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CHAP. III.
MEASURING AND ESTIMATING.

799 2346–50. It is only in this way that the value of work can be arrived at ; it is much to be regretted that from po species of labour of the carpenter haro been formed tables capable of furnishing such a set of constants as would, by application to the rate of a joarneyman's wages, form factors, or, in other words, furnish data for a perpetual pricebuok. As we have before hinted, the best of the price-boks that have ever been published are useless as guides to the value of work. The method of lumping work by ihe square is as much as possible to be avoided, unless the surfaces be of a perfectly uniform description of workmanship; as, for instance, in hipped roofs, the principal trouble is at the hips, in fitting the jack rafters, which are fixed at equal distances thereon; bence such a price may be fixed for the cubic quantity of hips and valleys as will pay not only for them, but also for the trouble of cutting and fixing the jack rafters. Such parts, indeed, as these should be separately classified; but the analysis of such a subject requires investigation of enormous labour; and as it must depend on the information derived from the practical carpenter, is, we fear, not likely to be soon, if ever, accomplished.

2351. The works of the JOINER consist in the preparation of boarding, which is measured and estimated by the foot superficial. Of this there are many varieties ; as, edges shot; edges shot, ploughed, and tongued ; wrought on one side and edges shot; the same on both sides and edges shot ; wrought on both sides and ploughed and tongued. Boards keyed and clamped; mortise clamped, and mortise and mitre clamped. The value per foot increases according to the thickness of the stuff. When longitudinal joints are glued, an addition per foot is made; and if feather-tongued, still more.

2352. The measurement and estimation of foors is by the square, the price varying as tho surface is wrought or plain; the method of connecting the longitudinal and heading joints, and also on the thickness of the stuff; as well as on the circumstance of the boards being laid one after another or folded; or whether laid with boards, battens, wainscot, or other wood. Skirtings are measured by the foot super, according to their position, as whether level, raking, or ramping. Also on the manner of finishing them, as whether plain, torus, rebated, scribed to floors or steps, or whether straight or circular on the plan.

2353. The value of every species of framing must depend on the thickness of the stuff employed, whether it is plain or moulded ; and if the latter, whether the mouldings bo struck on the solid, or laid in; whether mitred or scribed, and upon the number of panels in a given height and breadth, and also on the form of the plan.

2354. Wainscotings, window-linings, as backs and elbows; door linings, such as jambs and sofites, with their framed grounds; back linings, partitions, doors, shutters, and the like, are all measured and valued by the foot super. The same mode is applied to sashes and their frames, either together or separately.

2355. Skylights, the prices whereof depend on their plans and elevations, are also measured by the foot super.

2356. The value of dado, which varies as the plan is straight or circular, or being level or inclined, is measured by the foot super.

2357. In the measurement of staircases, the risers, treads, carriages, and brackets are, after being classed together, nieasured by the foot super, and the string board is sometimes included. The value varies as the steps may be flyers or winders, or from the risers being mitred into the string board, the treads dovetailed for balusters and the nosings returned, or whether the bottom edges of the risers are tongued into the step. The curtail step is valued by itself, and returned nosings are sometimes valued at the piece ; and if they are circular on the plan, they are charged at double the price of straight ones. The handrail, whose value depends upon the materials and diameter of the well hole, or whether ramped, swan-necked, level, circular, or wreathed; whether got out of the solid, or in thieknesses glued up together, is measured by the foot run. The scroll is charged by itself, as is the making and fixing each joint screw, and 3 inches of the straight part at each end of the wreath is measured in. The deal balusters, as also the iron ones and the iron columns to curtail, housings to steps and risers, common cut brackets, square and circular on the plan, together with the preparing and fixing, are valued all by the piece. Extra sinking in the rail for iron balusters is valued by the foot run, the price depending on the rail, as being straight, circular, wreathed, or ramped. The string board is measured by the foot super, and its value is greater or less as it is moulded, straight, or wreathed, or according to the method in which the wreathed string is constructed by being properly backed upon a cylinder.

2358. The shafts of columns are measured by the foot super., their value depending upon the diameter, or whether it be straight or curved on the side, and upon its being properly glued and blocked. If the columns be fluted, the flutes are taken in linear measure, the price depending on the size of the flutes, whose headings at top and bottom are charged by the piece. Pilasters, straight or curred in the height, are similarly measured, and the price taken by the foot super. In the caps and bases of pilasters, besides the mouldings, the mitres charged much each, according to the size.

2359. Mouldings, as in double-face architraves, base and surbase, or straight ones struck by the land, are valued by the foot super. Base, surbase, and straight mouldings wrought by band, are generally fixed at the same rate per foot, being something more than doublefaced architraves. When the head of an architrave stands in a circular wall, its value is four times that of the perpendicular parts, as well on account of the extra time required to fit it to the circular plan as of the greater difficulty in forming the mitres. So all hori. zontal mouldings on a circular plan are three or four times the value of those on a straight plan, the trouble being increased as the radius of the circle upon which they are formed diminishes. The housings of mouldings are valued by the piece. The value of mouldings much depends on the number of their quirks, for each whereof the price increases. It will also, of course, depend on the materials of which they are formed, on their running figure, and whether raking or curved.

2360. Among the articles which are to be measured by the lineal foot are beads, fillets, bead or ogee capping, square angle staffs, inch ogees, inch quirk ogee, ovolo and bead. astragals and reeds on doors or shutters, small reeds, each in reeded mouldings, struck by hand up to half an inch, single cornice or architrave, grooved space to let in reeds and grooves. And it must be observed, that in grooving, stops are paid extra; if wrought by hand, still more; and yet more if circular. Besides the foregoing, narrow grounds to skirting, the same rebated or framed to chimneys, are measured by the foot run. Rule joints, cantilevers, trusses, and cut brackets for shelves are charged by the piece. Water trunks are valued according to their size by the foot run, their hopper heads and shoes being valued by the piece. Moulded weather caps and joints by the piece. Scaffolding, where exira, must be allowed for.

2361. Flooring boards are prepared according to their length, not so much each; the standard width is 9 inches; if they are wider. the rate is increased, each board listing at so much per list. Battens are prepared in the same way, but at a different rate. 2362. The following memoranda are useful in estimating: 1 hundred (120) 12-feet-3-inch deals, 9 inches wide (each deal containing, therefore,

2 feet 3 inches cube), equal 53 loads of timber. I hundred (120) 12-feet-21-inch deals, 9 inches wide (each deal containing, therefore,

1 foot 10 inches cube), equal 4 loads of timber. I hundred (120) 12-feet-1 4-inch deals equal 1 reduced hundred. i load of 15-inch plank, or deals, is 400 feet superficial. 1 load of 2-inch plank, or deals, is 300 feet superficial.

And so on in proportion. Twenty-four 10-feet boards, at a 5-inch guage, will finish one square. Twenty 10-feet boards, at 6-inch guage, will finish one square, Seventeen 10-feet boards, at a 7-inch guage, will finish one square. Fifteen 10-feet boards, at an 8-inch guage, will finish one square. Thirteen 10-feet boards, and 2 ft. 6 in. super, at a 9-inch guage, will finish one square. Twelve 10-feet boards, and 2 ft. 6 in. super., at a 10-inch guage, will finish one square. Twenty 12-fect boards, at a 5-inun guage, will finish one square. Sixteen 12-feet boards, at a 6-inch guage, will finish one square, Fourteen 12-feet boards, at a 7-inch guage, will finish one square. Twelve 12-feet boards and 4 feet super., at an 8-inch guage, will finish one square. Eleven 12-feet boards, and i foot super., at a 9-inch guage, will finish one square. Ten 12-feet boards, and I foot super., at a 10-inch guage, will finish one square. Battens are 6 inches wide. Deals are 9 inches wide.

Planks are 11 inches wide. feather-edged deals are equal to -inch yellow deals; if white, equal to slit deal. A reduced deal is 14-inch think, 11 inches wide, and 12 feet long.

2363. It may here be useful to advert to the mode of reducing deals to the standard of what is called a reduced deal, which evidently contains 1 ft. 4 in. 6 parts cube; for 12 ft. x 11 in. x 14in. = 1 : 4:46, or in decimals, 12 A. '91666 ft. *•125 ft. = 1•375 cube it, nearly. Hence the divisor 1.375 will serve as a constant for reducing deals of different lengths and thicknesses. Thus let it be required to find how many reduced deals there are in one 14 feet long, 10 inches wide, and 2 inches thick. Here 14 ft. * •8333 ft. (or 10 in.) * 20833 (or 2} in.)=2.43042 cube feet, and =10767 reduced deal.

2364. The table which is now subjoined exhibits the prices of deals and parts thereot calculated from 301. to 95l. per hundred, a range of value out of which it can rarely happen that examples will occur, though it has fallen within our own experience during the late war to see the price of deals at a very extraordinary beight. This, however, is not likely to happen again. The elements on which it is based are —

2:43042
1.375

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First. Price of deals, each being 12 feet long, three inches thick, 10

inches wide. Theu from we have the prime cost of each deal 500 Second. Profit oil prime cost, 15 per cent.

0.75 Third. Planing both sides and waste, the former a constant depending on

the price of labour (say 58. per day used in the table), and the
latter a variable, increasing with the cost price of the naterial . 0-8333

6s. 7d as in the table for a 12 feet deal = 6-5833 In the third element a constant (the planing) being involved and a variable (the waste) increasing with the cost of the material, the latter was eliminated by experiment and found equal to 4166 shilling for every 101. upwards of the price per hundred of the deals.

The width of the running foot is 9 inches. For instance at 45l. per cent. the cost of a foot super. ( - 144 in.) = 1.25s. = 1s. 3d. and of a foot run .9375 shilling - 114d... Toni -9 inches This table is applicable purely to joinery.

144x4375

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