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ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 43

is particularly intended for the residence of Brahmans. It may contain twelve, twenty-four, fifty, one hundred and eight, three hundred or more houses. The smallest, or that which contains twelve houses, is called ásrama, hermitage, and ought to be situated near mountains and forests, for the habitation of hermits. The village containing twenty-four houses is to be situated on the banks of a river, and inhabited by yatis or holy mendicants: it is called puram. That which contains fifty houses should be occupied by those who have performed holy sacrifices, or by householders in general: in the former case, it is called puram, and in the latter mangalam. The village containing a hundred and eight houses is commonly called Cost’ham.” “The village called Sarvatóbhadra is also of a quadrangular form, containing in the middle a temple dedicated to any one of the triad, Brahma,” Vishnu, or Mahéswara. It has four streets of equal length on the four sides within the wall, meeting one another at right angles, and two more crossing each other in the middle. Between these may be formed three, four, five, or as many more streets as the extent of the village will admit on each side parallel to the middlemost street.” Here several verses in the original bear allusion to the projections of some of the streets described above, but they are not sufficiently clear to be translated. “Without the walls,” continues our text, “should be placed the shrines of the deities who preside over and defend the several quarters of the village; at the angular points should be erected halls, porticos, colleges, and other public edifices; and towards the quarter of agni (south-east), a water-shed for the accommodation of travellers and passengers. The whole village should be secured by a quadrangular wall, and a ditch around it, with four large and as many small gates, in the middle of the sides and at

the angular points. Without the northern gate should be erected a temple

* The worship of the representation of Brahma is very rare.

for the worship of Mahá Cáli, and the huts of the chand'álas or outcasts should be a crosa” distant from the village. A tank or reservoir should be constructed either on the south or north side, or near either of these two points, for ablutionary and culinary purposes.” “The village called Nandyāvartta, is either square or oblong. It is divisible into as many parts as are contained in the (mystic) figure called Chandita or Paramasáyica. The Chandita contains sixty-four equal parts, being the square of eight, of which the middle four parts are called Bráhmya, or those which belong to Brahma, and they should be entirely appropriated to sacred purposes. Around these are twelve parts called Divya, or those belonging to the Dévas; around these twenty parts called Mánushya, or those belonging to mortals; and around these again twentyeight called Paysécha, or those belonging to demons. These several rounds should be occupied by different classes in the order of their superiority, that is Brahmans f should have the Brahmya, and so with the rest. The figure called Paramasáyica contains eighty-one equal parts, being the square of nine, of which the middle nine are Brahmya; sixteen around these are Divya; twenty-four around these Mánushya, and the outermost thirty-two Paysécha. This village has four large streets along the inside of the wall by which it is surrounded, running in each direction at right angles; namely, one near the north-west quarter, passing towards the north-east, projects at a small distance beyond the cross street which intersects it; another opening from a little way within the projection runs forward in a south-east direction, and projects in the same manner beyond the intersecting street on that side, and the same may be said of the streets at the two other angular points. The number of streets in the outer

compartment should be determined according to its extent, and in the

* A crosa is equal to four thousand yards. t This is a contradiction of the preceding passage, which directs the middle parts called

Brahmya to be appropriated to religious structures.

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 45

compartments called Divya and Mánushya three or four more parallel streets may be made from east to west, with as many cross ones from north to south, forming as it were so many courts or enclosures. Two broad streets run through the middle of the village, from east to west and from north to south, cutting one another in the middle, where there should be erected either “a temple for Brahma, or a mantapa for general meetings.” At each of the angles of the outermost streets there should be a gateway ornamented with arches and the like. This village is of two sorts, which are also called the one Mangalam and the other Puram. The former is inhabited only by Brahmans, and the latter by all classes indiscriminately.” In this manner the author goes on describing the forms and arrangements of the remaining sorts of villages; but as the accompanying designs (Plates XLIII to XLVI) will, it is hoped, render the subject more intelligible, I shall close this article with one or two more extracts only, respecting the sites and aspects of temples, and regarding some other matters treated of in this chapter. “The temples of Vishnu, in whatever form that deity may be worshipped, should be erected within the village facing towards the east, except in the incarnation of Narasinha (the Man-lion), whose temple should be built without the wall with its face turned from the village or town. That part of the figure which belongs to Mitra,” Bhallata," Arya,” or Sauruya," should be invariably assigned to the temple of Vishnu, but the shrine of Siva should be built in the compartments presided over by Indra," Indraja," Rudra," Rudraga,” &c. If the emblem of Siva (Linga) is to

be consecrated according to the Siddhanta Agama,t it may be placed

* Denoting certain compartments in the mystic figure before mentioned. + The title of a religious book held in high reverence by the followers of Siva, and which treats, 1st, of several species of charities, such as the building of a caravanserai, and digging of tanks and wells for the accommodation of travellers; 2dly. of religious duties diurnal and periodical, of the various kinds of sacraments, and of ceremonies propitious or expiative, in which within the village; if otherwise, it should remain without. In the case of Vishnu too, if the idol is to be consecrated according to the system of Wayghanasa” it may be admitted within, but if according to the doctrines of Páncharátrat it should be placed without the village. The shrines of Durgā, Shanmucha, and the objects worshipped by Jainas and Bauddhas, should be erected without the village.” “Private houses or mansions may consist of from one to nine stories, but this is to be determined according to the rank of the persons for whom they are built. The lower classes of people must on no account construct their houses of more than a single story or ground floor; and the height of the buildings should correspond in every street, as far as practicable, and in all structures of the same number of stories.” “The front, middle, and back-door of a private dwelling-house should be so contrived as to be on the same level, and in the same straight line one with another. Let the outer door be placed, not exactly in the middle of the façade, but a little more to one side than to the other. The general practice is this: if the front of the house be ten paces in length, the entrance should be between five on the right and four on the left. The same rule is to be observed with regard to the gates of temples. In the front of the houses should be erected a védica, or raised seat or pedestal on each side of the door.” “The gates and doorways of temples and houses of all classes of people should be from one hasta; and a half to seven hastas in height; the smaller

doors, from one to five hastas; and the windows, from twelve angulas to one

which are included the holy incantations wherewith temples are sanctified, and images of

deities deified and adorned; and lastly, of the nature of the godhead and his attributes, of

souls, elements, and other principles, and of contemplation, &c. * Two rival systems of religious rites and prayers observed among the followers of Vishnu. + The wife of Siva, an avenging goddess, and her son Carticóyd. t This perhaps alludes to the height of a window, which follows.

ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF THE HINDUS. 47

hasta and a half. The breadth of large gates should be equal to, or a little less than half of their height; or, the height of the door being divided into nine parts, five may be given to its breadth. The height of the door-frame being divided into seven, eight, nine, or ten equal parts, that of the void space should be equal to that of the door-frame, minus one part; a strict conformity to these rules will insure prosperity and happiness.” A whole page after this is employed in enumerating the various sorts of gifts and donations to be made to the artists on the completion of an edifice, and finally in denouncing dire misfortunes to those who withhold such presents from them. The next chapter professes to describe nagaras or cities; but as it contains nothing farther than an enumeration of several sorts of cities and the various titles of particular princes who are qualified to reside in them, I shall omit it altogether. In order, however, that some idea may be formed of an ancient Hindú city, I subjoin the following extract from the first book of the Rámáyana. “On the banks of the Sarayu is a vast, fertile, and delightful country called Cós'ala, abounding in corn and wealth.” “In that country is a city called Ayódhya, greatly famed in this world, and built by Manu himself, the lord of men. This great and prosperous city was twelve yójanas" in length and three in breadth, and stored with all conveniences. The streets and lanes were admirably disposed, and the high-roads were well sprinkled with water. In this city lived Dasarat'ha, the most potent of monarchs, even as Indra lived in Amaravati.f. It is adorned with arched gateways and beautiful ranges of shops; it is fortified with numerous defences and warlike machines, and inhabited by all sorts of skilful artists. It was crowded with bards and musicians, filled with riches, and shone forth with unrivalled glory; it had

* A y(jana is equal to nine miles. + The capital of Indra, the regent of heaven.

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