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is compensated for by the labour in making good. Cornices are measured by the foot superficial, and estimated according to the quantity of mouldings and enrichments they contain, Where there are more than fjur angles in a room, each extra one is charged at the price per foot run extra of the cornice. Stucco reveals are charged per foot run, and according to their width of 4 or 9 inches or more. Quirks, arrises, and beads by the foot run, as are margins to raised panels, small plain mouldings, &c. Enriched mouldings are measured by the foot run, and with flowers to ceilings, pateras, &c., must be considered with reference to the size and quantity of ornament; modelling may have to be charged if under 60 feet run. For some of these, papier-mâché and other materials (see 2251), which are much lighter than plaster, are coming now into general use, and from the ease and security with which they are fixed, often supersede the use of plaster ornaments. Scaffolding is charged for when the “hawk” cannot be served from the floor.

2377. PLOMBER. The work of this artificer is charged by the cwt., to which is added the labour of laying the lead. The superficies of the lead is measured, then multiplied by the weight, as 5 lb. lead, 6 lb. lead, &c., and brought into cwts. Water pipes, rain. water pipes, and fundel pipes are charged by the foot run, according to their diameter; so also are socket pipes for sinks, joints being separately paid for. Common lead pumps, with iron work, including bucket, sucker, &c., at so much each; the same with hydraulic and other pumps, according to their diameters. In the same manner are charged waterclosets, basins, air traps, washers and plugs, spindle valves, stop-cocks, ball-cocks, &c. (See 2212 et seq.) By the increase of manufacturers of sanitary appliances these are now priced at per article.

2378. GLAZIER. The work of the glazier is measured and estimated by the superficial foot, according to the speciality as well as the quality of the glass used; it is always measured between the rebates. (See 2225 et seq.) Stained and painted glass are usually taken at agreed prices.

2379. PAINTER. In the measurement and estimation of painting, the superficial quantity is taken, allowing all edges, sinkings, and girths as they appear. When work is cut in on both edges it is taken by the foot run. The quantity of feet is reduced to yards, by which painting is charged for in large quantities. In taking iron railing, the two sides are measured as flat work; but if it be full of ornament, once and a half, or twice, is taken for each side, Sash frames are taken each, and sash squares by the dozen. On gilding we have already spoken in Sect. XII. (2277 et seq.) Cornices, reveals to windows and doors, strings, window sills, water trunks and gutters, handrails, newels, &c., are taken by the foot run, Many small articles by the piece. Plain and enriched cornices by the foot run, according to the quantity of work in them. Work done froin a ladder is paid for extra. The price of painter's work greatly depends on the purity of the materials employed, as oil, turpentino, &c., as well as on the quality and the number of times over that the work is painted; the labour is usually considered as one-third of the price charged. Scarcely any trade raries so greatly. Imitations of woods and marbles are charged according to the

artistic treatment and the labour employed on them, and the quality of the varnish used.

2380. PAPERHANCER. In common papers the price used to be settled according to the colours or quantity of blocks used in printing the pattern. Now the price appears to depend on the sale, or fashion, of the pattern, or on the manufacturer's pleasure. Until lately the old prices were charged, with a large discount, but now the price marked by some of the leading firms is subject only to the ordinary discount to the trade. Embossed and other papers are of higher prices. These, as well as lining paper, are charged by the piece, containing 63 feet super. The hanging is charged separate, and borders, dadoes, gilt mouldings, &c. by the yard run. (See 2277c.)

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2383d. It is very remarkable that all the inferences are false, which usually are derived from the assertion that he who can draw the human figure will be able to draw any other object that is submitted to him for representation. The few men who can fanltlessly draw the human figure as they see it, may doubtlessly have eyes keen enough and hands true enough to repeat the minutest details so accurately any comparison of a particular detail with the original shall be creditable to them; but these men have spent years in obtaining, besides delicacy of handling, that knowledge of anatomy which reminds them at every stroke of the pencil that such a muscle is in such a place, that here it overlaps another that there it dies into a bone, and that consequently they have to mark the curves and angles which occur, for instance, six or seven times between the elbow and the wrist, and to determine how many can be omitted if the scale be less than that of life.

2384. The majority of men who can draw the figure tolerably well can draw nothing else equally correctly : for the reason that tl.eir attention has been given to the mechanism ot the human form solely; the representation, by our best portrait-painters, of the accessories which they introduce into their pictures, especially of architectural details, is almost without an exception ludicrously inaccurate. Every person who has tried to apply his power of representing geometric forms to the task of copyirg in chalk from a mask, must be aware of the enormous facility which he acquires by previously studying the usual methods of expressing the totality of the eye, the ear, the nose, and the lips. In a similar manner, the artist who wishes to give the effect of a suite of mouldings, or of a carved ornament, requires to know previously all the parts which compose the work. In other words, some men can pretend to sketch distant rocks and yet miss the very features by which the outlines intimate the geological character.

2385. Such are the reasons which have for many years led to the conviction that the architect's course of drawing should leave the figure alone until he has made one or more studies from carving in each style of art that opportunity presents to him; this is affirmed to be the only method of obtaining a satisfactory appreciation of the minute characteristics which sometimes constitute the differences between styles; and the only method of making a royal road to the object, which some teachers pretend is the easiest, but is truly the most difficult, in art. Having acquired the power of accurate representation of ornament, which involves dexterity in the use of his materials, the student may commence his operations with the figure.

2386. The method proposed in the following pages is old, at least in principle, yet it has been of late years published as new in Paris, by M. Dupuis. (Del Enseignement du Dessin sous le point de vue industriel,1836.) The principles of the work, however, are perhaps better expressed and arranged, in some respects, than we might bave presented them to the reader : and we shall not, therefore, apologise for the free use we make of it, premising however, that in respect to the whole figiire and the application of the method to landscapes, what follows is not found in the work of M. Dupuis.

2387, Between the ancient mode of teaching the student (we will take the head, for instance, shown in fig. 809. as the first roughing of the leading lines of that which in fig. 812. has reached its completion) and the method practised by M. Dupuis, the only difference is this, that M. D., instead of let. ting the student form the rough outline at once from the finished bust, roughing out on paper the principal masses, provides a series of models roughly bossed out in their different stages, which he makes the student draw. The system is ingenious; but as the greatest artists have been made without the modification in question, we do not think it material; at all events, the principles are the same.

M. Dupuis, for this purpose, has a series of sixteen models, the first of each four of the series are quite sufficient to show the old as well as his own practice. Thus, in fig. 809., the general mass of the oval of the head is given, in which it is seen that the profile is indicated by an obtuse angle, whose extreme point corresponds with the lower part of the nose, and the lines at one extremity terminate with the roots or coinmencement of the hair, and at the other with the lower jaw. The form of the rest of the head is the result of combining the most projecting points of it by curved lines, in short, of supposing a rough mass, out of which the sculptor miglit actually, in marble or other material, form the head.

2388. The next step is exhibited in fig. 810., with the four principal divisions: the occi. pital to the beginning of the hair, the forehead to the line of the eyes, the projection of the bose, and the inferior part of the face, with some indication of the mouth.

Fig. 809,

Fig. 810.

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neck serves also for measuring the horizontal diameter of the head, and also of the bust ; whence new proportions may be obtained. So much for the first casting of the general form. Now, in the entire bust, as respects the head only, suppose we wish to obtain the proportions of the principal divisions, — for example, from the base of the bust to the base of the chin, - we may establish another integer to measure other parts; as, if from the point of view, the distance from the base of the bust to the base of the chin is the same as from the last to the summit of the head, the learner would have nothing more to do in that respect than to divide the whole height into two equal parts. On the same principle, passing from divisions to subdivisions, the distance between the base of the chin and the point whence the nose begins to project, may be found a measure for the height of the nose, and from thence to the top of the cranium. We are here merely showing the method of obtaining different integers for measuring the different parts mentioned ; others will in practice occur continually, after a very little practice. We do not suppose our readers will believe that we propose to teach drawing by mathematical rules; we now only speak of obtaining points from which undulating and varying lines are to spring and return, and which none but a fine and sensitive eye will be able to express. But to return to the port crayon, which is the moveable measure or compasses whereto we have alluded, and requires only skilful handling to perform the offices of compasses, square, plumb rule, and level. By interposing it (see fig. 813.) on the divergence of the visual rays between the eye and the object, we may estimate the relative proportions; since in the field of view the learner may apply it to the whole or any of the parts, and make any one a measure for another. For this purpose he must hold it, as shown in the figure, steadily and at arm's length. Any portion of it that is cut by the visual rays between any two parts of the object, becomes the integer for the measurement of other parts whereof we have been speaking. This in the drawing will be increased according as the size is greater or less than the portion of the port crayon intercepting the visual rays. This process may be easily accomplished by making, upon one and the same line of the visual ray, the extreme point of the port crayon to touch one of the extremities of the proportion sought upon the model, so that they may exactly correspond. Then at the same time fixing the thumb or fore-finger where the visual ray from the other extremity is intercepted, we shall find any equal length by moving the port crayon with the thumb and fore-finger fixed to any other part we want, as to size, to compare with the first, or by using the same expedient to other parts, other integers may be found. The different integers, indeed, which may be thus obtained is infinite. The port crayon will also serve the purpose of a plumb bob by laying hold of it by the chalk, and holding it just only so tight Letween the fingers as to prevent its falling, so that its own gravity makes it assume a vertical direction. Doing so, if it then be held up to intercept the visual rays, we may discover the proportion in which a line swells whose directon approaches the vertical, as also the quantity one part projects before another in the model; and comparing this again with the integer, obtain new points for starting from. Again, by holding it before the eye in an horizontal direction, we shall obtain the different parts of the model that lie before the eye in the same horizontal line. By degrees we shall thus soon find the eye become familiarised with the model it contemplates ; judgment in arranging the parts supervenes; the hand becomes bold and unhesitating, and the leading forms are quickly transferred to the paper or canvas to be subdivided to such extent as is required by the degree of finish intended to be bestowed upon the drawing.

2393. The process that we have considered more with relation to the bust is equally applicable to the whole figure. In fig. 814. we have more particularly shown by the dotted lines the horizontal and verti. cal use of the port crayon; but the previous adjustment of some measure of unity for proportioning the great divisions to each other is also applied to it as already stated. In the figure, EE is the line of the hori. zon, or that level with the eye; it will be


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Fig. 814.

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