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state. Along the line of an aqueduct, according to Montfaucon, at certain intervals,

of which one hundred and fifty of the arches remain, all formed of large blocks unconnec lines were first to avoid excessive height, where low grounds were crossed, and, secondl

925. It has been conjectured that the causes for not carrying these aqueducts in stra diminish the velocity of the water, so that it might not be delivered to the city in a tuz servoirs called Castella were formed, in which the water might deposit its silt; these were round towers of masonry raised of course as high as the aqueduct itself, and sometimes higtily were sunk for the reception and deposit of the earthy particles which the water contained ornamented. The same author observes that below the general bed of the channel, pits CHAP. II.

ROMAN. by cement, in two ranks of arcades one above the other.


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and (lib. viii. chap. 7.) he moreover directs that when water-pipes are passed across valley, a venter should be formed, which is a subterranean reservoir wherein the water may be collected, and by which its expansion may be diminished, so that the hydrostatical pressure will not burst the joints. He also recommends that open vertical pipes should be raised for the escape of the air which accompanies the water, a practice which the inoderns have found it necessary to adopt wherever it is necessary to bend pipes upwards, and thus permit the escape of air, which would impede, and even stop altogether, the movement of the water in them. (Some additional details are given in the Glossary.)

226. Theatres. — The earliest stone theatre of Rome, as we have before stated (185.), was that of Pompey; but it must be recollected that as there are notices in history of this theatre having been more than once consumed by fire, there can be little doubt that a portion, probably the seats and scenes, were of wood. The second theatre of stone was raised by Julius Cæsar, after which Augustus reared one in honour of Marcellus, the son of his sister. The scanty ruins of this last enable one to do little more than trace its elevation, and from their curve to compute its extent. There was no essential difference between the form of the Roman and Greek Theatre, of which latter we have given a diagram in fig. 106. We nevertheless think it right here to present the reader with one of the Roman Theatre fig. 126.), as nearly as it can be made out from the description of Vitruvius. (Book v.

Chap. 6. “ The form of
a theatre," according to
that author, “ is to be
adjusted so, that from the
centre of the dimension
allotted to the base of
the perimeter, a circle
is to be described, in
which are inscribed, at
equal distances from
each other, four equi-
lateral triangles whose
points must touch the
circumference of the cir-
cle.” – “ Of these tri-
angles the side of that
which is nearest the
scene determines the
face of it, in that part
where it cuts the cir.
cumference of the circle.
A line drawn parallel

to it through the centre will separate the pulpitum of the proscenium from the orchestra. Thus the pulpitum becomes more spacious and convenient that that of the Greeks, because our actors remain chiefly on the scena. In the orchestra are assigned seats to the senators : the height of its pulpitum must not exceed 5 ft., so that the spectators in the orchestra may have a clear view of the motions of the actors. The portions between the staircases (cunei) of the theatre are to be so divided that the vertices of the triangles, that touch the circumference, may point to the directions of the ascents and steps between the cunei on the first præcinction or story. Above these the steps are placed alternately and form the upper cunei in the middle of those below. The angles thus pointing to staircases will be seven in number, and the remaining five will indicate certain points on the scene. That in the centre, for instance, is the situation for the royal door, those on the right and left the doors of the guests, and those at the extremities the points at which the road diverges. The seats (gradus) for the spectators are not to be less than 20 in. in height nor more than 22. Their width is not to be more than 2! ft. nor less than 2 ft.” Besides the theatres named, that of Cornelius Balbus, built by him in honour of Augustus, was on a scale of considerable magnificence.




Fig. 126.



Fig. 127.


227. The large theatre at Pompeii

, as was frequently the case, was formed upon the slope of a hill, the corridor being the highest part, whence the audience descended to their seats, and staircases were saved. The gradus at this theatre were about 1 ft. 3 in. high, and 2 ft. 4 in. wide, and from a part which is divided and numbered off, I ft. 3 in. appear to have been allotted to each spectator. There still remain some of the iron rings, for the reception of the masts from which the velarium or awning was suspended.

228. Amphitheatres. — The amphitheatre was unknown to the Greeks. At an early period, however, in Rome, human beings were compelled to fight for the amusement of spectators. The taste for such spectacles increased with its indulgence; but it was nevertheless not

until the time of the emperors, that buildings were erected solely for exhibition of gladiatorial shows. The principal amphitheatres, of which remains still exist, are one at Alba, a small city of Latium; another near the Tiber at Otricoli; one of brick near the banks of the Garigliano; one at Puzzuoli, wherein parts of the ar.

cades and caves for wild beasts still remain ; one at Capua ; another at Verona; a very fine one at Pola in Istria (fig. 127.). In France, Arles, Saintes, Autun, Nismes, and Nice possessed amphitheatres. In short, wherever the Romans went, they erected those extraordinary monuments of their power and skill. But all that we have enumerated were far surpassed by the Coliseuin, which has been already briefly mentioned by us at page 79. The form of this building on the plan is an ellipse, whose transverse exterior axis is 615 ft. and its conjugate 510 ft., covering therefore nearly six English acres of ground. The whole mass is placed on an ascent of six stages, which encircle its whole circumference. In the centre is the arena, a name which it received from being strewed with sand, the transverse and conjugate axes whereof are 281 and 176 ft. respectively. Round the arena was a wall on which was the podium or fence; and immediately behind this wall all round was a row of cells in which the beasts were placed preparatory to their entrance into the arena. In the rear of the cells was a corridor from which vaults radiated in directions perpendicular or nearly so to the curve of the ellipse, and serving to support the first mænianum or interior range of seats. In some of these vaults were steps leading to the podium; others were merely passages between the first corridor and the next towards the interior. The second corridor was lighted by apertures cut through its vault to the pracinctio which separated the first and second horizontal division of the seats. In rear of the second corridor, vaults again radiated, in some whereof were steps leading to the second division of the seats, and in others were galleries which led from the corridor to the double arcade, surrounding the whole edifice. The description will be better comprehended by reference to figs. 128. and 129., in the latter whereof a portion of the exterior side is removed, to exhibit the section.

229. About the whole exterior of the building, there are three orders of columns rising above each other, and one of pilasters crowning the whole. The columns are of equal diameter, and are filled in between with eighty arcades in cach story. The arches of these arcades have all archivolt mouldings round them. Four of the arcades in the lower tier were reserved for the admission of distinguished personages, the remainder for the populace: these last were called vomitoria, serving both for ingress and egress to and from the places of the spectators, by means of steps under the vaults that supported the seats. The piers which support the arches are 7 ft. 4. in. wide; on each is a half column projecting from the general face of the wall. The opening between the piers is 17 ft. 3,5 in. Impost mouldings are placed at the springing of the arches, and encircle the building except where interrupted by the columns and openings. The lower order resembles the Doric, except that the frieze is without triglyphs and the cornice without mutules. Desgodetz makes the height of the columns 27.63 ft., and their lower diameter 2.91 ft. Their diminution is very small. The height of the entablature is 6.64 ft., and the height, therefore, of the whole order above the pavement is 34.27 ft. The second order is Ionic, and stands on a dado 6 ft. high, broken under the columns to receive their projection from the wall. The columns are 25.73 ft. high. The volutes of the capitals are without ornament; the eye being merely marked by a circle. The entablature is 6.64 ft. high, and its subdivisions are like that in the order below. There are neither modillions nor dentils in the cornice. The height of the whole order is 38:37 ft. The third order is Corinthian, standing on a dado 6:39 ft. bigh. The columns are 25:58 ft. high. the entablature 6.59 ft., and the height of the entire order, including the dado, is 38.57 ft.

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high, placed on a dado of the height of 7 ft. The height of the pilasters, which are CHAP. II.

ROMAN. a of


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diminished, is 28 ft., and the height of their entablature is 7.37 ft. The frieze and archi. trave are broken vertically in each interpilaster over three corbels, on which it is supposed

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running through the back part of the cornice, poles were placed for holding the velarium, which was occasionally stretched over the building to protect the spectators from the sun or rain. The whole height of the façade above the steps was 162 ft. The columns project rather more from the walls than their semidiameter; and the faces of the walls are not in the same vertical plane, but recede from it towards the interior of the building. The widths of the piers vary in the different stories, being respectively from the lower part upwards as 8.71, 8-38, and 7.28 ft. Between the pilasters, in the fourth order, are square windows. The velarium was attached to the poles round the circumference with a fall towards the interior, so that the rain was delivered into the arena. The following has been supposed as a method of spreading the velarium, of which Fontana gives a representation, but no description. To a cable placed round and made fast on the edge of the podium, and following its curve, strong ropes were attached in the direction (on the plan) of the radiating walls. These ropes passed through pullies in the pules, 240 in number, at the top of the building, which rested on the corbels above mentioned, and thus raised the velarium to the required height. It would follow the inclination of the seats, and the cloth, of whatever fabric or materials it might be, being formed in gores equal on the outer edges to the distance of the masts from each other, might move on the radiating ropes by rings attached to the edges of


each gore, so as to be moved backwards and forwards by persons stationed on the parapet Marine soldiers were employed for this purpose. The velarium was sometimes of silk, but more usually yellow or brown woollen cloth. Nero once had a purple velarium stretched across the building, representing the heavens with stars of gold on it, and a design em broidered thereon of the Chariot of the Sun.

230. It has been conjectured by some Roman antiquaries that the arena was boarded; and, from the changes that could be made on it in a very short period, the conjecture is highly probable. Domitian covered it with water for the purpose of exhibiting marire shows and naval fights. Sometimes it was changed into the representation of a forest with wild beasts roaming about. These alterations were effected by means of machines called pegmata. In particular parts of the building, pipes were provided for the distribution of perfumes, which it was a common practice to sprinkle in showers ; but, on particularly great occasions, the perfumes were allowed to flow down the steps or gradus of the amphitheatre.

231. The conjecture relative to the boarded floor of the arena has been corroborated by the discoveries made while the French had possession of Rome. They excavated the arena, and found vaults and passages under its whole area. It is much to be regretted that these inquiries were not carried on, owing to an accumulation of waters, for which no drainage having been provided, they became unwholesome from stagnancy, and it therefore was necessary once more to close it again by obvious means. Great care was bestowed on the i drainage of this edifice, which was encircled by a large sewer for the reception of the water of the interior drains, that were all conducted into it. Another drain, 30 inches wide, was carried round under the second corridor, into which are conveyed the water from the perpendicular conduits and that from the third corridor, whose drain is 3 ft. in depth and 17 inches in width. The sides of these drains are lined with tiles. Another drain runs on the outer side of the third corridor, and is of the same size as the last named. Other drains communicate with these towards the arena in various directions.

232. Paoli thinks that amphitheatres were first used by the Etruscans, and by them introduced into Rome ; that the people in question first exhibited their games in narrow valleys, and that the spectators were ranged around on the sides of the hills; that when these sports were exhibited in cities, an arena was dug into the level ground, and the earth thrown out was formed into seats; and that when the community became rich enough, or the games came to be held in greater esteem, the amphitheatre was enclosed with a wall, and the seats formed of wood or stone. It certainly appears to us that Paoli's conjecture is reasonable, and that Etruscan buildings or formations were the original type.

233. The amphitheatre at Nismes was capable of containing 17,000 persons: it was 433 ft. long and 333 ft

. broad; it is two stories in height with an attic, and is the most perfect specimen in existence after that at Verona, upon whose age antiquaries are divided in opinion, some maintaining that it was built in the time of Augustus, and others as late as the time of Maximian; it is 508 ft long and 403 ft. bruad ; and in far better preservation than the Colosseum. Its exterior wall has three stories of Tuscan pilasters on the face of the wall; between these pilasters are arcades of semicircular-headed apertures. Maffei says this edifice would seat 22,000 spectators. But in this there must be some mistake.

234. Baths. Publius Victor says that the city of Rome contained public and private baths to the amazing number of 850. Some of these we know, from their ruins, were buildings of great extent and magnificence. They were all constructed, we mean the public ones, on plans very similar; and, in order to a description of them, we give in fig. 130. a restored plan of the baths of Caracalla, at Rome. Those of Titus and Dioclesian may also be traced; the chief others being those of Agrippa, Nero, and Domitian. The baths of Antoninus Caracalla are thus described by Eustace (vol. i. p. 226.): “ Repassing the Aventine Hill, we came to the baths of Antoninus Caracalla, that occupy part of its declivity, and a considerable portion of the plain between it, Mons Cæliolus and Mons Cælius. No monument of ancient architecture is calculated to inspire such an exalted idea of Roman magnificence as the ruins of their thermæ, or baths. Many remain in : greater or less degree of preservation ; such as those of Titus, Dioclesian, and Caracalla. To give the untravelled reader some notion of these prodigious piles, I will confine my observations to the latter, as the greatest in extent and as the best preserved; for, though it be entirely stripped of its pillars, statues, and ornaments, both internal and external, yet its walls still stand, and its constituent parts and principal apartments are evidently distin. guishable. The length of the thermæ was 1840 ft., its breadth 1476. At each end were two temples; one to Apollo, and another to Esculapius, as the tutelary deities (genii tuteberes) of a place sacred to the improvement of the mind and the care of the body. The two other temples were dedicated to the two protecting divinities of the Antonine family, Hercules and Bacchus. In the principal building were, in the first place, a grand circular vestibule, with four halls on each side, for cold, tepid, warm, and steam baths : in the centre was an immense square for exercise, when the weather was unfavourable to it in the

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open air ; beyond it a great hall, where 1600 marble seats were placed for the convenience of the bathers : at each end of this hall were libraries. This building terminated on both sides in a court surrounded with porticoes, with a spacious odeum for music, and in the middle a spacious basin for swimıning. Round this edifice were walks shaded by rows of trees, particularly the plane; and in its front extended a gymnasium for running, wrestling, &c. in fine weather. The whole was bounded by a vast portico, opening into exedræ, or spacious halls, where the poets declaimed and philosophers gave lectures to their auditors. This immense fabric was adorned within and without with pillars, stucco work, paintings, and statues. The stucco and paintings, though faintly indeed, are yet in many places perceptible. Pillars have been dug up, and some still remain amidst the ruins; while the Farnesian bull and the famous Hercules, found in one of these balls, announce the multiplicity and beauty of the statues which adorned the thermæ of Caracalla. The flues and reservoirs of water still remain. The height of the pile was proportioned to its extent, and still appears very considerable, even though the ground be raised at least 12 ft. above its ancient level. It is now changed into gardens and vineyards ; its high massive walls form separations, and its limy ruins, spread over the surface, burn the soil

and check its natural fertility."

235. Returning to the plan of the baths in question, we have now to explain that the circular apartment, lettered A, was called the solar cell. It was 111 ft. in diameter, and contained the different labra of the baths. This solar cell, Spartianus says, could not be equalled by the best architects of that age. The dome was lined with brass, of which material also were the lattices to the windows. B, the apodyterium, or undressing room. C, a rystus, or apartment for exercise in unfavourable weather. D contained the piscina, or large reservoir for swimming. E, vestibule for spectators and the dresses of the bathers. F, entrance vestibule of the thermæ, having libraries on each side. GG, rooms wherein the athletæ prepared for their exercises. H, a court, having a piscina for bathing in the centre. I, ephebeum, place of exercise for the youth. K K, the elæotherium, or apartment for anointing the bathers with oil. L L, vestibules. M, laconicum, an apartment so called, as it is said, from the name of the stove by which it was heated, and from the custom of the sudatio, or sweating, having originated in Laconia. N, caldarium, or hot water bath, which was most frequented. O, tepidariun, or tepid water bath. P, frigidarium, or cold water bath. R, exedre for seats for the use of the philosophers and their scholars. W, rooms for conversation. R R, ezedre, or large recesses for the use of the philosophers. Y, conisterium, or place where, after anointing, the wrestlers were sprinkled with dust.

236. We have just given the common explanation to the word laconicum; but it is right the reader should know that its true meaning is in some doubt. Galiani considers it a great chamber wherein the people underwent sweating. To this Cameron adds, “ I for myself hold it certain that the apartment for this purpose has been by some authors improperly termed; the laconicum is nothing more than a little cupola which covered an aperture in the pavement of the hot bath, through which the vivid Aame of the hypocaustum, or furnace, passed and heated the apartment at pleasure. Without this means,” continues that author, “ the hot bath would not have had a greater heat than the other chambers, the


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