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as they rose in height, the tree indicated the diminution of the column. No type, however of base or pedestal is found in trees: hence the ancient Doric is without base. This practice, llowever, from the premature decay of wood standing immediately on the ground, caused the intervention of a step to receive it, and to protect the lower surface from the damp. Scamozzi imagines that the mouldings at the bases and capitals of columns had their origin in cinctures of iron, to prevent the splitting of the timber from the superincumbent weight. Others, however, are of opinion that the former were used merely to elevate the shafts above the dampness of the earth, and thereby prevent rot. In the capital, it seems natura! that its upper surface should be increased as much as possible, in order to procure a greater area for the reception of the architrave. This member, or chief beam, whose name bespeaks its origin, was placed horizontally on the tops of the columns, being destined, in effect, to carry the covering of the entire building. Upon the architrave lay the joists of the ceiling, their height being occupied by the member which is called the frieze. In the Doric order, the ends of these joists were called triglyphs, from their being sculptured with two whole and two half glyphs or channels. These, however, in the other orders in strictly Greek architecture, do not appear in the imitation of the type, though in Roman architeeture it is sometimes otherwise, as in the upper order of the Coliseum at Rome, where they are sculptured into consoles. The space between the triglyphs was, at an early period of the art, left open, as we learn from a passage in the Iphigenia of Euripides, where Pvlades advises Orestes to slip through one of the metopæ, in order to gain admission into the temple. In after times, these intervals were filled up, and in the other orders they altogether disappear, the whole length of the frieze becoming one plain surface. The inclined rafters of the roof projected over the faces of the walls of the building, so as to deliver the rain clear of them. Their ends were the origin of the mutule or modillion, whereof the former had its under side inclined, as, among many other examples, in the Parthenon at Athens. The elevation, or as it is technically termed, pitch of the pediment, followed from the inclined sides of the roof, whose inclination depended on the climate (See sect. 2030). Thus authors trace from the hut the origin of the different members of architecture, which a consideration of the annexed diagram will make more intelligible to the reader. Figs. 91. and 92. exhibit the parts of a roof in elevation and section : a a are the architraves or

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Fig. 91.

ELEVATION

Fig. 92

ti abes; bb the ridge piece or columen; c the king-post or columna of a roof; d d the tie-beam or transtrum; e the strut or capreolus ; ff the rafters or cantherii ; gggg the purlines or xempla ; h h the common rafters or asseres. The form of the pediment became an object of so much admiration, and so essential a part of the temple, that Cicero says, if a temple were to be built in heaven, where no rain falls, it would be necessary to bestow one upon it. “ Capitolii fastigium illud, et cæterarum ædium, non venustas sed necessitas ipsa fabricata est. Nam cum esset habita ratio quemadmodum ex utraque parte tecti aqua delaberetur utilitatem templi fastigii dignitas consecuta est, ut etiam si in cælo capitolium statueretur ubi imber esse non potest, nullam sine fastigio dignitatem habiturum fuisse videatur.” (De Oratore, lib. iii.) The inclination of the pediment will be hereafter discussed, when we speak on the article Roof, in another part of the work. Under the section on Cyclopean Architecture, mention has been made of the works at Tiryns and Mycene. We do not think there is sufficient chain of evidence to connect those ruins with the later Grecian works, though it must be confessed that the temples of Sicily, especially at Selinus, and perhaps those at Pæstum, are connecting links. Perhaps the sculptures at Selinus might be pro. perly called Cyclopean sculpture, in its more refined state.

136. Architecture, as well as all the other arts, could only be carried to perfection by slow steps. Stone could not have been used in building until the mechanical arts had been well known. It is curious that Pliny gives the Greeks credit only for caves as their original dwellings, from which they advanced to simple huts, built of earth and clay. His words are (lib. vii. s. 57.), “ Laterarias ac domos constituerunt primi Euryalus et Hyperbias

39

Athenis: antea specus erant pro domibus." This, perhaps, is no more than a tradi11.

GRECIAN ays inclined to discard them, for we have little more than tradition for the early es.

of the Athenians in civilisation, a nation among the Greeks who first became : litic, and whose vanity caused them to assume the name of Aurox doves, from. almost sanctioned by Plato, that their ancestors actually

rose from the earth. How the prevailing opinion was of the original superiority of the Athenians, may be d from Cicero, in his oration for Flaccus. " Adsunt,” he says, “ Athenienses, unde tas, doctrina, religio, fruges, jura, leges ortæ, atque in omnes terras distributie r: de quorum urbis possessione, propter pulchritudinem, etiam inter deos certamen roditum est: quæ vetustate eâ est, ut ipsa ex sese suos cives genuisse dicatur." But

not attempt, here, an early history of Greece ; for which this is not the place, and, if ished, would little answer our views. The Greeks exhibited but little skill in their edifices. The temple of Delphi, mentioned by Homer, in the first book of the 404. et seq.), which Bryant supposes to have been originally founded by Egyptians, we learn from Pausanias (Phocic. c. 5.), a mere hut, covered with laurel branches. e celebrated Areopagus was but a sorry structure, as we learn from Vitruvius cap. 1.), who judged of it from its ruins. The fabulous Cadmus — for we cannot owing Jacob Bryant in his conjectures upon this personage has been supposed existed about 1519 B. C., to have instructed the Greeks in the worship of the 1 and Phænician deities, and to have taught them various useful arts; but this s so far back, that we should be retracing our steps into Cyclopean architecture, if here to dwell on the period ; and we must leave the reader — as is our own, and as hend will be the case with all who may succeed us — to grope his way out of the as best he may. The earliest writer from whom gleanings can be made to elucidate the architecture e is the father of poets. To Homer we are obliged to recur, little as we approve hitectural graphic flights in which the poet is wont generally to indulge. Though sey may not be of so high antiquity as the Iliad, it is, from internal evidence, of , for the poem exhibits a government strictly patriarchal, and it sufficiently proves ehief buildings of the period were the palaces of princes. We may here, in bserve, that in Greece, previous to Homer and Hesiod, the sculptor's art appears ren unknown, neither was practised the representation of Gods. The words of ras (Leg. pro Christ. xiv.) are—Al d'elkoves uexpa unaw FAQOTIXT, Kai ypapun, kau 0177iKT nav, oude evou.Govto. The altar, which was merely a structure for sacred nothing more than a hearth, whereon the victim was prepared for the meal ;

not till long after Homer's time that a regular priesthood appeared in Greece. , the kings performed the office. In Egypt, the dignity was obtained by inheritas the case in other places. The Odyssey places the altar in the king's palace ; ny reasonably assume that the spot was occasionally, perhaps always, used as the From such premises, it is reasonable to conjecture that until the sacerdotal was from the kingly office, the temple, either in Greece or elsewhere, had no existence. t be without interest to collect, here, the different passages in the Odyssey, which

the nature and construction of the very earliest buildings of importance. he avan and the dopos there must bave been a distinction. The former, from its au, must have been a locus subdialis ; and though it is sometimes used (Iliad, Z. he whole palace, such is not generally its meaning in the Odyssey. The avan was n which the female attendants of Penelope were slain by Telemachus (Odyss. X. ying them up with a rope over the doos or ceiling. Hence we arrive at the that this soos belonged the allovoa or cloister, supposing, as we have done, An was open at top, and the ailovoa is described (Iliad, 7. 176.) as epidouros, that s or echoing, and as circumscribing the open part of the avan. The Sonos was by Kloves, posts or columns, and in the centre of the avan stood the Bouos or altar. rpretation be correct, the peroduar in this arrangement must be the spaces between is or posts, or the intercolumniations, as the word is usually translated ; and the the Odyssey (T. 37.), wherein Telemachus is said to have seen the light on the Des quite clear. The passage is as follows:

Εμπης μοι τοιχοι μιγαρων, καλαι το μεσοδμαι,
Είλατιναι τι δοκοί, και κιονες υψοσ’ εχοντες,

Φαινοντ’ οφθαλμοίς. is no doubt that the word abovoa will bear the interpretation given, and the it is nothing more than that of the hypæthral, and even correspondent with the emple, particularly that of the temple at Edfou, described by Denon, and repres plate 34. ore we quit this part of our subject, let us consider the description which lyss. H. 81.) gives of the house of Alcinous as illustrative of Greek architecture ng, which Ulysses visited, had a brazen threshold, ovdos. It was erkepeos o.

lofty-r pofed. The walls were brazen on every side, from the threshold to the innermost part. This, however, is rather poetic. The coping Spıykos was of a blue colour. The interior doors are described as gold. The jambs of them, otaðuoi, were of silver on a brazen threshold. The lintel utepupiov was silver, and the cornice koowon of gold. Statues of dogs, in gold and silver, which had been curiously contrived by Vulcan himself, guarded the portal. Thus far, making all due allowance for the poet's fancy, we gain an insight into what was considered the value of art in his day, more dependent, it wwuld seem, on material than on form. Seats seemed to have been placed round the interior part of the house, on which seats were cushions, which the women wrought. But we must return to the construction of the auan, inasmuch as in it we find considerable resemblance to the rectangular and columnar disposition of the comparatively more recent temple.

139. It would be a hopeless task to connect the steps that intervened between the sole use of the altar and the establishment of the temple in its perfection; though it might, did our limits permit the investigation, be more easy to find out the period when the regular temple became an indispensable appendage to the religion of the country. It is closely connected with that revolution which abolished the civil, judicial, and military offices of kings leaving the sacerdotal office to another class of persons. Though in the palace of the king no portion of it was appropriated to religious ceremony, the spot of the altar only excepted, yet, as it was the depository of the furniture and utensils requisite for the rite or sacrifice, when the palace was no more, an apartment would be wanting for them; and this, conjoined with other matters, may have suggested the use of the cell. Eusebius has conjectured that the temple originated in the reverence of the ancients for their departed relations and friends, and that they were only stately monuments in honour of heroes, from whom the world had received considerable benefit, as in the case of the temple of Pallas, at Larissa, really the sepulchre of Acrisius, and the temple of Minerva Polias at Athens, which is supposed to cover the remains of Erichthonius. The passage in Virgil (Æn. ii. v. 74.)

tumulum antiquæ Cereris, sedemque sacratam

Venimus – is explanatory of the practice of the ancients in this respect; and, indeed, it is well known that sacrifices, prayers, and libations were offered at almost every tomb; nay, the restingplace of the dead was an asylum or sanctuary not less sacred than was, afterwards, the temple itself. From Strabo (lib. ii.) it is clear that the temple was not always originally a structure dedicated to a god, but that it was occasionally reared in honour of other personages.

140. Before proceeding to that which is more accurately known, it may not be uninstructive to the reader to glance at the houses of the Greeks, as may be gathered from passages in the Iliad and the Odyssey. We shall merely remind him that Priam's house had fifty separate chambers, though he lived in a dwelling apart from it. These houses were, in some parts, two stories in height, though the passages supporting that assertion (Iliad, B. 514–16. 184.) have been pronounced of doubtful antiquity. There is, however, not the slightest doubt that the dwellings of the East consisted of more than a single story. David wept for Absalom in the chamber over the gate (2 Sam. xviii. 33.). The altars of Ahaz were on the terrace of the upper chamber (9 Kings, xxiii. 12.). The summer chamber of Eglon had stairs to it, for by them Ehud escaped, after he had revenged Israel (Judges, iii. 20.; 1 Kings, vi. 8.). In the Septuagint, these upper stories are all represented by the word útepwov, the same employed by Homer. The Jewish law required (Deut. xxii. 8.) the terraces on the tops of their houses to be protected by a battlement ; and, indeed, for want of a railing (Odyss. K. 552. et seq.) of this sort, Elpenor, one of the companions of Ulysses, at the palace of Circe, fell over and broke his neck. The use of the word klimat in the Odyssey, connected with the words avabaively and katabavev, and the substantive úmepwov, is of frequent occurrence : it is either a ladder or a staircase, and which of them is unimportant; but it clearly indicates an upper story. To a comparatively late period, the Greek temple was of timber. Even statues of the deities were, in the time of Xenophon, made in wood for the smaller temples (lib. iv. c. 1.), where the revenue of them was not adequate to afford a more expensive material. But time and accidents would scarcely permit their prolonged duration, and none survived long enough to allow of a proper description of them reaching us. The principle of their construction necessarily bore some relation to the materials employed, and the use of stone must have imparted new features to them. In timber, the beam (epistylium), which was borne by the columns, would probably extend in one piece through each face of the building. But in a stone construction this could not take place, even had blocks of such dimensions been procurable, and had mechanical means been at hand to place them in their proper position. From this alonc follows a diminution of spaces between the columns. The arch, be it recollected, was unkrown. It is curious to observe that the relative antiquity of the examples of Grecian Doric may be expressed in terms of the intercolumniations; that is, the number of diame ters forming the intervals between the columns. There is, moreover, another point worthy of notice, which is, that their antiquity may be also estimated by the comparison of tlie heights of the columns compared with their diameters. This, however, will require

her consideration when we come to treat of the orders: here it is noticed only inci. tally. Though we are not inclined to place reliance on the account given by Vitruvius he origin of the orders of architecture, we should scarcely be justified in its omnission

GRECIAN.

6)

Ap. II.

the age which that author assigns for their origin is long before Homer's time, at h there seems no probability of their existence, from the absence of all reference to n in his poems, we here subjoin the account of Vitruvius (lib. iv. c. 1.):-“ Dorus, son Iellen and the Nymph Orseis

, reigned over Achaia and Peloponnesus. He built * ple of this (the Doric) order, on a spot sacred to Juno, at Argos, an ancient city. ay temples similar to it were afterwards raised in the other parts of Achaia, though, hat time, its proportions were not precisely established. When the Athenians, 3 general assembly of the states of Greece, sent over into Asia, by the advice he Delphic oracle, thirteen colonies at the same time, they appointed a governor

each, reserving the chief command for Ion, the son of Xuthus, and Creusa, m the Delphic Apollo had acknowledged as son. He led them over into Asia, re they occupied the borders of Caria, and built the great cities of Ephesus, tus, Myus (afterwards destroyed by inundation, and its sacred rites and suffrages ferred by the Ionians to the inhabitants of Miletus), Priene, Samos, Teos, Colophon, s, Erythræ, Phocæa, Clazomene, Lebedos, and Melite. This last, as a punishment for rrogance of its citizens, was detached from the other states in the course of a war d on it, in a general council, and in its place, as a mark of favour towards king lus and Arsinoe, the city of Smyrna was received into the number of the Ionian states. e received the appellation of Ionian, after the Carians and Lelegæ had been driven from the name of Ion, the leader. In this country, allotting different sites to sacred oses, they erected temples, the first of which was dedicated to Apollo Panionius. It nbled that which they had seen in Achaia, and from the species having been first used e cities of Doria, they gave it the name of Doric. As they wished to erect this le with columns, and were not acquainted with their proportions, nor the mode in h they should be adjusted, so as to be both adapted to the reception of the superinpent weight, and to have a beautiful effect, they measured a man's height by the h of the foot, which they found to be a sixth part thereof, and thence deduced the ortions of their columns. Thus the Doric order borrowed its proportion, strength, veauty from the human figure. On similar principles, they afterwards built the temple iana; but in this, from a desire of varying the proportions, they used the female e as a standard, making the height of the column eight times its thickness, for the ose of giving it a more lofty effect. Under this new order, they placed a base as a to the foot. They also added volutes to the capital, resembling the graceful curls of air, hanging therefrom, to the right and left, certain mouldings and foliage. On the channels were sunk, bearing a resemblance to the folds of a matronal garment. were two orders invented; one of a masculine character, without ornament, the other character approaching the delicacy, decorations, and proportions of a female. The :ssors of these people, improving in taste, and preferring a more slender proportion, ned seven diameters to the height of the Doric column, and eight and a half to the b. That species, of which the Ionians were the inventors, has received the appellation nie. The third species, which is called Corinthian, resembles, in its character, the ful elegant appearance of a virgin, whose limbs are of a more delicate form, and

ornaments should be unobtrusive. The following is the fabulous account of the 1 of the capital of this order. (Fig. 93.) A Corinthian virgin who was of mar

riageable age, fell a victim to a violent disorder : after her interment, her nurse, collecting in a basket those articles to which she had shown a partiality when alive, carried them to her tomb, and placed a tile on the basket, for the longer preservation of its contents. The basket was accidentally placed on the root of an acanthus plant, which, pressed by the weight, shot forth, towards spring, its stems and large foliage, and in the course of its growth, reached the angles of the tile, and thus formed volutes at the extremities. Callimachus, who, for his great ingenuity and taste in sculpture, was called by the Athenians karatexvos, hap

pening at this time to pass by the tomb, observed the basket he delicacy of the foliage that surrounded it. Pleased with the form and novelty of the vination, he took the hint for inventing these columns, using them in the country about -1th,&c. Now, though we regret to damage so elegant and romantic a story, we

remind those who would willingly trust the authority we have quoted, that Vitruvius is of matters which occurred so long before his time, that in such an investigation as before us we must have other authentication than that of the author we quote, and especially in the case of the Corinthian capital, whose type may be referred to in a

F

ORIGIN 03 CORINTHIAN CAPITAL

vast number of the examples of Egyptian capitals, one of which, among many, is seen

in fig. 94. 172701133

141. The progress of the art in Greece, whose inhabitants, in the opinion of the Egyptian priests in the time of Solon, were so ignorant of all science that they neither understood the mythology of other nations nor their own (Plato, in T'imæo), cannot be satisfactorily followed between the period assigned to the siege of Troy and the time of Solon and Pisistratus, or about 590 B. C. But it is, however, certain that within four centuries after Homer's time, notwithstanding their originally coarse manners, the Grecians attained the highest excellence in the arts. Goguet is of opinion the nurture of the art was principally in Asia Minor, in which country, he thinks, we must seek for the origin of the Doric and Ionic orders, whilst

in Greece Proper the advancement was slow. The Corinthian order was, however, the last invented, and it seems generally agreed that its invention belongs to the mother country; but this we shall not stop to discuss here. The Temple of Jupiter, at Olympia, one of the earliest temples of Greece (Pausanias, Eliac. Pr. c. 10.), was built about 630 years before the Christian æra; and after this period were reared temples at Samos, Priene, Ephesus, and Magnesia, and other places up to that age when, under the administration of Pericles, the architecture of Greece attained perfection, and the highest beauty whereof it is supposed to be susceptible, in the Parthenon (fig. 95.)

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Fig. 94. BOYPTIAN CAPITAL

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at Athens. The date of the erection of one of the temples of Diana, at Ephesus, was as remote as that of the temple of Jupiter. If Livy had sufficiently our confidence, and we concede that other writers corroborate his statement (lib. i. c. 45.), its date is as ancient as the time when Servius Tullius was king of Rome. Great, however, as were the works which the Grecians executed, the mechanical powers were, if one may judge from Thucy. dides (lib. iv.), not then compendiously applied for raising weights.

142. The origin of the Doric order is a question not easily disposed of. Many provinces of Greece bore the name of Doria ; but a name is often the least satisfactory mode of accounting for the birth of the thing which bears it. We have already attempted to account for the parts of this order by a reference to its supposed connection with the hut. The writer, in the Encyclopédie Méthodique, truly says that if the Doric had an inventor, that inventor was a people whose wants were, for a long period, similar, and with whom a style of building prevailed suitable to their habits and climate, though but slowly modified and carried to perfection. At the beginning of this section, we have, however, sufficiently spoken on this matter. But there are some peculiarities to be noticed with respect to the Doric order, which we think will be better given here than in the third book, where we propose to treat of the orders more fully; and these consist in the great differences which are found in its proportions and parts in different examples. For this purpose, several buildings have been arranged in the following table, wherein the first column exhibits the Dame of the building; the second the height of the column, of the example as a nume

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