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ifterwards observes, “ The woods about Pontus furnish such abundance of timber, that hey build in the following manner. Two trees are laid level on the earth, right and left, at such distance from each other as will suit the length of the trees which are to cross and
connect them. On
The level intertices, which the thickness of the trees alternately leave, is filled in with chips and mud. In a similar principle they form their roofs, except that gradually reducing the length of he trees which traverse from side to side, they assume a pyramidal form. They are overed with boughs, and thus, after a rude fashion of vaulting, their quadrilateral roofs are ormed.” The northern parts of Germany, Poland, and Russia still exhibit traces of this nethod of building, which is also found in Florida, Louisiana, and elsewhere, in various places. See fig. 2.
6. We shall not, in this place, pursue the discussion on the tuber hut, which has ertainly, with great appearance of probability, been so often said to contain within it the ypes of Grecian architecture, but shall, under that head, enlarge further on the subject.
KARLY TIMBER CONSTRUCTIUN.
DIFFERENT SORTS OF DWELLINGS ARISING FROM DIFFERENT OCCUPATIONS.
7. The construction of the early habitations of mankind required little skill and as little knowledge. A very restricted number of tools and machines was required. The method bf felling timber, which uncivilised nations still use, namely, by fire, might have served all purposes at first.
The next step would be the shaping of hard and infrangible stones into cutting tools, as is still the practice in some parts of the continent of America. These, as the metals became known, would be supplanted by tools formed of them. Among the Peruvians, at their invasion by the Spaniards, the only tools in use were the hatchet and the adze ; and we may fairly assume that similar tools were the only ones known at a period of high antiquity. The saw, nails, the hammer, and other instruments of carpentry were unknown. The Greeks, who, as Jacob Bryant says, knew nothing of their own history, ascribe the invention of the instruments necessary for working materials to Dædalus; but only a few of these were known even in the time of Homer, who confines himself to the hatchet with two edges, the plane, the auger, and the rule. He particularises neither the square, compasses, nor saw, Neither the Greek word apwv (a saw), nor its equivalent, is to be found in his works. Dædalus is considered, however, by Goguet as a fabulous person altogether, the word meaning, according to him, nothing more than a skilful workinan, a meaning which, he observes, did not escape the notice of Pausanias. The surmise is borre put by the non-mention of so celebrated a character, if he had ever existed, by Homer, and, afterwards, by Herodotus. The industry and perseverance of man, however, in the encha overcame the difficulties of construction. For wood, which was the earliest material, at length were substituted bricks, stone, marble, and the like ; and editices were reared of unparalleled magnificence and solidity. It seems likely, that bricks would have been in use for a considerable period before stone was employed in building. They were, probably, after moulding, merely subjected to the sun's rays to acquire hardness. These were the materials whereof the Tower of Babel was constructed. These also, at a very remote period, were used by the Egyptians. Tiles seem to have been of as high an antiquity as Kuinka and to ha...i
I for covorius roofs.
quite unknown, as is that in which cement of any kind was first employed as the me of uniting masonry. They were both, doubtless, the invention of that race which we mentioned as cultivators of land, to whom is due the introduction of architecture, pro so called. To them solid and durable edifices were necessary as soon as they had upon a spot for the settlement of themselves and their families.
9. Chaldæa, Egypt, Phænicia, and China are the first countries on record in architecture, worthy the name, made its appearance. They had certainly attained siderable proficiency in the art at a very early period ; though it is doubtful, as res the three first, whether their reputation is not founded rather on the enorinous mass their works, than on beauty and sublimity of form. Strabo mentions many magni works which he attributes to Semiramis; and observes that, besides those in Baby there were monuments of Babylonian industry throughout Asia. He mentions λόφοι | altars), and strong walls and battlements to various cities, as also subterranean passa communication, aqueducts for the conveyance of water under ground, and passages of length, upwards, by stairs. Bridges are also mentioned by him (lib. xvi.). Moses ha served the names of three cities in Chaldæa which were founded by Nimrod (Gen. x. Ashur, we are told, built Nineveh ; and (Gen. xix. 4.) as early as the age of Jaco Abraham, towns had been established in Palestine. The Chinese attribute to Foh encireling of cities and towns with walls; and in respect of Egypt, there is no que that in Homer's time the celebrated city of Thebes had been long in existence. works in India are of very early date ; and we shall hereafter offer some remarks, speaking of the extraordinary monument of Stonehenge, tending to prove, as Jacob B supposes, that the earliest buildings of both nations, as well as those of Phænicia and countries, were crected by colonies of some great original nation. If the Peruvian Mexicans, without the aid of carriages and horses, without scaffolding, cranes, and inachines used in building, without even the use of iron, were enabled to raise monui which are still the wonder of travellers, it would seem that the mechanical arts wer indispensable to the progress of architecture ; but it is much more likely that these understood at an exceedingly remote period in Asia, and in so high a degree as to hav their aid in the erection of some of the stupendous works to which we have alluded.
10. The art of working stone, which implies the use of iron and a knowledge o method of tempering it, was attributed to 'Athôthis, the successor of Menes. however, possible that the ancients were in possession of some secret for preparing tools which were capable of acting upon stone. Be that as it may, no country could been called upon earlier than Egypt to adopt stone as a material, for the climate do favour the growth of timber; hence stone, marble, and granite were thus forced into and we know that, besides the facility of transport by means of canals, as early as the of Joseph waggons were in use. (Gen. xlv. 19.) We shall hereafter investigate the thesis of the architecture of Greece being founded upon types of timber buildings, r observing here, by the way, that many of the columns and entablatures of Egyp existence long before the earliest temples of Greece, and therefore that, without recul to timber construction, prototypes for Grecian architecture are to be found in the vent remains of Egypt, where it is quite certain wood was not generally employed as a mai and where the subterranean architecture of the country offers a much more probable of the style.
ARCHITECTURE OF VARIOUS COUNTRIES.
DRUIDICAL AND CELTIC ARCHITECTURE.
11. If rudeness, want of finish, and the absence of all appearance of art, be criter judgment on the age of monuments of antiquity, the wonderful remains of Abur Stonehenge must be considered the most ancient that have preserved their form so indicate the original plan on which they were constructed. The late Mr. Godfrey Hi a gentleman of the highest intellectual attainments, in his work on the Celtic Druids lished 1829), has shown, as we think satisfactorily, that the Druids of the British Isle a colony of the first race of people, learned, enlightened, and descendants of the escaped the deluge on the borders of the Caspian Sea, that they were the earliest piers of Greece, Italy, France, and Britain, and arrived in those places by a route !
PILLAR AT KLUDSTON,
was known to the 'Tyrians; and, indeed, it seems scarcely possible that, by the help of stars alone, they should have been able to maintain a commerce for tin on the shori Britain, whose western coast furnished that metal in abundance, and whose islands
Scilly) were known by the title of Cassiterides, o
Its height is 24 ft. ; and, according to a brief acc Fig. 3.
communicated to the late Mr. Pegge, in the year (Archæologia, vol. v. p. 95.), its depth underground equals its height above, as appeared an experiment made by the late Sir William Strickland.”
15. (2.) Circles of Stone.— The Israelites were in the habit of arranging stones to Ti sent the twelve tribes of Israel (Exod. xxiv. 4.), and for another purpose. (Deut. xxvii And in a circular form we find them set up by Joshua's order on the passage of the Israt through Jordan to Gilgal (5252); a word in which the radical Gal or Gil (signifyi wheel) is doubled to denote the continued repetition of the action. In this last case, jo made the arrangement a type of the Lord rolling away their reproach from them.
16. Though traces of this species of monument are found in various parts of the w even in America, we shall confine our observations to those of Abury and Stonehe merely referring, by way of enumeration, to the places where they are to be found. we mention Rolbrich in Oxfordshire, the Hurlers in Cornwall, Long Meg and her daug in Cumberland, remains in Derbyshire, Devonshire, Dorsetshire, at Stanton Dre Somersetshire, and in Westmoreland. They are common in Wales, and are found i Western Isles.
There are examples in Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and va parts of Germany. Clarke, in his description of the hill of Kushunlu Tepe in the T observes, that all the way up, the traces of former works may be noticed, and that, of summit, there is a small oblong area, six yards long and two broad, exhibiting vestiges o highest antiquity; the stones forming the inclosure being as rude as those of Tiry Argolis, and encircled by a grove of oaks covering the top of this conical mountain. entrance is from the south. Upon the east and west, outside of the trees, are stones rar like what we in England call Druidical circles. Three circles of stones are know America, one of which stands upon a high rock on the banks of the river Winnip The stupendous monument of Carnac in Britany, of which we have above made mer is not of a circular form; the stones there being arranged in eleven straight lines, 30 to 33 ft. apart, some of which are of enormous size. They are said to have forn extended three leagues along the coast
A descrip'ion of this monument is give vol xxii. of the Archæologia ; and in Gailhabaud, Monumens, 410, Paris, 1842–52.
17. Abury, or Avebury, in Wiltshire, of which we give a view in a restored (fig. 4.), is a specimen of this species of building, in which the climax of magnific was attained. Stukely, who examined the ruins when in much better preservation th present, says, “ that the whole figure represented a snake transmitted through a circ and that, “ to make their representation more natural, they artfully carried it over a va of elevations and depressions, which, with the curvature of the avenues, produces suffici the desired effect. To make it still more elegant and picture-like, the head of the sna carried up the southern promontory of Hack pen Hill, towards the village of West Ker nay, the very name of the hill is derived from this circumstance ;” for acan, he observes nifies a serpent in the Chaldaic language. Dr. S. then goes on to state, “ that the drac was a name, amongst the first-learned nations, for the very ancient sort of temples of w they could give no account, nor well explain their meaning upon it.” The figure.com serpent extended two miles in length; and but a very faint idea can now be formed of it was in its original state. Two double circles, one to the north and the other to south of the centre, were placed within the large circle, which formed the principal bo the serpent, and from which branched out the head to Hack pen Hill, in the directii
tions on Dracontia, by the Rev. John Bathurst Deane, Archaui, vol. XXV. ich is a picturesque description of Abury.
on Salisbury Plain, about seven miles from Salisbury and two miles
DRUIDICAL AND CELTIC
ILLLLLLILILLE West Kennet, as one avenue ; and the other, the tail, in the direction of Beckhampton. Dr. Stukely makes the number of stones, 652 in all, as under :
Stones. Long stone. Cove jambs 2 A stone he calls the ring stone 200 Closing stone of the tail
Total of these, only seventy-six stones remained in the Kennet avenue in 1722. eircle was enclosed by a trench or vallum upwards of 50 ft. in depth and between 60 and
The large 70 ft. in width, leaving entrances open where the avenues intersected it. The colossal mound, called “ Silbury hill," close to the Bath road, was probably connected in some way with the circle we have described, from the circumstance of the Roman road to Bath, made long afterwards, being diverted to avoid it. Dr. Owen thinks that the Abury circle was one of three primary circles in Great Britain, and that Silbury hill was the pile of Cyvrangon (heaping) characterised in the 14th Welsh triad; but the conjecture affords us no assistance in determining the people by whom the monument was raised. If it be in its arrangement intended to represent a serpent, it becomes immediately connected with ophiolatry, or serpent worship, a sin which beset the Israelites, and which would stamp
it as proceeding from the central N stamen of the hypothesis on which
Mr. Higgins sets out. See Observ.
Stones. The great circle
. 100 | Central pillar and altar, south Outer circle north of the centre 30 circle
12 Kennet avenue Outer circle, south
30 Beckhampton avenue Inner ditto
12 Outer circle of Hackpen Core and altar stone, north circle 4 Inner ditto
200 40 18
PLAN OT STONEHENGE.