admiration and respect, and animated with emotions of piety, virtue, and religion. If we enter into the minutiae of the art, which solely depend on scientific proportion, and on the skilful application of mechanic powers, we are led to wonder at the success of the artist in his attempts at the sublime, and to express our astonishment at the physical powers employed in the superstructure. Of all the modes of building invented by man, the pyramid seems to be best calculated to produce these impressions. It must be acknowledged, however, that the pyramidal buildings of India are of much less dimensions than those of Egypt, and that the former have too great a profusion of ornaments. If we examine the exterior of these temples, we should discover with what skill the bulk of the edifice is shewn to advantage, and how admirably the parts are formed for the eye to embrace the whole, at the same time that the sight is bewildered with the infinite variety of decorations. The interior, also, is so constructed as to cast over it a visible oblivion, that indispensable requisite of the sublime. I shall now close this essay, with the following short account of the mode of preparing chunam, or cement, as practised by the artists in India. Chunam is prepared in the interior of India from a gravelly sort of lime

and a-half to the pinnacles.”

stone dug out of quarries, and along the coast from shells washed out of

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