« PreviousContinue »
among the Ionians, though all who celebrated the Aplurian festival, from which alone the Ephesian and Colophonians were excluded, were afterwards called Ionians.
The appellations Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian are derived from Vitruvius: but it ap. pears doubtful whether these terms were current among the Greeks: that author asserts that the first is the most ancient; " for Dorus, the son of Hellen, and the nymph Orseis, built the temple of Juno at Argos of this order when he reigned over the whole of Achaia and Peloponnesus: that many temples afterwards erected throughout Greece were of the Doric order, but by command of the Delphic oracle in a general assembly of the different states of Greece, thirteen colonies were sent into Asia, who built the cities before mentioned, and erected temples ; among the first they dedicated was one to Apollo Panionios, having Doric proportions, and another to Diana, in which some variations was made. The first was of a masculine proportion, the other feminine, and the latter was the invention of the Ionian settlers, and afterwards called from them Ionic.
But if it be difficult to trace the Ionic order to its origin, we may analyse its proportions, and compare them with that order which prevailed so universally in Greece, which will lead us to remark that a very great change took place when the rules that guided the Doric builders were laid aside : at no other period were such material alterations made in the proportions of the masses, the columns, entablatures, and intercolumniations; to the Corinthian, so universally used in later times by the Romans, the feminine proportions were applied which are stated by Vitruvius to have commenced with the Ionians.
There is of course much fable in all the accounts that have reached us upon these impor. tant changes, but among them is one which seems to carry with it some semblance of truth, and which is as follows :—“when Hermogenes was employed to erect the temple of Bacchus at Teos, according to Vitruvius, the marble was prepared for one in the Doric style ; but the architect changed his mind, from the idea that other proportions, afterwards called Ionic, were more suitable for the purpose, almost inducing the inference that Hermogenes was the inventor of those delicate proportions; he appears unquestionably to have dis. played great skill and ingenuity in all his designs, and to have entertained the opinion that sacred buildings should not be constructed with Doric proportions, as they obliged the adoption of false and incongruous arrangements."
To obtain more delicate proportions, without sacrificing the great principle of making the weight supported equal to its supports, would seem at first difficult : in the example of the Doric order we have seen this practice universally adopted, and it is equally evident in the Ionic, though not exactly after the same method; the columns and their entablatures, or what they carry, agree in quantity, but their distribution is different. The square or figure which bounds the Ionic façade is divided into four parts, one of which is given to the entablature, a second to the columns, and the other two, or one half, are distributed among the intercolumniations.
In the quantity of material for constructing the two varieties of temples there is a considerable difference, the Doric requiring one-third more than the Ionic; for example, in a Doric tetrastyle portico where the area was 12, four parts would be given to the entablature, four to the columns, and four to the intercolumniations. In the Ionic three parts would be required for the entablatures, and three for the columns, six being allowed for the intercolumniations; thus one temple would have eight, and the other six parts solid out of twelve, consequently, with a given quantity of materials, two very different porticoes might be built, without making any change in the proportions wnich the columns bear to their entablatures. Hermogenes could construct with the same material a much larger temple in the Ionic style than in the Doric; and supposing the dimensions already decided upon, there would be a saving of labour and material : from the imperfect state of the Ionic temples remaining, it is scarcely possible to enter into a thorough exami. nation of their proportions; that on the Ilissus at Athens, measured by Stuart, no longer exists, but its dimensions, given by that very accurate delineator, may serve our purpose as an example of a tetrastyle portico. Its entire width was 18 feet 7 inches, and height to the top of the level cornice in front 18 feet 44 inches, to which must be added that of the tympanum of the pediment: multiplying the width by the height of the entablature and half the pediment, which together is 5 feet 7 inches and 10 parts, we have for the area of the portions supported 105 feet 4 inches and 9 parts: the quantity contained in the four columns is found by multiplying their united diameters, 7 feet i inch and 7 parts, with their height, 14 feet 9 inches and 4 parts, giving a product of 105 feet 4 inches and 9 parts as their area. The united intercolumniations in this example are 11 feet 6 inches and 2 parts, which multiplied by the height of the columns is 170 feet 1 inch and 9 parts for the area ; 40 feet 7 inches and 9 parts less than it would have been had it equalled the quantity contained in the columns and their entablature, or been one-half the entire area of the façade.
The portico of this elegant example of Ionic was nearly a square without the pediment, and the supports and supported are in exact accordance as to quantity, whilst the intercolumniations are about 1 times the quantity contained in the columns, instead of double. Departing a little from the proportions before us, let us endeavour to set out a
IONIC TETRASTYLE TEMPLES.
Fig. 1039. portico, as already done for the Doric order, having the same number of columns, and like the tetrastyle eustyle of Vitruvius, divide each side of the square which circumscribes it into 11, parts, premising that the pediment rises a ninth and one side of the square passes through its centre. The side of the square being divided into 11parts, 1 is given to th diameter of the columns, 3 parts to the middle intercolumniation, and 24 to each of th. others; thus the sites for the columns are obtained : dividing the upright sides of the square into the same number of parts, 81 are given to the height of the column, and the remaining 3 to the entablature and half pediment.
Multiplying 11} by the same, we have for the entire area 1321, which if divided into 4 is 33 and a fraction for the columns, the same for the entablatures, and double that for the intercolumniations : the columns being four in number and 81 diameters in height, their area will be 34 parts; the intercolumniations being 74 in their united width, that multiplied by 81, their height, gives 63; for their area, and the entablature being 3 high and 11, in width, we have for its contents 34} parts, giving a result of nearly a fourth for the entablature as well as for the columns, and a half for the intercolumniations. By making some allowance for the diminution of the columns, an exact agreement between the quantities might be obtained; those in the intercolumniations would then be found equal to those in the entablature and its supports, or half the entire square devoted to solid and the other half to voids : had the columns of the temple on the Ilissus been about 1 inch less in diameter, its proportions would have been in close accordance with those of the figure, where the 4 columns occupy 38 squares, the entablature the same number, and the intercolumniations 76.
Ionic Herustyle. Temple of Erechtheus at Athens.—This highly-enriched example, executed in the finest marble, is in height without the pediment 26 feet 6 inches, and in width, measured along the front of the corona, 40 feet 6 inches, so that this portion is comprised within a square and a half or nearly so : the lower diameter of the columns is 2 feet S. inches, and the upper 1 foot 117 inches, giving a mean of 2 feet lig inches; their collected diameters are 12 feet 9 inches, whilst that of the intercolumniations at the same level is 23 feet 11 inches, nearly double the space occupied by the columns. The height of the entablature without the pediment is 4 feet 11 inches, and its superficial content on the face 130 feet, and adding 85 feet for the area of the tympanum, we have altogether 2° 5 feet
IONIC HEXASTYLE TEMPLES.
Fig. 1040. supposing the tympanum to rise a ninth of its base; the height of the columns is 21 feet 7} inches, and their united mean dianieter 12 feet 9 inches, which being multiplied together produce 275 feet 8 inches, or nearly equivalent to the area of the mass they support. 1o obtain the exact quantity of mass and void, the mean diameters of the columns as well as of the intercolumniations should be taken ; the greater the probable delicacy of ex. ecution, the greater is the necessity for the arehitect to balance his quantities exactly. In the subject now under consideration the whole is comprised within a square and a half; the supports and the entablature are equal, and the intercolumniations as much as the two to. gether or one-half the whole. The height of the architrave is 2 feet 16 inches; that of the frieze 1 foot 114 inches, and the level part of the cornice 10,85 inches.
Roman Tetrastyle. Ionic Temple of Fortuna Virilis. — The width is 33 feet 6 inches, and height, including half the pediment, 37 feet 1 inch, comprising an area of 1242 feet 4 inches, one quarter of which, 319 feet 1 inch, nearly agrees with the quantity contained in the entablature as well as in the columns which support it; their height is 27 feet, and their united diameters 12 feet 4 inches, which multiplied together produce 333 feet for the area of the supports. The height of the entablature with half the pediment is 10 feet 1 inch : this multiplied by its width, 33 feet 6 inches, gives 337 feet 10 inches for the area of that supported : the intercolumniations are together 21 feet 2 inches, which multiplied by their height, 27 feet, gives 571 feet 6 inches for their area, about 100 feet less than the quantity comprised in the columns and entablature.
Without the pediment this façade is nearly square; its proportions rank very high in the estimation of all admirers of Roman architecture; it has, however, undergone many reparations before the stucco was put upon the columns; they were lighter, as was the entablature, the upper members of the cornice being somewhat heavier than is usual in the early examples of this order; if divested of these additions, and giving a trifle more to the intercolumniations, we shall obtain half the area for the columns, and a quarter for each of the other divisions ; at present the columns equal in quantity the mass they carry.
If it be required to draw a tetrastyle portico in exact accordance with the rules laid down, after forming the square each side should be divided into 12 parts, or 144 squares, arranged like those of an abacus: one of these divisions on the base would become the diameter of the column, and nine their height, the other eight on the base would be devoted to the intercolumniations, and the upper three of the height to the entablature. The columns, 9 diameters in height, would thus comprise 36 squares, the intercolumniations 72, and the entablature and half pediment 36; consequently the columns and entablature would be equal in quantity, and the intercolumniations half the whole, or equal to the contents of the supports and supported.
Roman Herastyle. Corinthian, Maison Carrée at Nismes. - This beautiful temple has undergone several restorations ; its entire width and height to the apex of the pediment is 43 feet 8 inches, from whence it has derived its name. The height of the columns, includ.
ing base and capital, is 29 feet 6 inches, that of the entablature 6 feet 9 inches, and of the pediment 7 feet 5 inches ; taking away half the height of the pediment, we have 39 feet 11 inches and 6 parts, which may be considered as 40 feet; this multiplied by the width produces for the entire area 1746 feet 8 inches. The superficial content of pediment ang entablature, 456 feet 8 inches, is obtained by multiplying the entire width by 10 feet 5 inches, the beight of the entablature and half the pediment, which superficies is only 20 feet 2 inches more than a quarter of the whole. The united diameter of the six columns is 17 feet 6 inches, and that of the intercolumniations 26 feet 2 inches, so that they are in the proportions to each other of 2 and 3, the whole being 5, one having an area of 515 feet 9 inches, the other 772 feet; when added together they are nearly three times the area of the part supported.
The proportion between the columns and intercolumniations of the temple at Assissi is also similar, the height of the columns is 32 feet 10 inches, and the total width of the six 52 feet, which dimensions multiplied together produce 1707 feet 4 inches, one-fifth being 341 feet 6 inches nearly.
The area of the columns is 684 feet, and that of the intercolumniations 1023 feet 4 inches, giving a proportion of two-fifths and three-fifths. The entablature, pediment, and pedestals upon which the columns are placed seem to have undergone a change since their erection, If the whole extent of an hexastyle portico be divided into 18 parts, and one be called the diameter, to obtain the same proportions as those laid down for a tetrastyle portico, the height up to the centre of the pediment must include 12 only of those parts, which would give a portico of a square and a half, comprising 216 squares ; the 6 columns, each 9 diameters in height, would require 54 ; the 5 intercolumniations, double that number, or 108, and the entablature and half pediment 54.
Roman Octastyle. — The Pantheon at Rome, which has a portico of 8 columns, is one of the best examples that can be selected for examination. The total width is 109 feet 10 inches; the diameters of the eight columns 39 feet 5 inches, and the seven intercolumniations 70 feet 5 inches, or nearly in the proportion of 1 to 2. The height of the columns is 46 feet 5 inches, and that of the entablature and half pediment 23 feet 24 inches, together 69 feet 71 inches, nearly a square and a half, the area of which is 7647 feet 2 inches.
Fig. 1041. The united diameter of the columns, 39 feet 5 inches, multiplied by their height, gives 1829 feet 7 inches, and the collected intercolumniations multiplied by the same height will be 3268 feet 6 inches : multiplying 109 feet 10 inches by 23 feet 2 inches, we obtain for the area of the entablature and pediment 2549 feet, which, rejecting parts of an inch, will, when added to the two other calculations, make up a sum agreeing with the entire area.
5098 of intercolumniations
A line drawn through the centre of the pediment, another at hall the height of the columns, and a third under the entablature, would divide the height into three
equal portions, proving that, in this example, the Romans made the part supported onei third of the whole, and divided the other two between the columns and their intercolumnii stions. The shaft of each column is cut out of a single block of granite ; they are not
sufficiently delicate to be exactly in the proportion of half the quantity contained in the intercolumniations ; but if allowance be made for their diminution, the difference is not very great. The whole width being 109 feet 10 inches, the third, 36 feet 7 inches and 4 parts, is nearly a mean between the collected diameters of the top and bottom of the shaft, making the intercolumniations double the quantity contained in the supports, or equal to that of the supports added to the mass they carry. The whole would then be divided into four, as in the previous examples of the Ionic, and two portions given to the intercolumniations.
The Pantheon Portico is a double square without the pediment, or nearly so, the length of the level cornice, which erowns the entablature, being double the height of the order : this, no doubt, was the outline of the proportions before the heavy pediment was placed upon it, which in all probability was heightened beyond the ordinary rise of a ninth, for the purpose of concealing the wall behind it. The Roman proportions are frequently made independently of the pediment; the tetrastyle porticoes are a square, the hexastyle a square and a half, and the octastyle, as in this instance, a double square without it.
To set out an octastyle portico, in which half the pediment should be comprised within the double square, after dividing the width into 24 and the height into 12, which multiplied produce 288 squares, 72 are given to the column, the same to the entablature ang half pediment, and double that, or 144. to the intercolumnations, or proportions similar to those laid down for the tetrastyle and hexastyle porticoes. The columns in such a case would be nine diameters in height, the entablature and half pediment three : supposing the latter to rise a ninth of the span, the remainder would be distributed among architrave, frieze, and cornice.
We have endeavoured to show the proportions required in a tetrastyle, hexastyle, and octastyle portico among the Dorians, the lonians, and their followers the Romans: the square and a half, or the double square, were the outlines or boundary figures from whence the other proportions were deduced.
The great difference of character in the Doric and Ionie designs arises from the distance at wbich the columns are placed, which affects the proportions of the entablature laid upon them, as well as that of the columns themselves ; where these are six diameters in height or consist of six cubes, they are made to carry the same quantity, whatever may be their distance apart, and where drawn out to nine diameters, they have only their own weight to support; but the form given to this weight, or the proportions of architrave, frieze, and cornice, vary, as the intercolumniations are of one or more diameters.
It has been too generally considered that the orders derived their proportions from the lower diameter of the columns, without reference to their application : this has produced a variety of design, but at the same time occasioned a great departure from the true principles, and led to very important errors. The Tuscan, the Doric, the Ionic, the Corinthian, and Composite orders have been laid down in modules or measures of various kinds, which the young architect has adopted as mere isolations, regardless of the many other considerations which have stamped beauty on his model ; hence we have imitations, but soul is wanting.
The Doric order is treated of as so many diameters in height according to its age, and the entablature is said to be heavy or light, as it was of early or late execution; the other orders have been chronicled in a similar manner, and architecture has been fettered, and its great principles lost, or at least neglected : it is true that the outline which bounds the figure has undergone but few changes, but the subordinate parts or the filling-in are susceptible of interminable variety. An object inscribed within a circle is perhaps the most easily compassed by the eye, next that within the square, and when a building is vast, and distance is necessary to comprise a view of the whole, the double square; beyond this the ancients seem seldom to have gone for the proportions of their façades, or of a portico intended to be seen in front. After the masses were proportioned, their decorations were more various than the buildings themselves; no two are perfectly alike, but the great difference is in their ornaments and enrichments, or in the number of diameters contained in the height of the columns.
The Parthenon and Pantheon porticoes are both octastyle, each admitted to be as beautiful as they can be - one the perfection of sober grandeur, the other of cheerful lightness ; one Greek Doric, the other Corinthian, both comprised within a double square, and having their columns equal in quantity to the mass of entablature they support: where, then, is the difference between the two examples ? It results, as we have already seen, from the material in the one occupying two-thirds, and in the other only half the entire area lo the facade of the Parthenon the eye has one-third void only to contrast with the solid matter, and in the Pantheon half, which proportions seem to have been established by the Ionians, and usually adopted by the Romans.