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chitecture. Copies prove sad poverty of imagination on the part of the artist copying; and all, therefore, that can be said in favour of such an expedient as that under consideration is, that better forms being submitted in this example to the Germans, it created a dawn of taste to which they had long been strangers. The inaccurate work of Le Roy, which had preceded that of Stuart and Revett on the antiquities of Athens, was the means through which Langhans wrought and tried his successful experiment. In France, as we have already observed, Antoine had tried the employment of the Grecian Doric at Paris, but without the impression produced by Langhans. This architect died at Berlin in 1 80s, and is, perhaps, entitled to be considered as the father of good architecture in Germany, where he met the highest patronage and encouragement. Knoblesdorff, who died in 1753, had, it must be allowed, prepared in some measure the change which was effected ; but neither he nor his successor are known in the world of art beyond the confines of their own country. The names of Boumann, Goutard, Naumann, and others of much merit occur to us; but the examples which they have left are not of the class that justify specimens for presentation to the reader in a general work of this nature. None of them rise so high as to be put in competition with the examples of the French school; and from the circumstance of the principal works of Germany at Munich, Berlin, &c. having been executed by artists still living, we feel precluded here from allusion to them; because, it we were to enter on an examination of them, we must detail their defects as well as their beauties. An extraordinary species of bigotry has laid hold on some in relation to them, which time will temper; and the world, as it always does, will ultimately come to a righi judgraent of the rank they are entitled to occupy as works of art. In the other branches of the arts the Germans are rising fast; but there is withal an affectation of the works of the middle ayes in their productions, which, impressed as they are with great beauties, are not sufficiently pure to prognosticate the establishment of schools which will sweep all bufore them, as did those of Italy.


SPANISH AND PORTUGUESE ARCHITECTURE, 1967. What has been said in the preceding section on the architecture of Germany is equally applicable to that of Spain and Portugal, whose architects were educated, if not in the schools of Italy, yet on the principles that guided them. Still, the pre-eminence in architecture on the revival of the arts must be given to these countries over the contemporaneous buildings erected in Germany, and more especially to those of Spain. Under Ferdinand and Isabella, both greatly attached to the fine arts, the pointed style gave way to the architecture then in esteem in Italy; and Juan de Olotzaga, a native of Biscay, is, we believe, entitled to the merit of having first introduced it about 1400 in the design for the cathedral of Huesca in Aragon. Pedro de Gumiel is supposed to have been the architect of Santa Engracia at Zaragossa, 1476-1517, but is known as the artist who designed the college of S. Ildefonso at Alcala, a splendid building in a mixed and impure style, commenced March 14, 1498. In this the orders were employed. The edifice consists of three courts: the first Doric, with an arcade and two orders above, in the lower whereof the Doric was repeated, and the upper was Ionic; the second court has thirty-two Composite columns, with arcades ; and the third is designed with thirtysix Ionic columns, beyond which is the theatre. The church is of the lonic order, and contains the monument of Cardinal Ximenes, the founder, considered one of the finest in Spain. The names of Juan, Alonso, and Fra Juan d'Escobedo continue in their works the history of the art in Spain, wherein a style between the pointed and Italian prevailed during the greater part of the reign of Charles V. Juan Gil de Hontanon, at the end of the 15th century, appears in Spain us an architect of much celebrity. He made a design for the cathedral at Salamanca, which was submitted to the judgment of four of the then most eminent architects of the country-Alonso de Covarrubias, the architect of the church at Toledo; Maestro Filippo of that of Seville; with Juan di Badajoz of that of Burgos. This cathedral at Salamanca is 378 ft. long, and has a nare and two series of aisles on each side. The nave is 130 ft. high, and 50 ft. wide, Rodrigo Gil de Hontanon, son of the above-named architect, bad the execution of this church, which was commenced in 1513. Juan Gil de Hontanon commenced 1522-25 the cathedral of Segovia, very similar ,o that of Salaınanca, except that it is more simple, and in a purer style. It is equal in size and grandeur to those of Toledo and Seville. Between 1560 and 1577 it was continued by Rodrigo Gil; then carried on by Francisco Campo Aguero, who died in 1660; to whom succeeded F. Biadero, who died in 1678. Re,pecting Hontanon, Don Antonio Ponz observes, in the 10th volume of his Travels in Spain, that he must have been a clever archite«t, and well acquainted with the Greek and

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Roman styles, which in his time were beginning to revive; but that, like many other artists he was obliged in some measure to humour the taste of those who employed him: h therefore adopted the Gothic style, without the ornaments and details. The efforts of the a chitects of this period were not confined altogether to church building; for in 1552 Pedro de Uria constructed a bridge at Almaraz over the Tagus, which may vie with the most extraordinary works of that class. Two large pointed arches form the bridge, which is 580 ft, long, 25 ft. wide, and 134 ft. high. The opening of one of the arches is 150 ft., that of the other 119 ft. The piers are lofty towers, that in the centre standing on a high rock. An inscription gives the date of erection 1552, and imports that it was constructed at the expense of the city of Placentia.

3€8. Alonso de Covarrubias, the architect of the church of Toledo, seems to have used in it a Gothic sort of style, though when he flourished the Roman orders had become known and used. This Alonso was in considerable employ, as was his assistant, Diego Siloe, who built the church at Granada, with the monastery and church of San Girolamo in that city. This cathedral has a nave and two aisles; and in it the Corinthian order, though defective in height, is used. The cupola is well designed. Both Siloe and his master loaded their buildings with sculptures to excess, from a seeming notion that beauty and riebness were the same or inseparable. Alonzo Berruguette was another architect of the 16th century who was deservedly employed. He went to Italy in 1500, there to pursue his studies in the arts of painting and sculpture as well as architecture, and was at Florence when Michael Angelo and Leonardo da Vinci exhibited their cartoons. He was the architect of Charles V. ; and it is supposed that he designed the palace at Madrid, begun by Henry II., continued by Henry III., and splendidly rebuilt by Charles V., but no longer in existence. Berruguette erected the gate of San Martino, which is the principal one at Toledo. It is of the Doric order, with the royal arms on the exterior, and a statue of Santa Leocadia in the interior. There are great simplicity and elegance in the composition of this work. The palace of Alcala, the residence of the archbishop of Toledo, is attributed to him ; a building not wanting in magnificence, though defective in its detail. A great portion of the cathedral of Cuenca is said to be by Berruguette ; but not the facade, which was erected in 1699 by Josef de Arroyo, ana afterwards continued by Luis Arriaga. There is considerable effect about the cloister, which is well and ingeniously decorated. This architect, it is thought, had some part in the Pardo, which was rebuilt in 1547; where are still allowed to remain,-notwithstanding the additions by Philip II. of the miserable eastern and western façades--the porticoes of Ionic columns, with their low stone arches. Though the windows are greatly too far apart, and too small in the lower story, the stairs difficult of ascent, yet, upon the whole, the edifice is not ill arranged or executed. At the period whereof we here speak there was a prodigious passion among the Spaniards for large screens and altars in the churches ; in these the taste of Berruguette was most conspicuous. In the use of the orders, which he fully understood, he was remarkably fond of employing them over one another. The cathedral ai Seville was principally rebuilt by Fernan Ruiz, who was much engaged in the city, and especially on enlarging or raising the wellknown tower called “ La Giralda.” This singular edifice was begun in the 11th century, the original idea of it being given by the architect Geber, a native of Seville, to whom the invention of algebra is attributed; and also the design of two other similar towers, one in Morocco, and the other at Ratata. The tower of which we are now speaking was at first 250 ft. high, and 50 ft. wide, and was without diminution as it rose. The walls are 8 ft. thick of squared stones from the level of the pavement; the rest for 87 ft. is of brick. In the centre of this tower is a smaller one, the interval between the two towers being 23 ft., which serves for the ascentone so convenient that two persons abreast can mount it on horseback. The central tower does not diminish; but as the edifice rises in height the walls gather over, so as to allow the passage of only one person. Upon the Moors of Seville negotiating their surrender, one of the conditions of it was, that this tower should not be destroyed; to which Don Alfonso, the eldest son of the king, answered, that if a portion of it were touched, not a man in Seville should survive. In the earthquake of 1395 it was partially injured, and remained in the state of inisfortune that then occurred until 1568, when, by the authorities, Fernan Ruiz received the cornmission to raise it 100 ft. higher. This height he divided into three parts, crowning it with a small cupola or lantern : the first division of his addition is of equal thickness with the tower on a plinth, whence six pilasters rise on each façade, between which are five windows, over which is an entablature surmounted by balustrades; the second division is lower, with the same ornament; and the third is octagonal with pilasters, over which the cupola rises, crowned with a bronze statue of Faith, vulgarly called “ La Giralda." Ruiz by this work augmented his fame ; and notwithstanding the earthquakes which have since occurred, it has, fortunately enough, been preserved. We have, however, to apologise to our readers for this, which is anecdote, and nut quiie in order to be placed here, because partly connected with a period we have long since left. Pictorially speaking, the tower of “ La Giralda” is a splendid object, and the

apology was, perhaps, unnecessary. The age of Charles V. in Spain was Augustan for its architecture. By his mandate the palace was raised at Granada, a work of Machuca, another architect of this period. The prineipal façade is rustic, with three large gates, and eight Doric columns on pedestals sculptured with historical bassi-rilievi. The second story is lonic with eight columns, over which are pilasters. The internal vestibule is on a circular plan, with a portico and gallery on columns of the same order. Milizia, from whom we have extracted all our notices on the architecture of Spain in this age, regrets that the arches spring from the columns. Though we cannot commend such a practice, we should be sorry, in certain cases, to see a veto put upon it, because the practice is occasionally compatible with fine effect.

369. Towards the end of the sixteenth century appears in Spain an artist, by name Doiningo Teotocopuli, by birth a Grecian, and a disciple of Tiziano Vecelli. He became, under his master, a good painter; but is known in Spain rather as a celebrated architect in bis day. At Madrid, and in Toledo, he executed many works of merit; but his grand work was the church and monastery of the Bernardine monks of San Domingo di Silos, in which he employed his talents in architecture, painting, and sculpture, the whole being from his hand.

370. Garzia d'Emere and Bartolomé di Bustamante, the latter especially, would require an extended notice in the history of the art in Spain, if our limits permitted us to enter on their merits. The latter was the architect of the hospital of San Juan Bautista, founded by its archbishop in 1545, near Toledo. We should continue the account if buildings existed from which features different from the contemporaneous works in the rest of Europe could be extracted; but the fact is, that the progress of the art has already been told in other countries, and its success in Spain would be but a repetition in minor degree of what has already been said. Still we consider some notice must be taken of Juan Bautista of Toledo, who died in 1567, an architect and sculptor of surpassing merit; and as he was the architect who gave the designs for the Escurial, we shall not apologise for transcribing the account of him given by Milizia.

371. Having studied at Rome, he was invited to Naples by Don Pedro di Toledo, then viceroy there, who employed him as architect to the Emperor Charles V. in many important works in that city, whence he was called by Philip II, to become arcbit.ct of all the royal works in Spain, and especially of the Escurial, which that monarch was anxious to erect in the most magnificent style. For this purpose he left Naples, and in 1563 coni menced, upon his own design, the Escurial, which he continued to superintend till his death in 1567. In this great undertaking he was succeeded by Juan de Herrera, his pupil, who finished it. Those, therefore, says the author whom we quote, that attribute this work to Luis de Fox, to Bramante, to Vignola, and other architects who may have given designs for it, are unacquainted with the subject. The wonder: related of the Escurial, as to the number of its doors and windows, are not tales to be here recounied; and the attempt, indeed, at exaggeration is vastly silly, because it is on so grand a scale that the simple truth imparts quite sufficient knowledge for conveying an idea o its splendour. The motives of Philip II. in founding this structure were twofold,—first the 'njunction of his predecessor Charles V, who was desirous of constructing a tomb fo the royal family of Spain ; and secondly, of erecting an edifice of colossal dimensions to commemorate the famous victory of s. Quintin, achieved on the festival of San Lorenzo the saint to whose interposition the king attributed his success. The situation chosen to receive it was beautiful. It is at the distance of a few miles from Madrid, at the foot of th Carpertani mountains, by which the two Castiles are divided. The plan of the edifice i said to resemble a gridiron, the instrument of martyrdom of San Lorenzo, of which th handle is the projection in the eastern façade ; we confess, however, we have some difficult in tracing the resemblance. It is divided internally into fifteen courts, varying consider ably in size; many of them are decorated with porticoes and galleries, and contain in al upwards of eighiy fountains. The materials are granite very well wrought; the rool partly covered wiih lead and partly with lare. The cupola of the church is of stone. four angles of the main plan are distinguished by towers rising four stories, besid:s thos in the roofs, above the general fronts; besides which there are four others flanking th cupola. Parts of the building are in much better taste than others; but such an enormou pile of building cannot be otherwise than imposing, more especially, too, if there be any thing like syinmetry and regularity in the parts. "Towards the west the principal façad is 740 feet long and 60 feet in height. The towers at the angles just mentioned rise to th heiglit of 200 feet. This façade, like the vihers, has five sturies of windows, wbiclı vece sarily of the.nselves, from the way in which they are arranged, have the effect of cuttin it up into minute divisions. The central compartinent of it is 140 feet in length, and cor sists of two orders of half columns; the lower has eight semi-columns, which are Dor standing on a plinth, and in the central intercolumniation is the door, the other inte columniations are filled with niches and windows in three stories. The upper order col sists of four lonic columns on pedestals, and is surmounted by a pediment. This upp


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order has two stories of niches in its intercolumniations in the upper central one whereof is placed the statue of San Lorenzo. The two minor doors in this façade are also made features in the design. The façade towards the east has the projecting handle of the gridiron to which we have alluded, in which part is contained the palace; and westward of it the great chapel or church, with its cupola rising above the mass, to complete the composition. Towards the south the length is 580 ft., similar to the length on the north. On entering from the central gate of the western façade, the monastery is divided from the college by a large vestibule, from which three large arched openings lead into the king's court: this is 230 ft. long, and 136 ft. wide, surrounded by buildings of five stories, and ornawented with pilasters. At the eastern end of this court is the entrance to the church, over whose vestibule or pronaos are the libraries. To it a flight of seven steps crosses the whole width of the court; and from the landing rises a Doric arcaded porch of five openings, three whereof belong to the central compartment and lead to the church, the other two leading to the monastery and the college. Behind the porch the facade of the church rises, and is flanked by two towers, which respectively belong to the monastery and college, and are ornamented above the general height of the buildings of the court with two orders of pilasters, being terminated by small cupolas. The interior of the ehurch is Doric, and is in plan a Greek cross. The nave is 53 ft. and the aisles are 30 ft. wide. Its whole length * 364 ft., its width 230, and height 170. From the intersection of the nave and transepts he cupola rises, 66 ft. in diameter, and 330 ft. in height from the pavement to the cross. ts exterior is composed with a square tambour or drum, if it may be so called, from which he order rises. The choir is only so ft. high, and its length but 60 ft. In point of taste nd dimensions, the church is inferior to several in other parts of Europe. The presytery, we should have stated, is raised, so as to form almost another church, and seemingly ithout relation to the principal one. The staircase which leads to the Pantheon, and hich possesses considerable magnificence, is placed between the church and the anteeristy: we are not aware why this name has been given to the sepulchre of the kings of ain' It is nearly under the high altar. The chamber appropriated to the reception of e kings is 36 ft. diameter, and 38 ft. in height, richly encrusted with various marbles and etals, and ornamented with sixteen double Corinthian pilasters on pedestals, arranged tagonally; and between them are recesses, with the sarcophagi, amounting to twenty-six, it is, four in each of six sides, and two over the entrance which faces the altar of the ReTection. This is a fair specimen of the style which prevailed in Spain under the reigns Philip IV. and Charles II. The college, the seminary, and the royal palace occupy the t of the building. In 1773, many additions were made to the buildings about the Esial for the Infants Don Antonio and Don Gabriele, by Villaneuva, an Italian architect,

by them the palace was much improved. Juan de Herrera, who died in 1557, besides employment at the building just described, contributed greatly to the advancement of art by the execution of the many commissions with which he was entrusted. The bridge segovia, at Madrid. is by him; as is the royal pleasure-house at Aranjuez, begun under lip II. and finished by Charles III.,—a work which, though far from pure, exhibits #architectural ability. His successor at the Escurial was Francesco de Mora, by m, at Madrid, is the Palace de los Consejos, the most splendid edifice which that al can boast. Instead of a central doorway, it has two at its flanks, of the Doric

, with appropriate decorations. In the beginning of the seventeenth century, the : square of Madrid was crected after the designs of Juan Gomez de Mora, and is adble for its grandeur and symmetry. This architect built at Alcala the church and ze of the Jesuits, which, Milizia says, is a magnificent and well-proportioned edifice. of two orders, and the material employed in the façade is granite. The royal convent e Augustins, at Madrid, is also attributed to him.

Early in the eighteenth century Felipe Ivara, or Juvara, a native of Messina, zry great employ, we might almost say throughout Europe. He became the pupil otana, and afterwards, on his visiting Spain, seems to have established a school there. uilt the façade of the royal palace of S. Ildefonso, looking towards the gardens. died in 1735, at Madrid, wbither he had been invited by Philip V. to rebuild the

which had been consumed by fire. The work was afterwards entrusted to Sacchetti, I of Ivara. It is on a very large scale, and was most solidly constructed.

We have thought it necessary to give the above succinct account of the architecture in, which did not, however, produce, after the revival of the arts in Europe, any

except in respect of dimensions, comparable with those of Italy. The abuses in se almost universally carried to an extent scarcely credible; it is, therefore, useless

the reader or student to them as models. It almost seems as if from Italy pure tore had not had time to spread itself before it became tinctured with the corrupBorromini; which, not only in Spain and Portugal, but throughout Germany, and rance, were diffused with incredible rapidity. Llaguno and Cean-Bermudez,

de los Arquitectos, &c., de España, 4 vols. 4to., Madrid, 1829. G. E. Street, Some af Gothic Architecture in Spain, 8vo., 1865.



374. We scarcely know whether we are justified in making a short section with this heading, inasmuch as there is not known to us, up to the end of the eighteenth century the name of a single Russian architect. English, French, Italian, and German artists haw been employed in the decoration of the city of Petersburg, though we believe that thu nation is now beginning to produce persons capable of conducting their public works Russia has received all its improvement from abroad, and has used every exertion to com municate it to an uncivilised people.

375. The ecclesiastical architecture of Russia is of course coeval with the introduction d Christianity into the country, which was not earlier than the time of Vladimir the Great although the Princess Olga had been baptized at Constantinople as early as the year 964 Vladiinir, to display his zeal in behalf of Christianity, had a church, supposed to be th first built by him, erected at Cherson ; a year after which the church of St. Basil, which, a well as the first named, was of timber, was erected under his command. This prince als built a church at Kief, where, it is said, there were already at the time 500 churches After Vladimir, Prince Yaroslaf appears to have bestowed great attention on the erectio of ecclesiastical edifices. At Kief he founded a church, dedicated to St. Sophia, and at Na vogorod another to the same saint: these partly exist in the present day. By him als were reared the convents of St. George and St. Irene. The celebrated convent Petchorsky, at Kief, was erected in 1075, subsequent to which period the Russian metra politans continued subject to those of Constantinople till the capture of that city by Mabome the Second. Between this last capital and Kief the bonds of amity of their rulers wen drawn closer by many intermarriages; but in the year 1124 a fire desolated the latter city which must have risen into great importance, inasmuch as 600 churches and monasterie were destroyed in the conflagration. Afterwards, again, in the civil war under Yisaslal Kief was taken and fired; a calamity to which it was again subject at the same period tha Constantinople was taken by the Venetians. Afier this Kief never again recovered it ancient magnificence. In 1154, at which period Moscow is first mentioned in history, it w but an insignificant village. It received great additions under Daniel of Moscow, and i 1:304, under John Danielowitz, it became the capital of the empire. On the 4th of Augus 1326, the first stone was laid of a church in the Kremlin there in honour of the Assumptio of the Virgin. The palace of the Kremlin was a timber structure until the reign of Deraet Donskoi, when it was reconstructed of stone. On the capture of Constantinople by Mahom the Second, the Russian church ceased to be dependerit on that of Constantinople. Th palace of the Kremlin, known by the name of the granite palace, rose in 1487; and, i twelve years afterwards, the Belvedere palace was raised. Ivan IV., whose sway was extended duration, was a great patron of the arts; his decease took place circa 1584. H renewed the laws relative to the paintings in the new churches, whence arises their so clo resemblance to each other that it is difficult to judge of the epochs of their execution. TI celebrated clock tower Ivan Valiki, at the Kremlin, was erected by the Czar Boris, in 160 at which time Moscow contained 400 churches, whereof 35 stood in the Kremlin alon After the time of Peter the Great, a change of style was introduced, (1696–1725).

376. The Church of the Assumption above mentioned, as respects the plan, is an obloi square divided ; the vaulting whereof is supported by six columns in the interior. Thou at the first glance it be not perceived, the arrangement of the cupolas soon points to t form of a Greek cross. In the earlier churches the plan was a square, with a porch front of it; but, in the Church of the Assumption, the porch is a portion of the chur the arches of the cupolas being placed in the same way as if the church were of the ancie form. The six columns just mentioned divide the church into four parts,

from east west, and then from north to south. At the eastern sides are three apsides, divided by t width of a column, the middle one being of larger dimensions than the other two; arrangement which prevails in most of the Greek churches. . The apsides contain alta which are frequent, except in the small chapels. The altar in the Greek church is i exposed to public view ; it is concealed or covered by the iconostasis (image-bearer), a ve large screen, which, from occupying the whole width of the church, divides it into two par This screen has a central principal and two side smaller doors; behind which latter, on ea side, stands a second and smaller iconostasis, of the width only of the smaller apsis, whose plan with three doors and an altar behind is similar to the great one.

This was 1 distribution in the early churches ; but, in the more modern ones, there are, at nearly 1 extremity of the edifice, three distinct iconostases. The place for the choristers is on es side in front of the iconostasis

, between its principal and side doors. The principal cup rises in front of the iconostasis; and, in cathedral churches, at the foot of the apsis on 1 left a canopy is placed for the emperor, opposite whereto is one for the metropolit

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