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504. Some works of considerable importance were erected during the reign of George I., by a countryman of the last-named architect, Colin Campbell, who is, however, more esteemed for three volumes he published of the principal buildings in England, under the name of the Vitrurius Britannicus. Of this work Lord Burlington was the original projector and patron. Afterwards, in 1767 and 1771, it was continued in two volumes, under the superintendence of Wolfe and Gandon, two architects of considerable reputation Campbell's talents were not of a very high order, though Mereworth, in Kent, an imitation of the Villa Capra, built for Mildmay Earl of Westmorland, and Wansted House, in Esser, built in 1715, and pulled down in 1815, the latter especially, entitle him to be considered an artist of merit. Foreigners, whilst this last was in existence, always preferred it to any other of the great mansions of the country. Gilpin says of it, “ of all great houses, it best answers the united purposes of grandeur and convenience. The plan is simple and magnificent. The front extends 260 ft. A hall and saloon occupy the body of the house, forming the centre of each front. From these run two sets of chambers. No. thing can exceed their convenience. They communicate in one grand suite, and yet each, by the addition of a back stair, becomes a separate apartment. It is difficult to say whether we are better pleased with the grandeur and elegance without, or with the simplicity and contrivance within. Dimensions: Great hall, 51 ft. by 36 ; ball room, 75 by 27 ; saloon, 30 ft. square." As the building no longer exists, we give, in figs. 219. and 220., a

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ground plan and elevation of it. The towers at the angles were never executed. Campbell vas surveyor of the works of Greenwich Hospital, and died in 1734.

505. The church at Greenwich, and a very large mansion at Blackheath for Sir Gregory Page, in the latter whereof much is said to have been borrowed from Houghton, but which has many years since disappeared, were, about 1718, erected by John James, of whom very little more is known than these works, and, in London, the churches of St. George, Hanover Square, and St. Luke's, Middlesex, the latter whereof has a fluted obelisk for a steeple We ought, besides, to mention that he is generally stated to have been employed by the Duke of Chandos, at Canons, in Middlesex, another building no longer in existence, and showing the frail tenure upon which an architect's reputation and fame is held. At the latter place, however, it may be questioned whether the remark strictly applies, inasmuch as the architect, wl.oever he may have been, appears to have set taste and expense equally at defiance.

Sect. IX.


506. We do not altogether agree with Walpole in the observation that architecture resumed all her rights during this reign, though there is no doubt that the splendid (for the time) publications of Palladio, Jones, and examples of the antique recalled the taste of artists and their patrons the public. Men of genius were doubtless found to support the arts by their practice, and some high-minded patrons to encourage them in their labours, “ Before," observes Walpole, “the glorious close of a reign that carried our arms and victories beyond where Roman eagles ever Alew, ardour for the arts had led our travellers to explore whatever beauties of Grecian or Latin skill still subsisted in provinces once subjected to Rome, and the fine additions, in consequence of those researches, have established the throne of architecture in Britain while itself languishes in Rome.”

507. Among the earliest of the architects of this reign was Thomas Ripley, a native of Yorkshire, at whom Pope sneers in the lines —


“ Who builds a bridge that never drove a pile ?
Should Ripley venture, all the world would smile."

Imil. Horace, Ep. ii. S. 186. Ripley, it must be confessed, failed at the Admiralty, which was afterwards veiled by ? Adam's beautiful skreen since cruelly “cheated of its fair proportions" by the late archit to that Board, in order to make two coach entrances, which might, with the exercise o little ingenuity, have been managed without defacing the design. It is difficult, now, decide the exact share that Ripley had in the house for Lord Orford, at Houghton, which Campbell appears to have furnished the original design. Walpole, whom we m presume to have known something about the matter, says they were much improved Ripley. He published them in two volumes, folio, 1755—60. It is to be regretted t} scarcely a single line of Pope, in matters of taste relative to the artists of his day, is of t smallest worth, so much did party and politics direct the shafts of the poet's malice. T plain truth is, that Ripley was the rival of Kent, the favourite of Lord Burlington, who patronage it was absolutely necessary to enjoy before he could ensure the smiles of Pop Ripley was comptroller of the Board of Works, and died in 1758.

508. Henry Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, an amateur of this reign, cannot pass unnotic in the History of its Architecture. He much improved Wilton, where he built the Pa Jadian Bridge; and it is highly honourable to his memory that, owing to his exertions, tl qualifications of Labelye for building Westminster Bridge were acknowledged in oppositio to Hawksmoor and Batty Langley, the latter of whom was an ignorant pretender. ( this bridge Earl Henry laid the first stone in 1739, and the last in 1747. His work besides those at Wilton, were, the new lodge in Richmond Park, the Countess of Suffolk house at Marble Hill, Twickenham, and the Water House at Lord Orford's Park & Houghton. He died in 1751.

509. Before advancing our history another step, we have to notice another noble man, whom to enrol among the number of her artists is an honour to England; and i speaking of Richard Boyle, the third Earl of Burlington and fourth Earl of Ossory we so entirely agree in Walpole's eulogy of him, that we shall not apologise for tran scribing it from that author's pages : - “ Never was protection and great wealth mor generously and judiciously diffused than by this great person, who had every quality of genius and an artist, except envy. Though his own designs were more chaste and classi than Kent's, he entertained him in his house till his death, and was more studious to exten« his friend's fame than his own." Again, he continues, " Nor was his munificence confine to himself and his own houses and gardens. He spent great sums in contributing t public works, and was known to chuse that the expense should fall on himself, rather thai that his country should be deprived of some beautiful edifices. His enthusiasm for thi works of Inigo Jones was so active that he repaired the church of Covent Garden, because it was the production of that great master, and purchased a gateway at Beaufort Gardens in Chelsea, and transported the identical stones to Chiswick with religious attachment. With the same zeal for pure architecture, he assisted Kent in publishing the designs for Whitehall, and gave a beautiful edition of the · Antique Baths, from the Drawings of Palladio,' whose papers he procured with great cost.

Besides his works on his own estate, at Lonsborough, in Yorkshire, he new-fronted his house in Piccadilly, built by his father, and added the great colonnade within the court.” This liberal-minded nobleman gave the credit of this design to Kent, though, as Kent did not return from Italy before 1729, it is certain that architect could have had little to do with it. His villa at Chiswick, now that of the Duke of Devonshire, was an original design, and not, as is generally supposed, an imitation of Palladio's Villa Capra at Vicenza. It was, however, too much in the Italian taste to be suitable to an English climate or to English comforts; hence its great external beauty extracted from Lord Chesterfield the well-known verses —

" Possessed of one great house of state,

Without one room t') sleep or eat,
How well you build let flatt'ry tell,
And all inankind how ill

you dwell."

Lord Hervey also sported his little wit upon this little bijou, which its subsequent additions have not much improved, saying " that it was too small to inhabit, and too large to hang one's watch in."

510. The dormitory of Westminster School, ruined by a late dean, and the Assembly Rooms at York, are beautiful examples of the great powers of Lord Burlington ; but the house for Lord Harrington at Petersham, the Duke of Richmond's at Whiteliall (pulled down), and General Wade's house in Great Burlington Strưet were not well planned, the latter especially, on which it was said by Lord Che terfield, on account of its beautiful front, that " as the general could not live in it to his ease, he had better take a house over against it, and look at it.” The Earl of Burlington was born in 1695, and died in 1753.

511. William Kent, a native of Yorkshire, where he was born in 1685, if he did not ad. vance the art, was at least far from retarding or checking any progress it seemed likely

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s nake. Kent was a painter as well as an architect, thougli as the former very inferior to the liter; and to these accomplishments must be added those of a gardener, for he was the father of modern picturesque gardening. Kent's greatest, and, out of many, also his best Fork, was Holkham, in Norfolk, for the Earl of Leicester. The designs were pub. ished in 1961, by Matthew Brettingham, who had been engaged on the building, apparently as resident architect, as explained in the edition of 1773. The noble hall of this building. terminated by a vast flight of steps, produces an effect unequalled by any. thing similar to it in England. During, and indeed, previous to, Kent's coming so much int, employ inent, a great pa-sion seems to have existed with the architects for ill shaped, and, perhaps. almost grotesque, urns and globes, on every part where there was a restingplace for them. Kent not unfiequently disfigured his works in this way, but more specially so at the beginning of his career. The pile of building in Margaret Street (part of which has been removed for additions to the new parliament houses), now containing the law courts a house at Esher for Mr. Pelham, the Horse Guards, and other buildings, which it is needless here to particularise, were erected under the designs of Kent, upon whom unbounded liberality and patronage were bestowed by Lord Burlington during the vife of this artist, which terminated in 1748.

512 About 1733 appeared, we believe, the last of the stone churches with steeples, which the practice of Wren had made common in this country ; this was the church of St. Giles's in the Fields, erected by Henry Fliteroft. The interior is decorated with lonic coluinns resting on stone piers. The exterior has a rusticated basement, the windows of the galleries have semicircular heads, and the whole is surmounted by a modillion cornice. The steeple is 165 feet high, consisting of a square tower, the upper part decorated with Doric pilasters ; above, it is formed into an octagon on the plan, the sides being Ornamented with three quarter Ionic columns supporting a balustrade and vases. Above this rises an octangular spire. Besides this, Flitcroft erected the church of St. Olave, Southwark, and the almost entire rebuilding of Woburn Abbey was from the designs and superintendence of that master, who died in 1769.

513. During the reign under our consideration, the city of Bath may be said to have almost arisen from the designs of Wood, who built Prior Park for Mr. Allen, the friend of Pope, and Buckland was erected by him for Sir John Throckmorton. Wood died in 1754, To him and to his scholars Bath is indebted for the designs of Queen Square, the Parades, the Circus, the Crescent, the New Assembly Room, &c. The buildings of this city possess various degrees of merit, but nothing so extraordinary as to call for more than the mere notice of them. We are by no means, for instance, disposed to agree with Mitford, who reckons the crescent of Bath among " the finest modern buildings at this day existing in the world."

514. Though the works of the architects about to follow, belong partially to the preceding reign, they are only properly to be noticed under that of George 111. Without a lengthened account of them, we commence with the mention of the name of Carr of Yorki, who was much employed in the northern counties, where he built several noble residences, particularly that for Mr. Lascelles, afterwards Lord Harewood, and a mausoleum in Yorkshire for the late Marquis of Rockingham. Paine was engaged at Worksop Manor, llar. dour Castle, and Thorndon ; and Hiorne, whose county sessions-house and prison at Warwick exhibit considerable genius, was a promising artist, prematurely ent ofl. llis talent was not confined to the Italian style, as may be learnt from reference to the church at Tetbury in Gloucestershire, and a triangular tower in the Duke of Norfolk's park at Arundel.

515. At an early part of the reign of George III., architecture was cultivated and practised here with great success by Robert Taylor, afterwards knighted. His best compositions were designed with a breadth and intimate knowledge of the art, that prove him to bare been abundantly acquainted with its principles. That he was not always successful, the sings of the Bank, now removed, were a proof. Of his works sufficient would remain to corroborate our opinion, if only what is now the Pelican Office in Lombard Street existed. We believe it was originally built for Sir Charles Asgill, and ruined by the directors of the Pelican when they took to the place. There are, however, also to attest the ability of Sir Robert Taylor, Sir Charles Asgill's villa at Richmond, and his own house in Spring Gardens. After his visit to Italy he commenced his practice in sculpture, in which branch of the arts he has left monuments in Westminster Abbey and elsewhere; but he afterwards devoted himself to architecture alone. Among his works were a dwelling house for Sir P'. Taylor,


near Portsaown Hill, a house in Piccadilly for the Duke of Grafton, a mansion in Herts i Lord Howe; Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn; Ely House, Dover Street, a very cles composition ; Sir John Boyd's at Danson, near Shooter's Hill; the beautiful bridge Henley on Thames, and Lord Grimstone's at Gorhambury. He had for some time a se at the Board of Works, was surveyor to the Admiralty, the Bank, and other public bodie His reputation was unbounded, and met with reward from the public. Sir Robert Tayl, died in 1788 at the age of seventy-four.

516. Cotemporary with the last-named artist, was one to whom the nation is indebted fi first bringing it to an intimate acquaintance with the works of Greece, to which he first le the way. The reader will, of course, anticipate us in the name of James Stuart, who bega his career as a painter. After some time passed in Greece, he, in conjunction with Nichol: Revett, about the year 1762, published the well-known Antiquities of Athens, from whic he acquired the soubriquet of Athenian. The public taste was purified by a correcte knowledge of the buildings of Greece, especially in respect of the form, composition, an arrangement of ornament; but we doubt whether mischief was not for a time induced b it, from the absurd attempt, afterwards, to adapt, without discrimination, the pure Gree porticoes of the temples of Greece to public and private buildings in this country, ofte with buildings with which they have no more natural relation than the interior arrange ment of a church has with that of a theatre. The architects of our own time seem, however at last to be aware of the impossibility of applying with success the forms of Grecian temple to English habitations; and a better system has been returned to, that of applying to ever object a character suitable to the purposes of its destination. We consider Stuart's bes work the house, in St. James's Square, which he built for Lord Anson. Among othe works, he executed Belvedere, in Kent, for Lord Eardley; a house for Mrs. Montague, i Portman Square ; the chapel and infirmary of Greenwich Hospital ; and some parts of th interior of Lord Spencer's house, in St. James's Place. Stuart died in 1788, at the age o seventy-five. His collaborateur, Revett, shared with him a portion of the patronage of th public. He survived him till 1804, when he died at the advanced age of eighty-two years He was employed on the eastern and western porticoes of Lord De Spencer's house a West Wycombe, and on some temples. For Sir Lionel Hyde he built the church of Ayo St. Lawrence, Herts, the front whereto is a Doric portico crowned with a low Grecia pediment, and on each side an lonic colonnade connects the centre with an elegan eenotaph. He also built a portico to the eastern front of Standlinch, in Wiltshire, foi Mr. Dawkins.

517. The chasteness and purity which the two last-named architects had, with some success, endeavoured to introduce into the buildings of England, and in which their zeal bad enlisted many artists, had to contend against the opposite and vicious taste of Robert Adam, a fashionable architect, whose eye had been ruined by the corruptions of the worst period of Roman art. It can be scarcely believed, the ornaments of Diocletian's palace at Spalatro should have loaded our dwellings contemporaneously with the use among the more refined few of the exquisite exemplars of Greece, and even of Rome, in its better days. Yet such is the fact; the depraved compositions of Adam were not only tolerated, but had their admirers. It is not to be supposed that the works of a man who was content to draw his supplies from so vitiated a source will here require a lengthened notice. Yet had he his happy moments; and that we may do hiin strict justice, we not only mention, but

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present to the reader, in figs. 221. and 222., the ground plan and elevation of Kedlestone, iu Derbyshire, which he erected for Lord Scarsdale. The detail of this is, indeed, not exactly what it ought to have been; but the whole is magnificently conceived, and worthy of any master. Adam died at the age of ninety-four, in 1792 ; and, besides the Adelphi, in the Strand, which he erected on speculation, he was engaged at Luton Park, in Bedfordshire, for the Earl of Bute; at Caenwood, near Hampstead, for Lord Mansfield ; at Shel. burne House, in Berkeley Square, now Lord Lansdowne's, well planned, but ill designed. a meagre affair; the disgraceful gateway at Sion, near Brentford ; and on part of the Register Office at Edinburgh. None, however, would now do credit to a mere tyro in the art except the first named

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