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proper proportions, soor, leaving nothing to be desired; but in England they were 1 Long time engrafted on Gothic plans and forms.

438. The work of Andrew Borde has been before mentioned; but the earliest publica in England relative to practical architecture was, “ The first and chiefe Grounds of A1 tecture used in all the ancient and famous Monyments with a farther and more ar Discourse uppon the same than has hitherto been set forthe by any other. By John St paynter and archi ecte.” “ Printed by John Marshe, fol., 1563." This John Shute been sent by Dudley, Duke of Northumberland, to Italy, probably with the intentia afterwards employing him upon the works which he was projecting. His work, tha republished in 1579 and 1584, is now so rare that only two copies are known to e one of which is in the library of the Royal Institute of British Architects, and the o in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. From this and many other circumstances is easy to discover that domestic architecture under Elizabeth had assumed a n scientific character. Indeed, there is ample evidence that no building was now un taken without the previous arrangement of a digested and regulated plan; for earl the reign of this sovereign the treatises of Lomazzo and many others were transi into English ; and in the construction of the palatial houses of the aristocracy, architects had begun to act upon a system. The principal deviation from the plan the earlier Tudor houses was in the bay windows, parapets, and porticoes, whereof the 1 latter were intensely carved with all the forms that the most fantastic and grotes imagination could supply. The exteriors of these porticoes were covered with car entablatures, figures, and armorial bearings and devices. The galleries were lofty, wi and generally more than a hundred feet in length ; and the staircases were spacious magnificent, often occupying a considerable portion of the mansion. Elizabeth herself d not appear to have set, during the passion of the period for architecture, any exainple her subjects. She might have thought her father had done sufficient in building palac but, however, be that as it may, she encouraged the nobles of her court in great expendit on their residences.

With the exception of the royal gallery at Windsor, she herself actually nothing; whilst on Kenilworth alone, Lord Leicester is supposed to have expend no less a sum than 60,0001., an almost royal sum of money.

439. Before proceeding further, it becomes our duty here to notice a peculiar construct which prevailed in the large manor houses of the provinces, and more especially in counties of Salop, Chester, and Stafford, the memory of many whereof, though several Etill to be seen, is chiefly preserved in engravings ; - we allude to those of timber fran work in places where the supply of stone or brick, or both, was scanty. The cari pendants, and the barge-boards of the roofs and gables, which had, however, made th appearance at a rather earlier period, were executed in oak or chesnut with much bear of design, and often with a singularly pleasing effect. The timbered style reached zenith in the reign of Elizabeth, and is thus illustrated in Harrison's description England : —“Of the curiousnesse of these piles I speake not, sith our workmen are gro generallie to such an excellence of devise in the frames now made, that they farre passe 1 finest of the olde.” And, again : “ It is a worlde to see how divers men being bent buildinge, and having a delectable view in spending of their goodes by that trade, d dailie imagine new devises of their owne to guide their workmen withall, and those me curious and excellent than the former.” (p. 336.) The fashion was no less prevalent cities and towns than in the country; for in them we find that timber-framed hou abounded, and that they also were highly ornamented with carvings, and exhibited in th street fronts an exuberance of extremely grotesque figures performing the office of corbe The fashion was imported from the Continent, which supplies numberless exampl especially in the cities of Rouen, Bruges, Ulm, Louvain, Antwerp, Brussels, Nurei burg, and. Strasburg, very far surpassing any that this country can boast. We har however, sufficient riniains of them in England to prove that the wealthy burge affected an ornamental display in the exterior of his dwelling, rivalling that of the ar tocracy, and wanting neither elegance nor elaborate finishing, whilst it was productive a highly picturesque effect in the street architecture of the day. “ This manner," sa Dallaway, “ was certainly much better suited to the painter's eye than to comfortal habitation ; for the houses were lofty enough to admit of many stories and subdivision and being generally piaced in narrow streets were full of low and gloomy apartment overbanging each other, notwithstanding that they had fronts, which with the projectir windows and the interstices were filled for nearly the whole space with glass.” Fig. 201 is representation of Moreton Old Hall, Cheshire, built circa 1550-59, partly rebuilt 1602,

440. A better ide of the architecture of this age cannot be obtained than by a noti of the principal architects who have furnished materials for the foregoing observation for this purpose we shall refer to Walpole's Anecdotes A folio book of drawing belonging to the Farl of Warwick in the time of Walpole, enabled him to bring the knowledge of the world, and perpetuate the memory of, an artist of no me: powers, whose nam., till thai author's time, was almost buried in oblivion, and


Whem little is still known, though his work contains memoranda relating to the principal edifices erected during the reigns of Elizabeth, and James, her

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His name was John Thorpe; and at the sale of the library of the Hon. Charles Greville in 1810, the MS. in question came into the possession of the late Sir John Soane, Professor of Architecture to the Royal Academy. It is a folio, consisting oi 230 pages, wherein the plans, often without a scale, are nevertheless accurately executed. Several of the subjects were merely designs for proposed mansions. The elevations are Deatly drawn and shadowed. The general form of the plans is that of three sides of a quadrangle, the portico in the centre being an open arcade finished by a turreted cupola. When the quadrangles are perfect, they are, for convenience, surrounded by an open corridor. The windows, especially in the principal front, are large and lofty, and mostly alternated with bows or projecting divisions, and always so at the flanks. Great efforts were made by Thorpe to group the chimneys, which were embellished with Roman Dorie

columns, and other conceits. Portions of the volume have been engraved by Mr. C. J. Richaråson in the first part of his Architectural Remains of the Reigns of Elizabeth and James I., fol. 1838-40. Amongst the contents of Thorpe’s volume (which has been col. lated for this edition, 1866), are: –Outlines of a “ jambe mould,” « muniell.” « rayle mo. for

corbell table," parapets, &c.; and the five Orders, with rules for drawing them.
Page 19, 20. Plan and elevation, “ Buckhurst howse, Sussex.” Built, 1565. by Thomas

Šaekville, Earl of Dorset, Lord High Treasurer to Queen Elizabeth. The front ex-
tends 230 ft. The courtyard is 100 ft. by 80 ft., and

the hall 80 ft. by 50 ft.
a front or a garden syde for a noble man,” dated 1600.

“The way how to drawe any ground plot into the order of perspective," with
descriptions, the front being parallel with the spectator.

Plan, with a courtyard in front. “ Sr Geo. Moores howse.”
44. Plan. «Cannons, my La: Lakes howse.”
48. Plan. Copthall, 16 fo. 8 ynch. This cort should be 83 (or 88 ) fo. square.” Built
for Sir Thomas Heneage. The gallery was 168 ft. long, 22 ft. high, and 22 ft. wide.

Elevation. “Woollerton, Sir Fraunc. Willoughby,” Nottinghamshire, which has the
inscription, Inchoatæ, 1580-1588.” Mr. Dallaway notices that the tomb of
Robert Smithson, in Wollaton church, calls him “architector and surveyor unto
the most worthy house of Wollaton, with divers others of great account. Ob. 1614,
which would appear to invalidate Thorpe's claim; Smithson was probably Thorpe's
pupil and successor. The property now belongs to Lord Middleton. (See fig. 203.)

Plan, rough." Sr Jo. Bagnall.” A gallery 60 ft. long.
57, 58. Two plans.“ Burghley juxta Stamford.” Built, 1578-80, for William Cecil,

Lord Treasurer. (See 105.)
67, 68. Two plans. “Thornton Colledg, Sr Vincent Skynners." A gallery 113 ft.

cong, and 25 ft. wide.

69. Plan of Henry VII.'s Chapel. “ Capella ista H. 7mi impensis 14,000 lb. adie

ipse Ao 1502." 77, 78, Plan. Chateau de Madrid, Bois de Boulogne, near Paris, now pulled down. 88, 89, Plan and elevation. Old Somerset House. 93. Plan. “Sr Walter Coap at Kensington, pfected p me J. T.” Holland How

finished in 1607, and added to by Inigo Jones and N. Stone. 94. Plan. “Sr George Corpin," Hertfordshire, cir. 1608 (?) 109. Plan. “A London house, La Darby, channell row" (?) 105, 106, Plan. “Duke of Buckingham at Burghley," or Burley-on-the-Hill. (See 57 113, 114. Plan. “Wymbleton. An how se standing on the edge of an hie bill." Bui

1588, for SirTho.Cecil. Fuller says it was “a daring structure, nearly equal to Nonesuch 123, 124, 127, 128. Plans, Queene mother's howse, fabor St. Jarmins, alla Pare

altered p Jo. Thorpe." 136. Plan. “ London howse of 3 bredthes of ordy tenemts.” Supposed design for s

Fulke Greville's (Lord Brooke) house, near Gray's Inn. 139, 140. Plan.“ Kerby whereof I layd ye first stone, Ao 1570,” Northamptoi

shire, for Lord Chancellor Hatton. 150. Plan. “Richmt. Lodge, Sticles " (?). (Ro Stickles ?) 151. Plan. “Sr Pcival Hart," Lullingstone, Kent.

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155–158. Plan and elevation. “Longford Castle, Wiltshire (fig. 202). A diagran

of the Trinity is drawn in the middle of the triangular court. Built for Sir Thomas Gorges and his wife, the Marchioness Dowager of Northampton, in 1591 ; now the

Earl of Radnor's. The plan differs from that given (1766) in Britton's Arch. Antig. 153. Plan. “ Mounsier Jammet in Paris, his howse, 1600. 164. Plan.

Gyddye Hall, 84 fo. square,” Essex. Altered for Sir Anthony Coke. 167, 168. Plan. “St. Jarmin's howse, V leagues from Paris, Ao 1600.” 203, 204. Plan.“ Audley end;" and later, “Audley End in Essex, seat of Lord Suffolk,"

now the property of Lord Braybrooke. Thorpe's part was completed about 1616. 215, 216. Three plans. Greek cross. Lyveden, co. Northam.(?). Built by Sir T. Tresham, 225. Two plans. “Mr. Tayler at Potter's barr, 1596." 232. Plan, H shape, with a courtyard, “94 fo. square," and a gatehouse.

drawne after 8 fo. 8 inche, p Jo. Thorpe,” (? his own drawing). 234. Two elevations, “Heddington Jo. Chenyes,” (? Toddington, co. Bedford). 239, 240. Two plans. “Sr Walt. Covert, Sussex," at Slaugham, near Horsham. 267, 272. Two plans. “ Ampthill old howse, enlardged p J. Thorpe." “Duke of

Bedford ” (?). It was the residence of Queen Catherine, first wife of Henry VIII. 265, 266. Plan and elevation. “ for Mr. Willm Powell,” or Howell; of timber.

Amongst the general designs, which are chiefly plans, are, page 21, “ Sir Jo. Danvers, Chelsey; ” 28, “Sr Wm. Ruffden " (?); 31, “Mr. Johnson ye Druggyst ; " 43, “Sir Walter Rawley-Sir James ; " 45, “ Sir Tho. Dorrell, Lincolne shire; ” 46, and half elevation, “ Godstone;" 59, two plans, “ St George Sct. Poole;" 62, a long-fronted house at “ Higate;" 65, “Sr James (?) Clifton's howse;" 121, “Mr. Keyes ; " 132, " Mr. Denman; 147, 148, and elevation, “ Sr William Haseridge;" 176, “ Mr. Panton;" 182, “ Holdenby banquetg at 16 fo;" 185, “ Mr. Folte” (?); 187, “Mr. W. Fitwilliams; ” 199, Sr Hen. Nevile ; ” 201, 202, “Jo. Clanricard;" 205, “Sr Tbo. Holt, 12 pte;" and 253, “ Hatfield lodge." 275-278, has a gallery 160 ft. long and about 25 st. wide ; 146

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is designed within a circle; and 161, on a triangle with a hexagon interior Court; 15.
also a triangular plan, as named. Many of these designs might probably be identified

441. Walpole, upon Thorpe's Compositions, observes, that the taste of this master's
sions was that " bastard style which intervened between Gothic and Grecian architect
they first ventured, on the settlement of the kingdom after the termination of the qua
ar which, perhaps, was the style that had been invented for the houses of the nobility
nificence." The same author continues, " Thorpe's ornaments on the balustrade, pored
between the Roses, to abandon their fortified dungeons, and consult convenience and ma

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alance coulevards in a sharp angle; but there is judgment in his disposition of apartmer and obices, and he allots more ample space for halls, staircases, and chambers of state. mer appears, also, to have resided at Paris, and even seems to have been employed thera Among the designs he made is that of a whimsical edifice, designed for himself,

the situation of the offices, and the T being skilfully distributed into large and sm
apartments. The epigraph to the design is as follows:- (pages 30 and 50)

" Thes 2 Letters and T
joyned together as you see
Is ment a dwelling house for mee

Walpole truly observes of this volume, that “ it is a very valuable record of the magnifi
cence of our ancestors, and preserves memorials of many sumptuous buildings of which no
other monument remains.” We ought, perhaps, to have suffered our account of Thorpe
to have been preceded by those of others, but the conspicuous rank he holds in the list

of English architects of this period induced us to place him before another, for a little
time his predecessor in the works of the country. We allude to the name of Robert
Adams, who translated Ubaldini's account of the defeat of the Spanish Armada from the
Italian into Latin ; a feat which we fear but few architects of the present day would easily
accomplish, such is the fall of education for artists, notwithstanding all the boasts of march
of intellect. This translation appeared in 4to., 1589. He was surveyor of the queen's
buildings, and appears to have been a man of considerable ability. His place of sepulture
was in an aisle on the north side of the old church at Greenwich, with this inscription,

* Egregio Viro, Roberto Adams, operum regiorum supervisori architecturæ, peritissimo,
ob. 1595.

Simon Basil, operationum regiarum contrarotulator, hoc posuit monumentum 1601."

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442. Bernard Adams and Lawrence Bradshaw were also eminent among the architec of the period under our consideration ; but we must notice more particularly Geral Chrismas, who was associated with Bernard Jansen in the erection of Northampton, afte wards Suffolk, and now Northumberland House, not strictly belonging in time, though style, to the reign of Elizabeth. Both of these architects are considered to have been mud employed. In the balustrade and on the street front were the letters H. N. and C. A which no doubt stood for Henric. Howard, Northampton. Comes Ædificavit. Yet C. 2 has been supposed to denote“ Chrisinas Ædificavit.” Such letters were repeated, practice then much in vogue, for there are many examples of inscriptions of letters e closed within the balustrade, as if within lines, and pierced so that the sky seen throug them renders them distinct from almost every point of view. Bernard Jansen was probab the architect first employed at the splendid mansion of Audley Ion in Essex, for Thom Howard, Earl of Suffolk ; and, besides the association with Chrismas above mentione was joined with Moses Glover in completing Northumberland House, and was probab the architect who finished Sion House in Middlesex, for Henry Farl of Northumberlan who had at the time expended 90001. in the work.

443. Robert and Huntingdon Smithson, father and son, were engaged on Wollaton Ha (fig. 203. at the foot of the preceding page), in Nottinghamshire, as also at Bolsover Derbyshire. The former died in 1614, at the age of seventy-nine, and the latter in 164 but very possibly John Thorpe was consulted in this splendid work, for among his desig as the reader will recollect, are some for Wollaton.

444. Thomas Holt, a native of York, was the architect of the public si hools at Oxfo


(fig 204.), of which the hint might have been taken from the Campanile of Santa Chiara 3 Naples, and of the quadrangles of Merton and Wadham colleges. He was the first in thi country who introduced the classical orders in series above each other. He evidently bou rowed the practice from Philibert Delorme, who had done the same thing at the Chatea d’Anet, near Paris, one of the victim edifices of the Revolution.

We apprehend an argument to prove the absurdity of such conceits is unnecessary. 445. Many of the grandest works of what is termed the Elizabethan, or, in truth, th

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