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2285f. CARPENTER AND JOINER.
If the panels of 1-inch doors are raised, or if double marginal deors, so describe

them. All the above must be specified as to be hung folding, if the nature of the

work so requires. Wainscot doors.-1f-inch wainscot, 2 panels, square; and bead flush and square ; and moulded and square ; and bead flush on both sides; and bead flush and moulded. 2-inch wainscot, 2 panels ; 24-inch wainscot, 2 panels ; follow in the same order. 13-inch wainscot, 4 panels, follow in the same order, and may be moulded on both sides; also 2-inch wainscot, 4 panels; and 2-inch wainscot, 4 panels; also

2-inch wainscot, 6 panels; also 21-inch wainscot, 6 panels; and so on. Wainscot sash doors.--2-inch wainscot, with diminished stiles, lower panel moulded,

bead flush, with astragal and hollow sash; or ditto, with astragal and hollow sash, moulded on both sides; or 24-inch wainscot sash doors, diminished stiles lower panels moulded, and bead flush, with astragal and hollow sash ; or ditto. with astragal and hollow sash, moulded on both sides. These may be hung folding, double margined, or moulded on the raising. Mahogany doors, or best Spanish mahogany if required (of course now vensored)

2-inch Honduras mahogany, 2 panels, moulded and square; or moulded on both sides. 2-inch Honduras mahogany, 4 panels, moulded and square ; or moulded on both sides. 2-inch Honduras mahogany, 6 panels, moulded and square; or moulded on both sides. 24-inch Honduras mahogany, 4 papels, moulded and square; or moulded on both sides. 24-inch Honduras mahogany, 6 panels, moulded and square; or moulded on both sides. These may be hung folding; with projecting mouldings; or with double margins. Mahogany sash doors.—2-inch Honduras mahogany, astragal and hollow, bottom

panel moulded and square ; or bottom panel moulded on both sides; or 2-inch Honduras mahogany, astragal and hollow, bottom panel moulded and square ; or bottom panel moulded on both sides. These may be hung folding; or with

double margin; or diminished stiles.
External doors. —2-inch wrought, lodged, framed, and braced, folding (or other)

doors, with stop chamfered, arched heads, stiles, rails, and braces, covered on the
outside with l-inch wrought, tongued, and V jointed oak boarding, hung to solid
oak frame (or on binge-hooks let into stone jambs), with strong, heavy, wrought
iron mediæral hinges, and fastened with bestrim dead lock cased with oak, and
a heavy wrought iron latch, with bold ornamental drop handle and plate, key-plate,
&c., all wrought according to detail drawing (or a price to be stated for each
article). The frames to be of oak, 6 inches by 4 inches, wrought, double rebated,
stop chamfered, grooved, &c., tenoned into stone steps, and to have extra strong
hooks on plates screwed to same.
2-inch deal, 4 panels, the lower panels bead butt and square, and the upper panels

square both sides; or the upper panels bead butt on the backs; or the upper

panels bead flush on the back. The panels may have raised mouldings, 2-inch deal, 4 panels, the lower panels bead butt and square, upper panels equare

on both sides; or bead butt on the back; or bead flush on the back; with perhaps

raised mouldings. 2-inch deal, 6 panels, lower panels bead butt and square, upper panels square both

sides; or bead butt on the back; with perhaps raised mouldings. 2-inch deal, 6 panels, the lower panels bead butt and square, and the upper panels

square both sides; or bead butt on the back; or bead flush on the back; with perhaps raised mouldings, double margined, &c. Describe any of these external

doors, if to be hung folding, or with circular or curved heads.
Sash doors.—13-inch deal, 2 panels, square, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash; and

bead butt and square, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash; and bead flush and
square, diminished stiles, and orolo sash; and moulded and square, diminished
stiles, and ovolo sash; and moulded and bead butt, diminished stiles, and orolo
sash; and moulded and bead flush, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash; and moulded
on both sides, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash.
2-inch deal, 2 panels, square, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash, in the same order,
2}-inch deal, 2 panels, square, diminished stiles, and ovolo sash, in the same order.

All these may be hung folding, or with marginal lights.
In describing joiner's work, specify the ironmongery to be used; that is, the hinges,

locks, fastenings, and furniture. There is now great variety:
Common framed 4-panel doors are usually hung with 34-inch butts and 7-inch iron

rim stock locks. Better doors are hung with 4-inch iron or brass butts, mortise locks and brass knob furniture. Folding doors, if heavy, should have 4 or 5-inch brass butts, and if necessary to clear mouldings, they should be hung with projecting brass butts, be provided with flush and other bolts, and mortise locks and

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22859. CARPENTER AND JOINER.

furniture. Doors of dining, drawing, and other rooms, where they are required
to clear the carpet by rising as they open, should have 4 or 44-inch rising joint
butts. Closet doors have usually 3-inch butts, with brass tumbler locks and keys.
External doors require larger locks, which are usually iron rim locks, or patent
locks and keys ; also 10 or 12-inch bright rod bolts, chains, staples, &c. Shutters
have butts, which for the back flaps are of a less size, and spring bar fasten-
ings. Brass or other china koobs to the front flaps. Doors, mouldings, and
joinery are now to be obtained of American and Swedish manufacture, as well as

English.
Moulded architraves to doors and windows, are described by their width and

mouldings, or referred to drawings.
Columns and pilasters.—14-inch (or 13-inch) deal diminished columns, .... inches

diameter. Pilasters similarly specified. Both one and the other to be glued up and blocked. If fluted, to be mentioned; as also any necking grooves to columns. Caps and bases according to the Order, or to drawing, carved, or of papier-maché, as the expense will allow. Entablatures got out of deal, as to drawing. To be glued up, blocked, and fixed

with all necessary brackets and grounds. Water-closet, fitted up with 1-inch clean deal (wainscot or mahogany), seat with hole

cut therein, riser (panelled and moulded) and clamped flap (not always considered a necessity), square (or beaded) skirtings, with all requisite bearers and pipe casing. Privies are described as to seats and risers the same as water-closets, but sometimes have a lid to cover the hole instead of a flap. Cisterns, internal and external, must have their cases proportioned in thickness to

their sizes. Thus one about 3 or 3 feet 6 inches long, and 2 feet u inches deep, will be 14-inch deal dovetailed, with requisite bearers, and a cover of -inch deal with a wood handle. For a good-sized external cistern, provide and fix a wrought and dovetailed 2-inch deal cisteru case, . . . feet long, ... feet wide, and ... feet deep in the clear. Provide and fix all necessary bearers for the same, with all other requisite fittings, and a -inch deal strongly ledged cover, with saddle-back fillets and water channels at each joint. Each water-closet to have a cistern case of 2-inch deal, to contain 36 cubic feet of water, fixed with strong bearers, ledged cover of -inch yellow deal tongued and beaded. All those cisterns are supposed

to be lined with lead, or zinc. Sinks.—For a wooden one lined with lead, 14-inch dovetailed sink, enclosed with

1-inch deal squaro-framed front (and perhaps sides), and top or door hung with 3-inch butts, with deal or lead skirtings, and other necessary ironmongery. A proper drainer to be fixed at one side. Plate-rack for scullery to be provided over the sink, and of the same length. Bath to be fitted up with riser, frame, and clamped flap (of the best Spanish

mahogany), provided and fixed with all requisite bearers and other fittings and appurtenances. The flap to be moulded (in front), and hung with 3-inch brass butt binges, and the riser panelled and moulded as shown in the drawings, or to

follow the windows and doors. Dresser.- For a good house :—2-inch deal, with cross-tongued top 10 feet long and

2 feet 9 inches wide, supported on strong framed legs and bearers. l-inch deal poz-board and bearers. Six 14-inch sunk shelves, whose widths are to average 7 inches. Back of the shelves to be of l-inch deal, wrought, beaded, grooved and cross-tongued. l-inch deal top, 14 inches wide, with moulded cornice. Fire drawers with bottoms and dovetailed rims of f-inch deal. The fronts to be of l-inch deal, beaded. A pair of brass (or black) drop handles and a good patent tumbler lock to each drawer; together with all slides, runners, bearers, and other requisite appurtenances. To be fixed complete. Others from 6 to 7 feet long. Dresser top for scullery, 14-inch clean deal, 2 feet 6 inches wide, and 6 feet long,

cross-tongued, and fixed upon strong wrought and framed legs and bearers. Cupboard fronts to correspond with the doors of their respective rooms, hung on

ornamental S, HL, or other similar hinges, fastened with small tumbler locks, wrought iron key plates, and small twisted or other drop, or fancy, handles. The fittings to closets depend upon the rooms in which they occur; as the attics, bedrooms, nursery, sitting room, kitchen, housekeeper's room, store room, butler's

pantry, cook's room, &c. Dwarf closets.—These vary. 1-inch deal, square framed and moulded in front to

follow other doors. The top to have 1-inch mahogany top, moulded in fron, and 3-inch skirtings. One shelf, same depth as closet. The doors to be hung (folding) with 24-inch butts, a bolt inside, a brass knob outside, and tumbler locks.

2285h. CARPENTER AND JOINER.

Pipe casings, wrought and framed, to be provided where necessary, to hide lead

and other pipes of all descriptions, the fronts to be made to unscrew for coming at

the pipes when necessary. Larder fittings.—Dresser top of clean deal, 1} inch thick, 2 feet 6 inches wide, and

feet long, to be feather-tongued and fixed on strong framed legs and rails. Two meat rails, 6 feet long, of wrought fir, 3} by 2 inches, suspended from wrought iron stirrups. A hanging shelf, 6 feet long, io inches wide, and 14 inch thick,

suspended from wrought iron stirrups. Laundry.To be fitted up with 14-inch clean white deal washing troughs, wrought

two sides, and splayed and put together with white lead (as shown on drawing). 14-inch deal ironing board, wrought both sides and clamped, hung with hinges to a proper hanging stile. Provide two clothes racks, hung with pulleys and ropes

to the ceiling to raise and lower the same. Dust-bin. See BRICKLAYER. Arris gutters to eaves should always be of zinc, or iron for better use, not of wood. Stable fittings, where the old class of work is required : Mangers, fc.—2-inch deal bottoms and 1-inch deal sides. Wrought oak manger

rails, 4 by 3 inches. Wrought, rebated, and rounded oak manger post, 6 by 4 inches, wrought and framed with bearers thereto. Oak heel posts, wrougbt, 6 by 5 inches, and groove for partitions. Oak top rails, 5 by 4 inches, grooved and rounded at the top. Oak bottom rails, wrought, 4 by 4 inches, grooved and arris rounded off. 14-inch deal partitions, wrought on both sides, ploughed, tongued, and beaded. 17-inch deal rails on each side, board wide, and the arrises rounded off, Fronts to hay-racks.—Oak standard, 4 by 4 inches, wrought and framed into onk

bearer under the manger. 14-inch deal fronts, framed for the reception of cast iron hay-racks, well secured. Fix fir bearers and 1-inch deal partitions at each

end of hay-racks, with fir arris rails 3 inches apart at the bottom of each rack. Dressings over stalls connected with heel-posts. i-inch deal frieze, wrought joints,

feather-tongued, and backings thereto, segmental sofites and keystone in centre of arches. Impost mouldings at the springings and moulded cornice to girt

about 10 inches. Line the walls to the height of 5 feet with 1-inch yellow deal, wrought, ploughed,

tongued, and beaded, with a -inch beaded capping thereon. Stable fittings have now become an almost distinct trade. Oak fencing.The site to be enclosed with an English oak fence, having oak posts

5 inches square, 6 (or more) feet long, the lower end tarred and fixed in the ground 2 feet, and well rammed round with dry ballast or brick rubbish, fixed 9 (or 10) feet apart, and framed with two tiers (or three) of oak arris rails secured with oak pegs. The whole covered with oak cleft pales 4 (5, or 6) feet high, nailed with galvanized iron nails. The bottom to be finished with 14-inch oak plank 12 inches wide, tenoned to posts. The top of pales to be covered with inch oak capping 2 inches wide, secured with galvanized iron nails. Sometimes the fence fronting the public way is varnished, with two or more coats. Tar.-Cuver the with one (or two) coats of good Stockholm tar. Churches.- To give general directions for the specification of a church would be

impossible. The principles of its timbering may be collected from what has preceded. The old style of pewing, planned as drawings, of deal square-framed partitions two panels high; 11-inch framed doors and enclosures one or two panels high, with stiles, munnions, and top rails 3 inches wide, and bottom rails 6 inches wide. The panels of the doors and enclosures should not be more than a board in width, and the framework round them chamfered. The doors are hung with 3-inch butt hinges, and should have brass knob pulpit latches. Capping to the whole of the pewing, grooved and moulded according to drawing. Pew fittings are, 1-inch wrought and rounded seats, 12 inches wide, with proper bearers and 14-inch cut brackets not more than 3 feet apart. Seats next the pow doors. Flap-seats in the galleries to have strong joints. All the pews to have 4-inch book boards 6 inches wide, with 3-inch rounded capping bearers, und -inch cut brackets thereunder, not more than 2 feet 6 inches apart, and the ends rounded next the pow doors. If there be an organ, its enclosure would correspond with the pews, or bo specially designed for it.

Free seats of 14-inch deal, as shown in the drzwings; the seats to be 11 inches wide, rounded in front; backs framed with stiles, munnions, and rails, 31 inches wide, and the standards, ends, and bearers, according to the drawings. “Children's seats to be of 14-inch deal, with brackets samo thickness, not more than 2 feet 6 inches

2285i. CARPENTER AND JOINER,

apart; at least 8 inches wide, and the flap seats, where they occur, to be hung with strong butts. Pulpits and reading desks are usually of 14-inch deal, framed according to drawings, with 14-inch doors, hung with brass hinges and pulpit latches. Whole deal floors on bearers, 1-inch book boards, cappings and bearers. 1-inch clean deal or wainscot steps and risers, moulded returned nosings, 17-inch, beaded, sunk and cut string boards, strong bracketed carriages. l-inch square framed sofite, under pulpit floor and stairs, mahogany or wainscot moulded handrail, with caps turned and mitred; square bar balusters with one in ten of iron; turned dewels to block steps; seats of 17-inch deal, 13 inches wide, and proper bearers thereto, together with all appurtenances and requisite fittings for executing the drawings. This exploded manner of fitting up a place for religious worship is well delineated in Î. L. Walker, Architectural Practice, 8vo., London, 3rd

edit., 1841. The details may be occasionally useful. For more modern work may be specified :— The whole of the seating throughout

to be formed as detail drawings, of good, well-seasoned English oak (or otherwise), to be wrought, chamfered, and stopped, or moulded and cut, as shown or required; to be carefully framed and put together. The bench ends to be (at least) 3 inches thick, tenoned and pinned to the chamfered oak sill. The backs to have solid moulded oak capping. The seats to be 14 inches thick, and the book boards to be 2 inches thick (fixed flat or sloping), edges chamfered ; all to be well housed and cut into bench ends. Fix cut brackets, not more than 4 feet apart, under the seats ; and cut brackets, not more than 3 feet apart, under the book boards. All the seats to be kept clear of the piers (if any). See par. 2192a. The carpenter and joiner is to provide and include all such jobbing work, in follow

ing or preceding the other artificers engaged on the works and their appurtenances, as may be requisite for the completion thereof in every respect.

FOUNDER, SMITH, AND IRONMONGER. 2286. Cast iron girders and colunins. Reference must be had to Chap. I. Sect. X. (1628€

et seq.), wherein will be found the method of determining their scantlings; all

girders to be previously tested before fixing, by weighting at the foundry. Cast iron cradles, when used for openings, must be described for the particular

occasions as they occur. Chimney bars.- To kitchen chimney two wrought iron cradle bars, each 2 inches wide

and inch thick, long enough to extend to the outside of the chimney jambs, and turned up and down (or cockrd down and up) at each end. The other openings to

have each a wrought iron chimney bar 3 inches wide and finch thick. Straps, stirrup irons, nuts, lolts, screws, and washers, together with all other wrought

iron work for the roofs and partitions, to be provided as may be requisite, and the smith is to deliver to and assist the carpenter in fixing or attaching the same. Where the quantity is uncertain, a given weight beyond the above general direction should be provided in the contract, such part thereof as may not be wanted to be deducted from the accounts after the rate of ... per cwt. To provide for the carpenter's and joiner's works, and use, and fix thereto, all requisite spikes, nails, screws, and other proper iromongery, and all requisite brass work, all to be of the very

best quality.
Cramps of cast, and wrought, iron, or copper (par. 2284d), as may be directed, for the

mason; the former to be used where the works are exposed to the air.
Wrought iron door for strong room or opening in a party wall (it may be folding) to

be of the best quality (name the manufacturer), with hinges and proper fasteņings,

of the value of ... pounds, without fixing. Cast iron sashes as necessary. Wedges for underpinning must be described with reference to the thickness of walls

they are to catch ; each pair must be at least as long as the wall is thick. Balusters to a back stone staircase and landings.-- Wrought iron balusters, i inch

square, with turned wrought iron newel equal to 1} inch diameter, with rounded haodrail of wrought iron 1) by } inch. The balusters and newel are to be riveted

into the handrail at top, and at the bottom let into the stonework, and run with lead. Balusters to a principal staircase.—Ornamental cast iron balusters, as shown on the drawings, or to pattern by a manufacturer, with top rail of wrought iron 11 by

an inch, let into and firmly screwed to the mahogany (or wainscot) handrail. The balu ters and newels are to be riveted into the iron rail, and at the bottom

they are to be let into the top or side of the stonework, and run with lead. Balusters of wrought iron for strengthening the principal staircase when of wood.

Every tenth baluster to be of wrought iron, well secured.
Knocker.- Provide and fix... iron, or brass, knocker for ... door (specify a price).

2286a. FOUNDER, SMITH, AND IRONMONGER.

Air bricks of cast iron, single or double, and fixed in the brickwork of the outside

walls, for the ventilation of the floors; also air gratings, ... in number, 9 inches

square. Area gratings.—Of cast iron, with bars 1] inch by of an inch, and not more than

1} inch apart. Frames 14 inch by 1 inch, and with strong flanges to let into the surrounding stonework, and properly fixed. Window guards, of wrought iron to thọ windows of ..., and ... bars, to be 1 inch

square and 4 inches apart, with framework of iron of the same substance, and let

well into and securely fixed to the brickwork in cement. Coal plates of cast iron, with proper fastenings, to be provided to the coal shoot.

Hayward's patent self-locking plate is one of the new patents. Cast iron ornamental railing, to the windows, or to the balcony in front of the house,

as the case may be, according to the drawings, or selected from a manufacturer. Traps of cast iron, or stoneware, to all communications of surface water with drains,

to be of appropriate size, with all gully gratings that may be necessary. Drains to roads or paths to be of unglazed earthenware pipes, in 2-feet lengths, of a

... inch bore, laid to a fall of ... inches in each 100 feet into ..., with all decessary bends, junctions, &c. Iron gully trap or glazed stoneware trap, or traps, jointed as drains. The Kitchener apparatus for cooking must be specially named ; and in large man

sions many modern conveniences are required to be specified. The Carron Com

pany have issued (1887) a book of appliances of various sizes. Copper.-A copper, : . . inches diameter (or cubical quantity), of copper, or of gal

vanized iron, with all requisito bars and iron work. Stable fittings.—No. . . . cast iron hay-racks, 3 feet wide and 2 feet high in the clear.

14-inch round staves, about 3 inches apart, the frames li by of an inch, with

the arris rounded off next the staves. Fix two manger rings in each stall. Cast iron coping to the walls of the dung-pit of an inch thick, and returned on each

side 4 inches down at the least. Cast iron gratings to stable yards are usually described as of the weight of 1 cwt. CHURCH AND CHAPEL WORK. The founder's, smith's, and ironmonger's work is so de

pendent on the design, that no general instructions can be given. Cast iron saddle bars to the windows by 14 inch (or 4-inch square), 12 inches

longer than the clear width of each window, with lead lights, laid into and worked up with the brickwork, at the height shown on the drawings, to be fixed on an aver

age 12 inches apart. Each window to have wrought iron framework for a hopper casement, to be fitted up

complete, with patent lines, brass pulleys, and all other requisite appurtenances. Or the hoppers may rest on the sill, and be hinged next to it, so that when closed the

exterior glazing may be flush, and to be fitted with opening racks and fastenings. To outside of windows, where necessary, fix l-inch square stanchions, not more than

6 inches apart, with ornamental heads forged to drawing, let into (frames or) stone

sill at bottom, and passed thr: ugh saddle bars with mortises formed thereon. For church windows with tracery heads, provide and build in across the springing of

the arch of all windows of 3 lights and upwards, wrought iron bars 2 inches by -inch, corked, and well turned up 2 feet from jambs, on each side; these bars to be well galvanized, and fixed with play for expansion or strain, in notches through

the mullions. All straps, bolts, nuts, and washers for the rarious roofs. Where visible, the straps

are to be worked to detail drawings; and the washers and nuts to be notched and stamped as directed. Wrought (or cast) iron vanes, crosses, ridge cresting, guards to areas, balconies, &c.,

according to drawings; all to be securely fixed; the ranes and gable crosses to have stems as long as possible, and to be leaded into the stone or screwed to the

roof timbers, as the case may be. Ornamental wrought iron hinges, latches, key-plates, closing rings, &c., on doors, all

to be strictly worked according to detail drawings. Ornamental grating of cast iron to pattern, to cover hot water pipe channels in floors. Cast iron rain-water pipe.- To be 21, 3, 3, 4, 4, 5 or 6 inches diameter, fixed from

the roof into the drain, with proper head and shoe, ears or bands, &c., complete. Eaves gutter.-All overhanging eaves to have a 4-inch cast iron eaves gutter, with

all necessary angle pieces, valley pans to internal angles, swan-necks, and socket pipes cast on the gutter to lead into heads of rain-water pipes. The gutters to be fixed on strong wrought iron brackets screwed to the feet of the rafters, and the

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