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echinus, with a vertical from 1), the extremity of the cyma reversa. On the point of intersection, with a radius equal to one part, describe a circle. Its vertical diameter is called the cathetus, and forms the diagonal of a square, whose sides are to be bisected, and through the points of bisection (see I, fig. 885.) the axes 1, 3 and 2, 4 are to be drawn, each being divided into 6 equal parts. The points thus found will serve for drawing the exterior part of the volute. Thus, placing the point of the compasses in the point 1, with the radius 1 D, the quadrant DA is described. With the radius 2 A another quadrant may be described, and so on. Similarly, the subdivisions below the points used for the outer lines of the volute serve for the inner lines. The total height of the volute is 16 parts of a module, whereof 9 are above the horizontal from E, and 7 below it.

2577. Vitruvius, according to some authors, has not given any fixed measures to the pedestal of this order. Daniel Barbaro, however, his commentator, seems to think otherwise ; and, on this head, we shall therefore follow him. The height of the pedestal is made nearly a third part (including its base and cymatium) of the height of the column. To the base of the column he assigns half a diameter, and to the shaft itself nearly 8 diameters, its surface being cut into 24 flutes, separated by fillets from each other. His method of describing the volute is not now thoroughly understood ; and it is, perhaps, of little importance to trouble ourselves to decypher his directions, seeing that the mode of forming it is derived from mathematical principles, as well understood now as in the days of the author. The architrave he leaves without any fixed dimensions, merely saying that it must be larger or smaller according to the height of the columns. He prescribes, however, that the architrave, frieze, and cornice should together be somewhat less than a sixth part of the beight of the column, with its base and capital. The total height he makes the order, according to our measures, is 25 modules and nearly 9 parts.

2578. Palladio gives to the pedestal 2 diameters and nearly two thirds of the height of the column. He adopts the attic, though without rejecting the Ionic base, and makes it half a diameter high, adding to it a small bead, which he comprises in the height of the shaft, which he makes 8 diameters in height. To the architrave, frieze, and cornice, taken together, he assigns a little less than one fifth of the height of the column, including its base and capital, and makes the projection of the cornice equal to its height. The total height of the order, in our measures, is, according to him, 27 modules and nearly 8 parts.

2579. Serlio, in this order more than any of the others, varies from Vitruvius. To the pedestal he gives, including base, die, and cymatium, a little more than a third part of the height of the column, with its base and capital. To the shaft of the column he gives 7 diameters, and diminishes it a sixth part of its diameter. His capital is that of Vitruvius, as far as we can understand that master. His mode of constructing the volute differs from other authors. His directions are, that having found the cathetus, which passes through the centre of the eye, it must be divided into eight parts, from the abacus downwards, one whereof is to be the size of the eye of the volute, four remain above the eye, and three below that part comprised below the eye. The cathetus is then divided into six parts, properly numbered by figures from 1 to 6. With one point of the compasses in 1, and the other extended to the fillet of the volute, he describes a semicircle, and so on with semicircles consecutively from 2 to 6, which will ultimately fall into the eye of the volute. We cannot speak in high terms of Serlio's method, and therefore have thought it unnecessary to accompany the description with a figure. It is rather a clumsy method, and we fear, if exhibited in a figure, would not satisfy our readers of its elegance. The height of his architrave, frieze, and cornice together is a little less than a fourth part of the height of the column, including the base and capital. The whole height of his order, in our measures, is 25 modules and 6 parts.

2580. Scamozzi directs that the pedestal shall be with its base and cornice two diameters and a half of the column. He uses the attic base, and, like Pal. ladio, gives an astragal above the upper torus. To the shaft of the column he assigns a height of little less than 8 diameters, and makes its diminution a sixth part of the diameter. He adopts the angular capital, something like the example of that in the temple of Fortuna Virilis. The height of his architrave, frieze, and cornice is a little less than a fifth part of the height of the column, with its base and capital. The total height of his order, in our measures, is 26 modules,

2581. The principal examples of the Grecian Ionic are in the temples of Minerva Polias, of Erectheus, and the aqueduct of Hadrian, at Athens ; in the temple of Minerva Polias at Priene ; of Bacchus at

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Fin 887

Teos; of Apollo Didymæus at Miletus ; and of the small temple on the Ilyssus, near Athens, whereof in fig. 887. the profile is given, and below, a table of the heights and projections of the parts. It is to be observed, that in the Grecian Ionic volute the fillet of the spiral is continued along the face of the abacus, whilst in the Roman examples it rises from behind the ovolo. Some of the Athenian examples exhibit a neck below the echinus, decorated with flowers and plants. The entablatures of the early Ionic are usually very simple. The architrave has often only one fascia, the frieze is generally plain, and the cornice is composed of few parts. In Book I. Chap. II. (153, et seq.) we have already examined the parts of the Grecian Ionic, and thereto refer the reader.

TABLE OF THE Parts OF THE GRECIAN IONIC IN THE TEMPLE ON THE ILyssus.

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The height from the top of the echinus to the centre of the eye of the volute is 15.79

parts. Total projection of the volute from axis of column, 27.90. The flutes are elliptical on plan (fig. 887.), and the distance between axes of columns, 6 mod., 3.24 pts.

258 la. An Ionic capital from the celebrate Temple of Diana, at Ephesus, can now be seen at the British Museum, having been recovered during the explorations made in 1872, by Mr. J. T. Wood. The shaft was 6 feet 1 in. diam., and a part of its base was found in situ,

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