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ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 53

cumb'ha, and one-third of the latter to the cudmala (the bud). Or divide the crown of the cupola into five equal parts; give three to the breadth of the phaláca, which divide into five equal parts, make the breadth of the padma take up four parts; which divide again into three equal parts, give one to the breadth of the cant'ha, and three to the breadth of the cumb'ha. Divide the breadth of the latter into nine equal parts, and give one to that of the dandé or pinnacle, or three times the breadth of the pinnacle may be taken for the breadth of the phaláca, and one-third of the breadth of the latter for that of the cudmala (bud).” “The great padma or lotus under the pinnacle should be made to consist of eight petals, and the rest of the ornaments made in such a manner as to

give a graceful appearance to the whole.”

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF TWO STORIES.

(See Plate XXII.)

“The height is twice the breadth, which latter is divided into six parts; one to be given to the carnacátha," one to the hārántara,t two to the muc'hub'hadra, and two to the carnacát'ha and hārāntara on the other side of the façade. The height of the edifice is divided into twenty-eight parts, of which three are given to the ad'hist'hána (base), six to the pillars, three to the entablature, five to the pillars above; two to the entablature, one to the base, two to the neck or cantha, four to the cupola, and two to the pinnacle.”

“The pedestal at the bottom is not included in the height of the temple,

but it is equal in height to the base over it.” Under this head may be noticed the designs in Plates XXIII. and XXIV. which represent the plan and the front and side elevations of the vimāna at Sri Rangam, one of the earliest specimens of sacred architecture which the ancients have left us in the South of India. The cupola or dome is crowned with four pinnacles over the front portico, and four more across the former over the principal cell; and in the tabernacle immediately below the cupola, stands the statue of Paravásudéva, a form of Vishnu. The plan of the cell or sanctuary, where the idol of Ranganātha is seen in a recumbent posture, is oval, but that of the front portico square, and the outside of the vault is adorned with a sort of tracery-work. The front portico, which extends to a considerable distance from the main cell, is supported by rows of lofty columns; and the whole temple is enclosed by seven square courts, each of them having four pyramidal gateways, one in the middle of each side of the wall. Several of these courts contain private dwelling-houses of Brahmans and other classes. The designs have been taken by an artist on the spot, and the proportions of the different parts of which the temple is composed are, according to his account, as follows: “The whole height of the vimāna is divided into thirty-two parts, four are given to the base, three to the pillars, four to the entablature, five to the upper pillars, two to the upper entablature, one to the upper base, two to

* The side niches. + The flank ornaments.

f The front tabernacle.

the can'tha, four to the cupola, and two to the pinnacle.”

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF THREE STORIES.

(See Plates XXVI. and XXX.)

“The height is twice the breadth, and being divided into forty-eight parts, four are given to the base, eight to the pillar, four to the entablature, seven and a-half to the pillar above, three and a-half to the entablature, seven to the pillars, three to the entablature, one to the upper base, two to the cant'ha, six to the cupola, and two to the pinnacle.”

The first design is made from the foregoing measurement given by Mánasara, and the second is taken from the vimāna of Vaicuntha

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 55

Nát'ha " at Cánchipuram (Canjeveram). In the lower story is placed the statue of the god whose name the temple bears; in the upper that of Ranganātha " recumbently, and in the third that of Paravásudéva," sitting under the canopy of a cobra de capello. This temple has been selected for a specimen on account of the singularity of the plan, and of the three different deities being worshipped one above another, in as many stories, of which it is composed. “The height of this temple is divided into twelve parts, one to the base, two to the pillar, one to the entablature, three-quarters to the pedestal, three-quarters to the base, one and a-half to the pillar, three-quarters to the entablature, a half to the base, one to the pillar, a half to the entablature, a quarter to the upper base, a half to the cantha, one to the

cupola, and a half to the pinnacle.

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF FOUR STORIES.
(See Plate XXXI.)

“The height of the vimāna being divided into nineteen parts, one and a-half is given to the base, three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the first story, two and a-half to the pillar, one to the entablature of the second story, two to the pillar, three-quarters to the entablature of the third story, one and a-half to the pillar, three-quarters to the entablature of the fourth story, a half to the upper base, one to the cant'ha, two to the cupola, and one to the pinnacle.”

“The pedestal at the bottom is independent of the rest of the parts, and is equal in height to the base,”

“The inner pillar of the carnacátha (the side niches) of the lower story, should be placed directly under the outer pillar of the same ornament, in

the story immediately above.”

* Vishnu under different forms.

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF FIVE STORIES.
(See Plate XXXII.)

“The height is to be divided into twenty-four parts: one and a-half to be given to the base, three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the first story; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-quarter to the entablature of the second ; two and a-quarter to the pillar, one to the entablature of the third; two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the fourth; one and three-quarters to the pillar, one to the entablature of the fifth; a half to the upper base, one to the cant'ha, two and a-half to the cupola, and one and a-half to the pinnacle. The pedestal below is equal in height to the base.”

Temples of five stories are found in various parts of southern India; and the design which accompanies, represents one at Rájaráyéswaram, in the

province of Tanjore.

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF SEVEN STORIES.
(See Plate XXXIII.)

“The height is divided into thirty-six parts; two to be given to the base, four to the pillar, two to the entablature of the first story; three and a-half to the pillar, one and three-quarters to the entablature of the second; three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the third; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the fourth; two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the fifth; one and a-half to the pillar, threequarters to the entablature of the sixth; one and a-quarter to the pillar, five-eighths to the entablature of the seventh ; one to the base, one and a-half to the cantha, two and a-half to the cupola, and five-eighths to the pinnacle.

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 57

A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF TWELVE STORIES.
(See Plate XXXIV.)

“The whole height is to be divided into eighty-seven parts, four to be given to the base, eight to the pillar, four to the entablature of the first story; seven to the pillar, three and a-half to the entablature of the second; six to the pillar, three to the entablature of the third ; five to the pillar, two and a-half to the entablature of the fourth; four and a-half to the pillar, two and a-half to the entablature of the fifth; four to the pillar, two to the entablature of the sixth; three and a-half to the pillar, two to the entablature of the seventh; three to the pillar, one and a-half to the entablature of the eighth; two and a-half to the pillar, one and a-quarter to the entablature of the ninth; two and a-half to the pillar, one to the entablature of the tenth; two to the pillar, one to the entablature of the eleventh; one to the upper base, two to the cant'ha, three to the cupola, one and a-half to the

pinnacle.”
A VIMÁNA CONSISTING OF FIFTEEN STORIES.
(See Plate XXXV.)

“The height being divided into one hundred and ninety-four parts, seven to be given to the base; thirteen to the pillar, six and a-half to the entablature of the first story; twelve to the pillar, six to the entablature of the second; eleven to the pillar, five and a-half to the entablature of the third; ten to the pillar, and five to the entablature of the fourth; nine to the pillar, four and a-half to the entablature of the fifth; eight to the pillar, four to the entablature of the sixth, and so on up to the fifteenth story; the pillars being diminished by half a part regularly, and the entablatures half the height of the pillars over which they are placed; after which one part is given to the upper base, two to the cant'ha, four and a-half to the cupola,

and one and a-quarter to the pinnacle.”

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