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There is generally one principal and four subordinate cupolas round it, which stand on the four feet of the Greek cross. The iconostasis is a principal object in every church. It is usually in four or five horizontal compartments, each containing an unequal number of pictures of saints painted on tablets or long square panels, whose places are fixed with great precision. In the first story, if we may so call it, are the three doors; the centre one, being in two foldings, is decorated with the subject of the Annunciation, accompanied with the
heads of the four Evangelists or their emblems. To the right of the door is a picture of Christ, and of the Madonna on the left. To the right of the Christ is the saint or festival
of the church, after which the doors are inserted. Above the doors, on the left hand, is placed a Greek cross; on the right hand the cross of Moses, — as symbols of the Old and New Testaments. The paintings are all on a ground of gold. In the middle of the second story is Christ on a throne; on the right Saint John the
Baptist; on the left the Madonna without Child; then, on each side, two archangels and six apostles. In the third story or horizontal compartment, the Madonna is introduced with the Infant on her knees, surrounded on each side by the prophets. In the fourth story is painted God the Father on throne, with the Infant Jesus, surrounded on each side by patriarchs of the church. Occasionally a fifth story appears, upon which is painted the history or Passion of our Seviour. Paintings on a gold ground abound in the other parts of the church. The exteriors of these churches are extremely simple; cornices or other horizontal crownings
are not to found, but the coverings follow the cylindrical forms of the arches to which they are the extradoses, and are variously painted. The Russian churches built in the eleventh century, which froin the number of their cupolas resemble, and indeed were imitated from those of the East, give a peculiar effect to the architecture. The forms of these cupolas are varied, but they generally stand on an octagonal tambour ; some are hemispherical, others in eurves of contrary flexure, and a number of other figures.
377. The type of the Russian church, which is on plan a Greek cross, is to be found in Santa Sophia at Constantinople. After the disputes between the Iconoclasts and Iconolaters, which, at the close of the seventh century, ended in the separation of the Eastern and Western churches, sculpture of statues disappeared from the Greek church, statues of angels excepted. Again, at this period, the altars on the side of the principal one were established, not, as in the Catholic churches, at the extremities of the transepts; their place is always in a niche or apsis. This arrangement is found in the churches of the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries, at Bari, Trani, Malfetta, Otranto, &c., while the Greek worship existed; and a similar disposition is even seen at Palermo and other places where the worship has been Catholic. In the Catholic churches a sacristy, for the use of the priests in robing, &e., is always provided on the side of the church ; in the Greek church, however, the priests robe themselves behind the iconostasis on the left of the altar, another altar being placed on the right for the consecration of the elements; and this arrangement exists in the present day. The Greek church has no gynæceum, or separate place for the women. — For the above we are indebted to the researches of M. Hallmann, an ingenious architect of Hanover.
978. It is in Saint Petersburg principally that we are to look for edifices which deserve mention. The foundation of the city was laid in 1703, by the Czar Peter, when he constructed a fort on an island in the Neva for defence against the Swedes. Buildings, both
public and private, were soon erected; and the nobility and merchants being induced to settle there, the place quickly assumed the appearance of a considerable city. In the reigns of Catherine the Second and Alexander it reached a degree of great magnificence, from which it has not declined, but has rather advanced. Magnitude, rather than beauty of form, marks the publie buildings of the city. The church of our Lady of Kazan is of great dimensions : for which, and its fifty-six granite columns with bronze capitals, it has obtained more celebrity than it will acquire for the beauty of its composition. Some of the palaces in the
city are of colossal dimensions ; that of Michailoff, built by Paul, is said to have cost ten millions of rubles. It was under the reign of Peter the Great that the great change took place in the national character of Russian church architecture by the introduction of the classical orders. The bulbous cupola, though at this period not entirely laid aside, fell into comparative disuse, being replaced by a green painted dome of which the Italian form was
the model. The tasteless custom of painting the exteriors of buildings with bright and incongruous colours was retained; and, though well enough suited to the barbaric structures
of the Muscovite czars, it ill accorded with the purer style of Italy. It is unnecessary further to detain the reader by any observations on the churches of the modern capital. In point of style or of history, they possess little or no interest for an English reader. To those who wish to become better acquainted with the architecture of Russia, we recommend
1 reference to Geissler's Tableaux Pittoresques des Maurs, &c. des Russes, Tartares, Mongoles, e artres Nations de l'Empire Russe; to Lyall's Character of the Russians, &c., 4to, 1823; ard Ricard de Montferrand's L'Eglise de S. Isaac, fol. 1845. The essay by the late M. Hallmann above noticed, was printed in the Transactions of the Institute of British Arelsitects, 1842.
ARCILITECTURE OF BRITAIN.
EARLY HOUSES AND ARCHITECTURE OF THE BRITONS.
379. On the invasion of Britain by Julius Cæsar, in the year 55 B. C., the inhabitan dwelt in houses resembling those of Gaul; and in Kent, and other southern parts of tl island, their houses were more substantial and convenient than those in the north. Cav or earth houses seem to have been their original shelter ; to which had preceded the wick enclosure, whose sides were incrusted with clay. These were thatched with straw. TI wooden houses of the ancient Gauls and Britons were circular, with high tapering root at whose summit was an aperture for the admission of light and emission of smoke. Thes where the edifices were grander than ordinary, were placed upon foundations of ston There is no instruction to be derived from pursuing this subject further. That the arts the period in question scarcely existed, is quite certain ; and Caractacus may, when carrie prisoner to Rome, have well expressed surprise that the Romans, who had such magnifice palaces of their own, should envy the wretched cabins of the Britons.
380. If the Britons were so uninformed in architecture as to be satisfied with sud structures for their dwellings as we have named, it will hardly be contended that they wel the builders of so stupendous a fabric as Stonehenge. On this subject we have alread stated our opinion in Chap. II. From the distant period at which we believe this an similar edifices to have been erected up to that of which we are speaking many eet turies must have elapsed, during which the mechanical knowledge which was employed their erection might have been lost, and indeed must have been, from the condition of t1 inhabitants, of which mention has been made.
381. The Romans, after their invasion of the island, soon formed settlements and plante colonies; and it is not difficult to imagine the change which took place in its architectur The first Roman colony was at Camalodunum. This, when it was afterwards destroye by the Britons in the great revolt under Boadicea, appears to have been a large and wel built town, adorned with statues, temples, theatres, and other public edifices. (Taci Annal. lib. xiv. c. 32.) In the account given of the prodigies said to have happened : this place, and to have announced its approaching fall, it is mentioned that the statue Victory fell down without any visible violer.ce; in the hall of public business, the confuse murmurs of strangers were perceived, and dismal howlings were heard in the theatre. Camalodunum the temple of Claudius was large enough to contain the whole garriso who, after the destruction of the town, took refuge in it; and so strong was it, that the were enabled to hold out therein against the whole British army for a period of two day London, however, exhibited a more striking example of the rapid progress of Roma architecture in Britain. At the time of the first Roman invasion it was little more than British town or enclosed forest; and there seems to be ground for supposing that at th time of the second invasion, under Claudius, it was not much improved. But when, abon sixteen years afterwards, it came into the possession of the Romans, it became a rich, pa pulous, and beautiful city. Not only did the Romans raise a vast number of solid an magnificent structures for their own accommodation, but they taught the arts to the Briton and thus civilised them. Agricola, of all the Roman governors, took means for that pui pose. That they might become less and less attached to a roaming and unsettled life, an accustomed to a more agreeable mode of living, he took all opportunities of rendering the assistance in erecting houses and temples, and other public buildings. He did all in h power to excite an emulation amongst them; so that at last they were not content withou structures for ornament and pleasure, such as baths, porticoes, galleries, banqueting house &c. From this time (A. D. 80) up “ to the middle of the fourth century,” says Hent (Hist. of England), “ architecture, and all the arts immediately connected with it, great Nourished in this island; and the same taste for erecting solid, convenient, and beautifi buildings which had long prevailed in Italy, was introduced into Britain. Every Roma colony and free city (of which there was a great number in this country) was a little Rom encompassed with strong walls, adorned with temples, palaces, courts, balls, basilicæ, bath markets, aqueducts, and many other fine buildings both for use and ornament country every where abounded with well-built villages, towns, forts, and stations; and ti whoie was defended by that high and strong wall, with its many towers and castles, whic reached from the mouth of the river Tyne on the east to the Solway Firth on the wes
384. We here think it necessary to notice that we have thought proper, under thi chapter, to preserve the periods, or rather styles of the periods of architecture, according t their ordinary arrangement in English works, namely, the Anglo-Saxon and Norman, i distinct sections. It is a matter of little importance to the reader how he acquires hi knowledge, so that his author do not unnecessarily prolong the acquisition of it. Though therefore, the Anglo-Saxon and Norman architecture are neither of them anything mor than Romanesque or Byzantine, to which we have appropriated rather a long section, w have here separated them into two distinct periods.
385. About the end of the seventh century masonry, as well as some other arts con nected with it, was once more restored to England, by the exertions of Wilfred, bishop York, and afterwards of Hexham, and of Benedict Biscop, the founder of the abbey of Were mouth. The former, who was an indefatigable builder, and one of the most munificer prelates of the seventh century, erected edifices, which were the admiration of the age : Ripon, York, and Hexham. The cathedral of the latter place obtained great celebrity Eddius, speaking of it (Vita Wilfridi), says, that Wilfrid “having obtained a plot of groun at the place from Queen Etheldreda, he there founded a very magnificent church, and ded cated it to the blessed apostle St. Andrew. The plan of this holy structure appears to hav been inspired by the spirit of God; a genius, therefore, superior to mine is wanting tu da scribe it properly. Large and strong were the subterraneous buildings, and constructed the finest polished stones. How magnificent is the superstructure, with its lofty roof res ing on many pillars, its long and lofty walls, its sublime towers, and winding stairs ! 1 sum all up, there is not on this side of the Alps so great and beautiful a work." Bised was a zealous cotemporary and companion of Wilfrid, and had also a great love for th arts. He travelled into Italy no less than six times, chiefly for the purpose of collect ing books and works of art, and of endeavouring to induce workmen to come over to Eng land. An estate of some extent having been obtained by him from Ecgfrid, king Northumberland, near the mouth of the river Were, he founded a monastery there in 674 Relative to this monastery of Weremouth, thus writes Bede: —“About a year after layin the foundations, Benedict passed over into France, and there collected a number of mason whom he brought over with him to build the church of his monastery of stone, after tả Roman manner, whereof he was a vast admirer. Such was his love for the apostle Peter, ti whom the church was to be dedicated, that he stimulated the workmen so as to have mas celebrated in it but a little more than a year from its foundation. When the work wa well advanced, he sent agents into France for the purpose of procuring, if possible, glas manufacturers, who at that time were not to be found in England, and of bringing then over to glaze the windows of his monastery and church. His agents were successful, havin induced several artisans to accompany them. These not only executed the work assigne to them by Benedict, but gave instructions to the English in the art of making glass fa windows, lamps, and other uses."
386. The Bishop Wilfrid, as we learn from William of Malmesbury, with the assistane of the artificers that had been brought over, effected great reparations in the cathedral a York, which was in a decayed and ruinous state. He restored the roof, and covered i with lead, cleansed and whited the walls, and put glass into the windows; for, before h had introduced the glass makers, the windows of private dwellings as well as churche were filled with linen cloth, or with wooden lattices. It will be observed that the improve ments we here mention were introduced by the bishops Wilfrid and Biscop towards th end of the seventh century ; but, from our ancient historians, it would appear that, in th eighth and ninth centuries, stone buildings were rarely met with, and, when erected, wer objects of great admiration. The historian Henry observes, that “ when Alfred, toward the end of the ninth century, formed the design of rebuilding his ruined cities, churche and monasteries, and of adorning his buildings with more magnificent structures, he wa obliged to bring many of his artificers from foreign countries. Of these (as we are tol by his friend Asser) he had an almost innumerable multitude, collected from different na tions ; many of them the most excellent in their several arts. Nor is it the least praised this illustrious prince, that he was the greatest builder and the best architect of the age i which he flourished." His historian, who was an eyewitness of his works, speaks in th following strain of admiration of the number of his buildings, “ What shall I say of the town and cities which he repaired, and of others which he built from the foundation ? " Henr continues, —“ Some of his buildings were also magnificent for that age, and of a new an singular construction ; particularly the monastery of Æthelingay. The church, however was built only of wood; and it seems probable that Alfred's buildings were, in general more remarkable for their number and utility than for their grandeur; for there is sut ficient evidence that, long after his time, almost all the houses in England, and the fa greatest part of the monasteries and churches, were very mean buildings, constructed a wood and covered with thatch. Edgar the Peaceable, who Aourished after the middle c the tenth century, observed (see William Malms. lib. ii. p. 32.), that, at his accession o the throne all the monasteries of England were in a ruinous condition, and consisted onl
pended on mean and inconvenient houses.
có rotten boards.” The taste, however, of the Anglo-Saxons was not indulged in mag. nificent buildings; and the incursions of the Danes, who destroyed wherever they came, together with the unsettled state of the country, may account for their revenues being ex387. Under the circumstances mentioned, it may be safely inferred that the art was not
Indeed, the ancient Britons, after retiring to the mountains of Wales, appear to have lost it altogether; and, as the in a very flourishing state in the other parts of the island. Honourable Daines Barrington (Archæologia) has thought, it is very probable that few, il any, stone buildings existed in Wales previous to the time of Edward i. The chief palace, called the White Palace, of the kings of Wales, was constructed with white wands, whose bark was peeled off
, whence its name was derived; and the price or penalty, by the laws of the country, for destroying the king's hall or palace, with its adjacent dormitory, kitchen, chapel, granary, bakehouse, storehouse, stable, and doghouse, was five pounds and eighty pence, equal, in quantity of silver, to sixteen pounds of our money, or 1601. The castles appear also to have been built of timber; for the vassals, upon whom fell the labour of building them, were required to bring with them no other tool than an axe.
388. Neither do the arts of building appear to have been better understood in Scotland at the former part of the period whereof we are speaking. The church built at Lindisfarne by its second bishop, Finan, in 652, was of wood, - more Scotorum ; and it has already been mentioned that, for the stone church which Naitan, king of the Picts, built in 710, he was under the necessity of procuring his masons from Northumberland. In Scotland, there are still to be seen some stone buildings of very high antiquity, which Dr. Henry seems inclined to attribute to this period; we, however, are inclined to place them in an age face anterior, later (but not much so) than Stonehenge. We have never seen them, and there. fore form our opinion from the description given in Gordon's Itinerarium Septentrionale. These buildings are all circular, though of two different kinds, so different from each other that they seem to be the works of different ages and of different nations. The four prineipal ones are in a valley, called Glenbeg. Of a different period, too, we consider the circular towers which are found as well in Scotland as in Ireland. It is true that in both countries these are found in the neighbourhood of churches ; but that does not the more convince us that they were connected with them.
389. Ducarel, in his Norman Antiquities, enumerates some of the churches in England which belong to the ages anterior to the Norman conquest. Among them are those of
Stukely in Buckingham-
A. D. 1066
Saxon kings in