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The west front, which is of the oolite, is in perfect condition, even in the dogʻs-teeth and other florid decorations of the doorways, &c. This building is cover, d

generally with lichens. CARLISLE 'Ancient buildings : Cathedral (13th century), of red sandstone, in various

states of decomposition. Modern buildings : Many of red sandstone, more or less in

a state of decomposition. CASTLE HOWARD, Yorkshire. Built generally of a siliceous fine-grained sandstone from

the park; generally in good condition, but in some parts, such as the parapets, cupolas, and chimney shafts, much decomposed. The pilasters of the north front from a quarry at Appleton ; in good condition, except where subjected to alternations of wet and dry, as in the plinths, where there are sigus of decomposition. The stables

are of Appleton stone, and in good condition. Chatsworth House, Derbyshire. Original house built of Bell Crop sandstone from Bake.

well Edge, not in very good condition, particularly in the lower parts of the building
In the recent additions the same stone is employed, together with that of Bailey

Moor and Lindrop Hill.
CHEPSTOW CASTLE, Monmouthshire (11th and 12th centuries, with additions of the 14th

century). Of mountain limestone and old red sandstone; the former in good con-
dition; the latter decomposed. Dressings of doors, windows, archways, and quoins
are for the most part of magnesian limestone, in perfect condition; the remainder is
of red sandstone, and is generally much decomposed. Chapel (of the 12th century);
mouldings and carvings of the windows, &c., which are of magnesian limestone, are in

perfect condition. Coxwold CHURCH, Yorkshire (15th century). Generally of fine siliceous grit of the

vicinity, and in part of a calcareous nature. Tower in good condition; porch decom

posed ; lichens abundant on the north side. Derby. St. Peter's Church (13th century), of the variegated coarse sandstone of the

vicinity, similar to that of Little Eaton. The whole in bad condition ; but the red stones less so than the grey or white. St. Almund's Church (of the 14th century), of a coarse sandstone of the vicinity, in a very decomposed state, to the obliteration of the mouldings and other details; it has lately been scraped and painted, to preserve it from further destruction. All Saints Church (tower of the 15th century), of sandstone, similar to that of Duffield Bank, partly in fair condition, and partly much decomposed, particularly the great western

The body of the church, built 110 years since, of sandstone, in part decomposing. Modern buildings: Town Hall, of sandstone from Morley Moor, built a few years since, in very good

condition. Dubhan CATHEDRAL (11th and 12th centuries). Of a sandstone of the vicinity, elected

indiscriminately, and in all stages of decomposition ; few stones are quite perfect.

Castle (of the 11th century). Of similar stone, and in a similar state.
Easby ABBEY, Yorkshire (13th and 14th centuries). Of sandstone of the vicinity: mould-

ings and carvings decomposed and in part obliterated. Walls built very rudely, and
in various states of decomposition; some parts, bowever, maintain their original

surface. ECCLESTON ABBEY, Yorkshire (13th century). Of stone siinilar to that of Stenton

quarry. The mouldings and other decorations, such even as the dog's-teeth enrich

mnents, are in perfect condition. EDINBURGA. Ancient buildings : Holyrood Chapel (12th century), of sandstone from

the vicinity, in part much decomposed ; in other parts, such as the west door, almost perfect. The palace (built in the 16th and 17th centuries) of similar stone, generally in good condition, the older paris being slightly decomposed. The oldest part of the Tron Church (1641), of sandstone, much decomposed. A house on the Castle Hill

(1591), of sandstone, only slightly decomposed. Modern buildings, wholly erected of sandstones from the Cragleith, Red Hall, Humbie, and Binnie quarries, for the most from

the first-mentioned quarry. None of them exhibit any appearance of decomposition, with the exception of ferruginous stains, which are produced upon some stones. Among the oldest is the Registry Office, which is of Cragleith stone, and built above sixty years since; it is in a perfect

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FOUNTAIN'S ABBEY, Yorkshire (11th and 12th centuries, with additions of the 16th

century). Of coarse sandstone of the vicinity, generally in bad condition, particularly the west front, which is much decomposed. The nave and transept, which are the

earliest portions of the building, are the best preserved. Fountain's Hall, Yorkshire (1677). Of sandstone of the vicinity, and magnesian lime

stone in the dressings. The whole in fair condition. FOREST OF DEAN, Gloucestershire. Park End new church, built fifteen years since, of

sandstone, similar to that of Colford. No appearance of decomposition.


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Csar. II.

465 Rupos CATHEDRAL Lower part, east end, and south-east angle (Norman), of coarse sand

stone of the vicinity, in good condition. The west front, the transepts, and tower (of the 12th and 13th centuries), of the coarse sandstone of the vicinity, in fair condition. The mouldings, although generally decomposed, are not effaced. The dog's-teeth ornaments in most parts nearly perfect. The aisles of the naves, the clerestory, and the choir (of the 14th and 15th centuries), of coarse sandstone and magnesian limestone intermixed, not in good condition; the latter stone, on the south side, often in fair condition. The lower parts of the building generally, but particularly the west

fronts, which are of coarse sandstone, are very much decomposed. Rivaulx ABBEY, Yorkshire (12th century). of a sandstone at Hollands, one mile from

the ruins; generally in excellent condition. West front slightly decomposed; south

front remarkably perfect, even to the preservation of the original toolmarks. SHAFTESBURY, Dorsetshire. St. Peter's Church (15th century). Of a green siliceous

sandstone, from quarries half a mile south of the church. The whole building much decomposed. The tower is bound together by iron, and is unsafe, owing to the inferior

quality of the stone. SPOPFORTH Castle, Yorkshire (14th century). Of coarse red sandstone ; more or less,

but generally much, decomposed. The dressings of the windows and doors, of a semicrystalline magnesian limestone, are in perfect state, the mouldings and enrichments

being exquisitely sharp and beautiful. Texters ABBEY (13th century). Considerable remains of red and grey sandstones of the

vicinity, in part laminated. In unequal condition, but for the most part in perfect

condition ; covered with grey and green lichens. Tisbury CHURCH (13th and 14ih centuries; the lower part of the tower of the 12th

century). Of calciferous limestone from Tisbury. The dressings are composed of stone throughout, in perfect condition. The ashlar variable; in part much decomposed; the undecomposed portions are covered with lichens. Tombstones in the churchyard generally in good condition, some being more than a century old. The houses of the village built generally of the Tisbury stone, and are in very good con

dition. The whole covered with lichens. FAKEFIELD Parish Church, Yorkshire (tower and spire of the 16th century). Of sand.

stone, much decomposed. The body of the church, of recent date, of sandstone

strongly laminated, and generally decomposed between the laminæ. WHITBY ABBEY (13th century). Of stone similar to that of Aislaby Brow, in the vicinity;

generally in good condition, with the exception of the west front, which is very much decomposed. The stone used is of two colours, brown and white; the former, in all cases, more decomposed than the latter. The dog's-teeth and other enrichments in the east front are in good condition.


LIMESTONE BUILDINGS. Bath. Abbey church (1576), built of an oolite in the vicinity. The tower is in fair con

dition. The body of the church, in the upper part of the south and west sides, much decomposed. The lower parts, formerly in contact with buildings, are in a more perfect state; the reliefs in the west front of Jacob's ladder are in parts nearly effaced. Queen's Square, north side, and the obelisk in the centre, built above 100 years since, of an oolite with shells, in fair condition. Circus (built about 1750), of an colite in the vicinity, generally in fair condition, except those portions which have a west and southern aspect, where the most exposed parts are decomposed. Crescent (built above 50 years since), of an oolite of the vicinity, generally in fair condition,

except in a few places, where the stone appears to be of inferior quality. Bristol CATHEDRAL (of the 13th and 14th centuries). Built of red sandstone and appa

rently a yellow limestone (magnesian ?) strangely intermixed. The red sandstone in all cases decomposed; the limestone inore rarely decayed. The tracery, &c. of the windows, which are of the limestone, are in good condition, but the pinnacles and dressings of the same material much decomposed. The east end of the cathedral is a remarkable instance of the decay and preservation of the two stones employed. Norman gateway, west of the cathedral (the upper part of the 15th century),

Norman archway and its enrichments, which are of a very florid character, built of yellow limestone (magnesian ?), in excellent condition.

St. Mary Redcliffe (tower of the 12th century; body of the church of the 15th century). Of colitic limestone, from Dundry ; very much decomposed. BURLEIGH House (15th century). Of a shelly oolite (Barnack rag), in excellent condi

tion throughout. The late additions are of Ketton stone. Erland ABBEY, Yorkshire (?2th century). In part of a siliceous grit (principally in the

interior), and in part (chiefly on the exterior) of a compact oolite, from the Wass quarries in the vicinity. The west front, which is of the oolite, is in perfect condition,

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probably from Ancaster. Town Hall (50 or 60 years old). Built of the Ancaster volite; in good condition; in some blocks, however, there is an appearance of lami

nation, where decomposition has to a slight extent taken place. OXFORD CATHEDRAL, Norman (12th century). Chiefly of a shelly oolite, similar to that

of Taynton ; Norman work in good condition, the latter work much decomposec Merton College Chapel (13th century). Of a shelly oolite, resembling Taynton stone; in good condition generally. New College Cloisters (14th century). Of a shelly oolite (Taynton), in good condition. The whole of the colleges, churches, and other public buildings of Oxford, erected within the last three centuries, are of oolitic limestone from Heddington, about one mile and a half from the university, and are all, more or less, in a deplorable state of decomposition. The plinth, string-courses, and such portions of the buildings as are much exposed to the action of the atmosphere, are mostly of a shelly oolite from Taynton, fifteen miles from the university, and are

universally in good condition. Paul's, St., CATHEDRAL, London (finished about 1700). Built of Portland oolite, from the

Grove quarries on the east cliff. The building generally in good condition, especialiy the north and east fronts. The carvings of flowers, fruit, and other ornaments are throughout nearly as perfect as when first executed, although much blackened ; on the south and west fronts, larger portions of the stone may be observed of their natural colour than on the north and east fronts, occasioned by a very slight decomposition of the surface. The stone in the drum of the dome, and in the cupola above it, appears not to have been so well selected as the rest; nevertheless scarcely any appreciable

decay has taken place in those parts. Pickering CHURCH, Yorkshire (13th and 14th centuries). Oolite rock of the neighbour

hood; very much decomposed; the windows, mullions, and buttress angles obli

terated. PICKERING CASTLE (14th century). The walls of the oolite of the neighbourhood, and the

quoins of a siliceous grit. The whole in fair condition. Portland, Dorsetshire — New Church (built 1766), of Portland oolite, fine roach ; in a

perfect state, still exhibiting the original tool marks. Wakeham Village, Tudor House, of Portland oolite, in excellent condition. Old Church, in ruins, near Bow and Arrow Castle (15th century), of Portland oolite, resembling top bed; in very good condition; original chisel marks still appear on the north front. Bow and Arrow Castle. Considerable remains of the keep, many centuries old, of Portland oolite; the ashlar resembles the top bed, and is in perfect condition; the quoins and corbels of the machicolated parapet appear to be of the cap bed of Portland oolite, and are in

good condition. SALISBURY CATHEDRAL (13th century). Of siliciferous limestone from Chilmark

quarry. The entire building is in excellent condition, except the west front, which in parts is slightly decomposed. The building generally covered with

lichens. SaxbysFoot Castle, near Weymouth (temp. Hen. VIII.). Considerable remains of keep,

chiefly of Portland oolite, partly of the top bed and partly of the fine roach; generally in excellent condition, with the exception of a few and apparently inferior stones. The inside ashlar of the walls is of large-grained oolite, apparently from the immediate

vicinity of the castle, much decomposed. Somerton Church, Somersetshire (14th century). Built chiefly of blue lias; the quoins,

buttresses, parapets, and other dressings of a coarse ferruginous shelly limestone, in various stages of decay. The parapet of the clerestory of a lighter-coloured stone, in

good condition. STAMFORD — St. Mary's Church (13th century). Of a shelly oolite (Barnack rag), in

fair condition. St. John's Church (14th century). Of similar stone, ill selected, and consequently decomposed in parts and in laminations, according to the direction of the beds of shells. St. Martin's Church (14th century). Of similar stone, in good condition. All Saints (lower part of the body of the church 13th century; the remainder 15th century). Tower and spire in fine condition; body of the church decomposed. Standwell's Hotel, built twenty-four years since of an oolite similar to that of Ketton; in perfect condition. St. Michael's New Church. Built four years

since ; no appearance of decomposition. WELLS, THE CATHEDRAL. West front (13th century), upper part of tower (14th century),

of shelly limestone, similar to that of Doulting, generally decomposed, but not to any great extent. North flank (porch and transept 13th century, the remainder of the 14th century), of similar stone, in good condition, except lower part of Hank and west tower. The central tower (of the 14th century) in very good condition. South side of the cathedral generally in good condition. Chapter House (13th century, with additions of the 15th century). The whole in good condition excepting the west front of the gateway, which is decomposed. Close gates (15th century) much des

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