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divided into thirteen parts; two are given to the abacus, one to the fillet, two to the madana,* seven to the cimarecta, and one to the cimbia. The upper part of the shaft, about one and a half diameters below the capital, being divided into twenty-four parts, three are given to the collarino with its fillet, three to the ovolo, three to the lower collarino, five to the lower torus with its cimacia, and ten below to the strings of pearls (muctadháma).* The projection of the capital is one diameter, or about an eighth part beyond that of the lowest part of the base; the fillets project the full, and the torus three-quarters of their respective heights.

The height of the entablature is one-fourth of that of the column. It is to be divided into twenty-one parts, eight are given to the architrave, seven to the cornice, and six to the vyálam.t Of the eight parts of the architrave, one is to be given to the cavetto, three to the tema or benda (uttara) with its listels, two to the cimarecta, and two to the upper

facia (vájina). Of the seven parts of the cornice, one occupies the fillet, and the remainder the ovolo (prastara); and of the six parts of the cornice, three to be given to the cavetto, two to the prativájina, and one to the fillet. The projection of the vajina of the architrave is equal to that of the capital, that of the prastara is twice as much, and that of the cornice equal to its own height. After making a similar division of the entablature, our author lays down the following rule respecting the projection of the members. “ The height of the architrave being divided into four, five, six, seven, or eight parts, one should be given to its projection beyond the pillars. The capota projects equal to its height, or to three-fourths of it, and the vajina one-fourth.”

“ The álinga recedes about one diameter, and the antarita projects equal to its own height, and the same may be said of the prati.

* The forms of this ornament may be seen in Plate VI.

+ A moulding used above the cornice, and which takes its name from being generally orna, mented with the figures of the animal called vyála. I A square moulding so called.

$ The projecting member of the cornice.

The fourth sort of column is nine diameters high. The base is one of those called pratibhadra, and is one diameter in height. It is without a pedestal

The base is to be divided into eighteen equal parts, two to be given to the plinth, one to its fillet, three to the cimarecta, three to the cavetto with its listel, three to the torus, three to the upper cavetto, two to the platband, and one to the cimbra. The projection of the plinth is onethird of the height of the whole base; the torus and the platband project equal to their respective heights.

The upper ornaments of this column occupy two diameters, and the capital takes three-quarters of the diameter, which is to be divided into ten parts: two to be given to the abacus, which projects half a diameter, one to the strings of pearls, one to the fillet, four to the cimacia, and one to the circular cimbia. The ornaments under the capital are to be divided into sixteen parts: of which give two to the cavetto or collarino, one-anda-half to the cima, four to the torus, which projects perpendicular to the plinth, or three-quarters part of its height; one and a-half to the lower cima, three to the lower collarino, two to the astragal, which projects equal to its own height, and two to the third cima and its fillet, below which a space equal to three diameters is taken up by strings of pearls, but which are omitted in some columns of a similar description.

The fifth sort of column is ten diameters high, including the base, which ought to be three-quarters of the diameter. It should be divided into twelve parts: two for the plinth, whose projection is a fourth part of the diameter, one for the fillet, four for the cima, and one-and-a-half for the cavetto, one for the lesser cima, one-and-a-half for the torus, and one for the cimbia. The projection of the cima and torus is equal to their respective heights. This column is sometimes erected on a high pedestal, which is about a third part of the height of the pillar.

The height of the capital, which is called pushpaband'ha, is equal to the upper diameter of the column: its projection on the sides is equal to its

height, and the middlemost square is ornamented with the petals of a lotus. “ The altitude of the capital,” says Cásyapa,

may be equal to the higher, lower, or the middle diameter of the column. Its breadth may be equal to its height, or four or five diameters. A capital the height of which is from one to two diameters, and the breadth twice its height, is of the superior sort; and that which in height is half the diameter, and in breadth from one to three diameters, is of the inferior sort.”

In colonnades of porticoes, the intercolumniations are found to be from one diameter and a half to two diameters.

The sixth sort of pillar is eleven diameters high. The design made to illustrate this is selected from among the pillars found at Canjeveram; it represents a square pillar of the same height, exclusive of the base, which is composed of a plinth, a cimarecta, and torus, with their fillets, and is one diameter high. The same pillar, including the base, may be taken as an 'example also of the seventh sort, which ought to be twelve diameters in height.* “ When the pillar,” says Cásyapa,“ is measured in height from the upper

fillet of the base it is called nigata-stamb’ha, but when it is measured from the plinth below it, is termed nichata-stamb'ha.

At the foot of the shaft, a space equal in height to the hypothenuse of the lower diameter is made quadrangular, around which are sculptured images of the deities, and the like, in bas-relief. In about half a diameter above this, is made the ornament called nágabandha.f The remainder of the shaft, about three diameters and a half, is made to consist of eight sides, including the strings of pearls, which occupy three-quarters of a diameter, and appear to be suspended from the fillet of the upper ornament called padmaband'ha, I which takes up half a diameter. Next above this is the calasa or water-pot, about three-quarters of a diameter; and above this

* See Plate VI.

+ A sort of moulding made in the form of a serpent.
# A moulding made in the form of a lotus.

are made, with the same height given to them, three other mouldings, called in the language of architecture, herica, asya, and tatica, which last projects a fourth part of the diameter. Above these again is the lower collarino, in height about a quarter of a diameter, then the ornament called cumb’ha, which is half a diameter high and projects as much; next the upper collarino, a little less than the lower one; next the moulding called p'halaca, which is one diameter high, and projects equal to its height; next the third collarino, about three-fourths of a diameter; and last of all, the capital of the kind called pushpaband'ha, which has already been described. *

This pillar may, according to the definition of its form, be called vishnucánta, and appears in most of its ornaments, though not in their proportions, to agree with the description given by Mánasára of that which he called pálicástambha. He says, “ the height of the collarino (viracantha) should be one diameter of the column; that of the phalaca, one, threequarters, or two or three diameters, and its projection one-fourth of its height. The height of the cumb'ha below the collarino may be half, oneand-a-half, or two diameters, and its breadth equal to the upper or lower collarino. The height of the táticasyat is half, or three-quarters of the diameter. Let the lower cima be equal to its height, and let its breadth be one-and-a-quarter diameter. Below that comes the hericat of half that height. The height and breadth of the tática are equally one diameter. Below that let a calasa (water-pot) be made about two diameters in breadth, and let the upper part of it be shaped in the form of a durdhura flower, and in such a manner as may appear graceful. Below this, about threequarters of the diameter should be decorated with strings of pearls.

Besides the model referred to in the above description, Plate XVI. contains three more designs of pillars, which may also serve as specimens of those of the seventh sort, so far at least as their dimensions are concerned. The pillars which they represent are to be seen in a portico at Tiruvana

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malei, but I cannot find any thing in the description of pillars contained in the books under examination, like the works sculptured on the shafts of these models. They are probably modern improvements, and their workmanship, like that which adorns the pillars at Madura, may be attributed to the skill of the artists of the day. The same may be said of the double pillars which support a beautiful portico at Canjeveram, and on which are sculptured, in alto relief, lions and horses standing upright the full length of the columns; the former treading on elephants, and the latter mounted by armed knights. See Plates XVII. and XVIII.

The pillars at Tiruvanamalei are estimated to be about thirty feet high, with proportionate thickness, diminished at the top by a twelfth part of the lower diameter. There are three kinds of them. The first is placed on a high pedestal and base: the whole shaft is divided into ten compartments, each being equal in height to the hypothenuse of the diameter of the pillar; and on all the four sides of these compartments are sculptured, in relief, four small pillars or pilasters supporting an entablature. The second pillar differs from the first in having two, instead of four, small ornamental pilasters in relief, on each side of the ten compartments into which the shaft is divided, with an ornamented niche in the middle, which in the third specimen is flanked by two small pancharas or ornamented cages on both sides of it. The second sort of pillar is placed on a base without a pedestal, and the third on a pedestal without a base. See Plate XVI.

Having taken the preceding general survey of the several members connected with the orders of Indian architecture, it was my intention to submit a few remarks on such of the orders now in use in modern Europe, as have any correspondence with those of India ; but being destitute of European books which treat directly on this subject, I confine myself to the Egyptian, Grecian, and Roman, and to them only with regard to a few leading particulars.

The difference in the Indian orders, consists chiefly in the proportion between the thickness and height of pillars; while that of the Grecian and

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