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Height of
in terms of


Uppe Diames lower Di

The height of t

report on its condition. Fergusson, On the Erechtheum, read at the Royal Institute a scotia or trochilus between them, a fillet below and above the scotia separating it fror 156. In the bases applied to the order in the Athenian buildings there are two tori, wit

The lower fillet generally coincides with a vertical line let fall from the extrem half the distance between the hollow of the scotia and the extremity of the inferior toru!

In the temple on the Ilyssus the lower fillet projects abou The height of the two tori and scotia are nearly equal, and a bead is placed on the uppe

(lib. iv. c. 3.) tells us that Hermogenes, " after having prepared a large quantity of me for a Doric temple, changed his mind, and, with the materials collected, made it of Ionic order, in honour of Bacehus." We are bound, however, to observe upon this, the story is not confirmed by any other writer. It is probable that this splendid buil was raised after the Persian invasion ; for, according to Strabo (lib. xiv.), all the sa edifices of the Ionian cities, Ephesus excepted, were destroyed by Xerxes. Besides octastyle temple, those of Apollo Didymæus, near Miletus, built about 376 B.C., an Minerva Polias, at Priene, dedicated by Alexander of Macedon, are the chief temple this order of much fame in the colonies.

We shall therefore eonfine our remaining marks to the three sonic temples at Athens, and shall, as in the Doric order, subjo synoptical view of their detail.

Height of
Height divided


Capital in
by lower Diameter,

terms of
in English Feet.

Diameter. being R Temple on the llyssus 14 694



25.387 Temple of Minerva Polias

9.119 2-287



816 Temple of Erectheas

0-773 9.337

2.000 2-317 154. We here see that the Ionic column varies in height from eight diameters and nea a quarter to nearly nine and a half, and the upper diameter in width between 1 and

The dissimilarity of the capitals renders it impossible to compare them. The mean heig Grecian Ionic cornice may be generally considered as two-ninths of the whole entablatu

155. The age of the double temple of Minerva Polias (fig. 102.) and Erectheus now been stated as not completed in B.c. 409, at which time a committee was

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appointed i

British Architects, 1875-76, and 1878–79.

the tori.
projection of the upper torus.


Moric The the



torus for the reception of the shaft of the column. The temples of Erectheus and te
zontally. In that of Minerva Polias, the upper torus is sculptured with a guilloche.
base just described is usually denominated the Attic Base, though also used in
Chap. II

the llyssus have the lower tori of their bases uncut, whilst the upper ones are
Didymæus near Miletus, are very differently formed.
the different examples

. In the edifices on the Ilyssus and at Priene, as well as in that of 157. The VoLUTE, the great distinguishing feature of the order, varies consideraby in Apollo Didymæus, the volute has only one channel between the revolutions of the spiral; whilst in those of Erectheus and Minerva Polias, at Athens, each volute is furnished with two distinct spirals and channels. In the temple on the Ilyssus, the capital is terminated a little below the eye of the volute; in the others it reaches below the volutes, and is decorated with honeysuckle flowers and foliage. The number of flutes, which on the plan are usually elliptical, is twenty-four, and they are separated by fillets from each other. ' In some examples they descend into the apophyge of the shaft.

158. The tomb of Theron, at Agrigentum, in which Ionic columns and capitals are crowned with a Doric entablature, has, by some, been quoted as an example of the Ionic order ; but we do not believe it to be of any antiquity, and, if it were, it is so anomalous a specimen that it would be useless to pursue any inquiry into its foundation.

159. In the antæ or pilasters of this order, as well as of the Doric, their capitals differ in profile from the columns, and are never decorated with volutes. Their breadth is usually less than a diameter of the column, and they are not diminished.

160. The highest degree of refinement of Greek architecture is exhibited in its examples
of the Corinthian order, whose distinguishing feature is its capital. We have, in a pre-
ceding page (139), given Vitruvius's account of its origin ; but we much doubt whether
Callimachus was its inventor.
161. The capitals of Egyptian columns are so close upon the invention, that we ap-

prehend it was only a step or two in advance of what had previ-
ously been done. The palm leaf, lotus flower, and even volutes,
had been used in similar situations in Egypt, and the contour of
the lotus flower itself bears no small resemblance to the bell of
the Corinthian capital.

162. We are inclined to assign the period of the latter part of
the Peloponnesian war as that in which the order first came into

We find from Pausanias (Arcad. c. 45.) that Scopas, the celebrated architect of Paros, rebuilt the temple of Minerva at Tegæa, which was destroyed by fire about 400 years B.C., and that, according to that author, it was the largest and most beautiful edifice in the Peloponnesus. The cell, which was hypæthral, was surrounded by two ranks of Doric columns, which were surmounted by others of the Corinthian order. The peristyle of this temple was Ionic,

163. The delicacy of formation of this order has, doubtless,
subjected its examples to earlier destruction and decay than have
attended the other orders : hence our knowledge of it is almost
confined to the examples we meet of it in the Tower of the Winds,
and the Choragic monument of Lysicrates (fig. 103.), both at
Athens; the former whereof can scarcely be considered Corinthian,
and the latter not very strictly so. It was erected about 330 years
B.C., as appears from the inscription on the frieze. These Choragic
buildings, usually of small dimensions, were erected in honour of
those who, as choragi or leaders of the chorus in the musical games,
were honoured with the prize, which was a tripod. The following
are the proportions observed in the Choragic monument of Ly

sicrates :
Height of columns in English feet
Height of columns in terms of lower diameter
Height of capital in terms of lower diameter
Upper diameter of shaft in terms of the lower diameter
Height of the architrave in terms of the lower diameter
Height of the frieze in terms of the lower diameter
Height of cornice in terms of the lower diameter

Total height of entablature in terms of the lower diameter
From which it appears that the entablature is less than a fifth of the total height of the
order. The intercolumniations are 2.200 diameters. The base is little different from that
used in the Ionic order.

164. In the ornaments applied for the decoration of the sacred edifices of the Greeks,




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168. But to return more closely to the subject, we will give the words of Pausanias (Lad

entablature (see fig. 39.). But as the settlement of the claims of either of these countrie Elephanta, where colossal statues are ranged along the sides as high as the underside of th Greece the name that has been applied to them long before the period of which Vitruviu to the invention is not our object, we shall proceed to consider how they obtained i

167. Kapúa, the nut tree (Nux juglans), which Plutarch (Sympos, lib. i.) says receivel habitation with her, transformed Carya, one of the three daughters of Dion, king of Laconi by his wife Iphitea. The other daughters, Orphe and Lyco, were turned into stones fa having too closely watched their sister's intercourse with the lover. Diana, from whor the Lacedemonians learnt this story, was on that account, as well perhaps as the excellenc of the fruit of the tree, therefore worshipped by them under the name of Diana Caryati (Servius, note on 8th Ecl. of Virgil, edit. Burman.) Another account, however, not at al with danger whilst celebrating the rites of the goddess, took refuge under the branches a nut tree (kapva), in honour and perpetuation whereof they raised a temple to Dian Caryatis. If this, however, be an allusion to the famous interposition of Aristomenes i protecting some Spartan virgins taken by his soldiers, it is not quite borne out by th worshipped at Carya, near Sparta, under the name of Diana Caryatis; and that at her teip

Salmasius (Exercit. Plinianæ, f. 603. et seq.) says, that Diana w and statue the Lacedemonian virgins had an anniversary festival, with dancing, according

they imitated the real and symbolical objects used in their worship. Thus, at the te of Apollo at Teos, the lyre, tripod, and griffin occur; in the Temple of the Wine Athens, the winds are personified on the walls; the Choragic monuinent of Lysicrate hibits the consequences of a contempt of music; on the temple of Victory, at the enti of the Acropolis, was recorded, on the very spot, the assault and repulsion of the Amaz the Lapithæ are vanquished again in the temple of Theseus, the founder of the city; lastly, in the Parthenon is brought before the eye, on a belt round the cell of the ten the Panathenaic procession, which, issuing from the door of the cell, biennially perambul the edifice, whilst its pediment perpetuates the contest between Neptune and Minerva the honour of naming the city, and calls to remembrance the words of Cicero, “ De quori (Atheniensium,) “ urbis possessione, propter pulchritudinem etiam inter deos certa fuisse proditum est,” &c. In the capitals of the Corinthian examples just noticed the le are those of the olive, a tree sacred to the tutelary goddess of Athens, and on that accour well as its beauty of form and simplicity adopted by a people whose consistency in art never been excelled.

165. Besides the method of supporting an entablature by means of columns, the ployment of figures was adopted, as in the temples of Erectheus and Minerva Polias be inentioned (see fig. 102.). They were called Caryatides ; and their origin, according to account of it by Vitruvius (lib. 1. c. 1.), was that Carya, a city of Peloponnesus, having sisted the Persians against the Grecian states, the latter, when the country was freed for their invaders, turned their arms against the Caryans, captured their city, put the male the sword, and led the women into captivity. The architects of the time, to perpetuate ignominy of the people, substituted statues of these women for columns in their portice faithfully copying their ornaments and drapery.

It is, however, certain that the ori of their application for architectural purposes is of far higher antiquity than the invasion Greece by the Persians, and in the above account Vitruvius is not corroborated by : other writer.

Herodotus (Polymnia), indeed, observes that some of the states whom enumerates sent the required offering of salt and water to Xerxes ; but no mention is ma of Carya, whose conduct, if punished in such an extraordinary manner, would have been curious a matter to have been passed over in silence.

Whether the use of statues to perfor the office of columns travelled into Greece from India or from Egypt, we will not prete to determine. Both, however, will furnish examples of their application. In the late Wesseling). Diodorus also, speaking of Psammcticus, says that having obtained the who kingdom, he built a propylæum on the east side of the temple to the god at Memph which temple he encircled with a wall; and in this propylæum, instead of columns, subst

166. The application of statues and representations of animals is a prominent feature int! that the figures do not absolutely carry the entablature (see fig. 71.). In India manyli stances of his use of statues te cuarrys thin the beatavations "of the temple near Vielloni described by Sir C. Mallet (Asiat. Res. vol. vi.), wherein heads of lions, elephants. imaginary animals apparently support the roof of the cave of Jugnath Subba, and the speaks. tators of Statius (Barthius, lib. iv. v. 225.).

It is as follows. words of Diodorus.

Some virgins threatene

the custom of the country.


o Carya, Adess and he Lace.


As etiam

ded that

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Fig. 105.

nics) on the temple to the goddess at Carya. “ The third turning to the right leads
and the sanctuary of Diana; for the neighbourhood of Carya is sacred to that go.

The statue of Diana Caryatis is in the open air; and in this place t demonian virgins celebrate an anniversary festival with the old custom of the dicuntur Lacænæ saltantes, sinistrâ ansatæ, uti solebant Caryatides puellæ in Donorein Kuhnius on the passage in question, after reference to Hesychius, says, “ Caryatid Cear. II.

GRECIAN. her nymphs. Dianæ."

169. From the circumstances above mentioned, we think it may be fairly conclu the statues called Caryatides were originally applied to or used about

the temples of Diana, and that instead of representing captives or persons in a state of ignominy, they were in fact representations of the virgins engaged in the worship of that goddess. It is probable that after their first introduction other figures, in buildings appropriated to other divinities, were gradually employed; as in the Pandroseum (attached to the temple of Minerva Polias),

for instance, where they may be representations of the virgins
called Canephoræ, who assisted in the Panathenaic procession.
Fig. 104. is a representation of one of those used in the Pan.
droseum (see also fig. 102.); and fig. 105. is from the Townley col.
lection, now in the British Museum, Piranesi conjectured that
this last, with others, supported the entablature of an ancient
Roman building restored by him from some fragments found near
the spot where they were discovered, which is rather more than a
mile beyond the Capo di Bove, near Rome. Four of the statues
were found; and on one of the three, purchased by Cardinal Albani,
1the following inscription was found: - ΚΡΙΤΩΝ ΚΑΙ ΝΙΚΟΛΑΟΣ
ENOJOTN; showing that it was the work of Greek artists.

170. The republican spirit of Greece tended to repress all ap

pearance of luxury in their private dwellings. The people seem to Fig. 104.

have thrown all their power into the splendour and maguificence of their temples; and it was not till a late period that their houses received much attention, Except in the open courts of them, it is difficult to conceive any application of the orders. It is certain that they frequently consisted of more than one story; but beyond this all is conjecture. In the time of Demosthenes (Orat. adv. Aristocratem) the private houses had begun to be increased in extent; and the description of them by Vitruvius, who knew Athens well, proves that they were then erected on an extent implying vast luxury.

171. Within the last few years discoveries have been made at Athens, which would lead us to the belief that it was the practice of the Greeks to paint in party colours every portion of their temples, and that in violently contrasted colours. This has received the name of polychrome architecture. It is rather strange that no ancient writer has spoken of the prac. rice, and the only way to account for the omission is by supposing it to have been so com. mon that no one thought of mentioning it. From late investigations (Inst. of Brit. Architects, Trang. i., 1836.), it appears that many parts of the Parthenon were painted or gilt. Thus the coffers of the ceiling were painted, and its frieze ornamented with a fret in colours. The whole building, says M. Schaubert, as well as other temples, was thickly painted, in the metopæ, in the pediment, on the drapery of the figures, on the capitals, and on all the mouldings. So that, as he says, with great simplicity, with its mouldings and carvings variously coloured, the simple Doric temple of Theseus was in effect richer than the most gorgeous example of Corinthian; and it would be worth the trouble to restore with accuracy a polychrome temple. From M. Quast (Mittheilungen über Alt und Neu Athen, Berlin, 1894), we learn that the colour was not used in a fluid state merely for the purpose of staining the marble, but in a thick coat, so that the material was completely covered; and that in the temple of Theseus this is more traceable than in any other. Though the colours, that of blue smalt more especially, have left but a grey crust, yet their original tone is still apparent. In this building deep blues and reds are the predominant colours, so as to relieve one another. The corona was deep blue, and the guttæ of a brown red; the foliage of the cymatium was alternately streaked with blue and red, the ground being green, which colour is applied to the small leaves on some of the lesser mouldings. Some of the coffers are coloured of a red inclining to purple, on which the ornament is given ; others exhibit a blue ground, with red stars. The architrave of the portico was a bright red; the figures in the frieze were painted in their proper natural colours : traces of the colour show that the walls were green. It was not discovered that in the columns more than the arrises of the flutes were painted, although the echinus was. We do not doubt the accuracy of MM. Semper and Quast, later writers on the same subject, but after all it is possible that all this painting may have been executed at a period much later than that of the buildings themselves.

172. The most ancient theatres of Greece were constructed in a temporary manner; but the little security from accident they afforded to a large concourse of persons soon made the Greeks more cautious for their security, and led to editices of stone, whicli, in the end, exo

persons of rank and magistrates, the middle one to the commonalty, and the upper one to theatre of the Greeks having no roof or covering. The theatre was always dedicated to they owe their origin : hence, the plays acted in them were called ALOvvoraka, Dionysiaca, as belonging to ALOvvoos, or Bacchus. Every citizen shared by right in the public diverold and new forum. The old forum was in the Ceramicus within the city. The assemblies

173. The Athenian ayopai, or fora, were numerous; but the two most celebrated were the 174. The supply of water at Athens was chiefly from wells, aqueducts being scarcely

Some of these wells were dug at the public wards much inproved and extended, and became common throughout Greece. The gym

175. The first gymnasia are said to have been erected in Lacedemonia, but were after the other sciences, delivered their lectures ; in it also the wrestlers and dancers practised and exercised; all which, from its space, they were enabled to do without interfering with ond

to meet ; 4, 4, is the double portico looking to the south; c, egnalov, ephæbeum, where thi

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In it the philosophers, rhetoricians, and professors of all PLOTULOV, peristylium, which included the o paipiotipov, sphæristerium, and Talaiotpa, palestra

The chief parts (fig. 107.), following Vitruvius (lib. v. cap. 11.), are-A, the 1, 2, 3, are the otoal, porticus, with B B, Eteopar, exhedre, where probably the scholars used

ceeded in magnitude all their other buildings. Their form on the plan (see fig. 106.) rather more than a semicircle, and consisted of two parts; the ornu), scena, and KOL

Fig. 106.

The scena was at first merely a partition for the actors reaching quite across tt stage, dressed with boughs and leaves, but in after times was very differently and mom expensively constructed. It had three principal gates, two on the sides and one in th centre; at which last the principal characters entered.

The whole scene was divided int several parts, whereof the most remarkable were—the Bportemov, brontæum, under the floor where were deposited vessels full of stones and other materials for imitating the sound o thunder; the emiowhulov, episcenium, a place on the top of the scene, in which were places the machines for changing the various figures and prospects ; the rapaoshvior, parascentua the performers acted ; the op xhampo, orchestra, was the part in which the performers dames hyposcenium, was a partition under the pulpitum, where the music was placed ; the motion cavea, was for the reception of the spectators, and consisted of two or three division ere several seats, each rising above one another, the lowest division being appropriated to

Round the cavea porticoes were erected for shelter'in rainy weather, the sion and public debate ; the theatre was therefore open to the whole community. another.



the women.

trade was assigned a particular portion.

known there before the time of the Romans. expense, others by private persons.


bers resorted for different purposes.

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