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Fig. 13.

GATE OY THE LIONS.

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interstices were fillo! have mostly disappeared. The southern rainparts of the citacel and
all the other walls follow the natural irregularity of the precipice on which they stand. At

its eastern point it is attached by
a narrow isthmus to the mountain.
It is a long irregular triangle,
standing nearly east and west
The walls are mostly of well-
jointed polygonal stones, although
the rough construction occasionally
appears. The general thickness of
the walls is 21 ft., in some places
25; their present height, in the
most perfect part, is 43 ft. There
are, in some places, very slight
projections from the walls, resem.
bling towers, whereof the most
perfect one is at the south-east
angle, it, breadth being 33 ft. and
its height 43 ft. The size of the
block whereon the lions are sculp-
tured is 11 ft. broad at the base,
9 ft. high, and about 2 ft. thick,

of a triangular form suited to the vecess made for its reception. This block, in its appearance, resembles the green basalt of Egypt.

35. In this place we think it proper to notice a building at Mycene, which has been called by some the Treasury of Atreus, or the tomb of his son Agamemnon mentioned by

Pausanias. This building at first misled some authors into
a belief that the use of the arch was known in Greece at a
very early period; but examination of it shows that it was
formed by horizontal courses, projecting beyond each other as
they rose, and not by radiating joints or beds, and that the sur-
face was afterwards formed so as to give the whole the ap-

pearance of a pointed dome, by cutting away the lower angles Fig. 14.

(fig. 14.). It is probably the most ancient of buildings in Greece ; and it is a curious circunstance that at New Grange, near Drogheda, in Ireland, there is a monument whose form, construction, and plan of access resemble it so strongly that it is impossible to consider their similarity the result of accident.

sentation of this may be seen in the work by Mr. Hig-
gins which we have so often quoted, and will, we think,
satisfy the reader of the great probability of the hypothesis
hereinbefore assumed having all the appearance of truth.
By the subjoined plan (fig. 15.) it will be seen that a
space 20 ft. wide, between the two walls, conducts us to
the entrance, which is 9 ft. 6 in. at the base, 7 ft. 10 in. at
the top, and about 19 ft. high. The entrance passage is
18 ft. long and leads to the main chamber, which, in its
general form, has some resemblance to a bee-hive, whose
diameter is about 48 ft, and height about 49. (fig. 16 )
The blocks are placed in courses as above shown, 34 courses
being at present visible. They are laid with the greatest

precision, without cement, and are unequal in size. Their Fig. 19. PLAN OF TUKASURY OF ATREUR. average height may be taken at 2 ft., though to a spectator on the floor, from the effect of the perspective, they appear to diminish very much towards he vertex. This monument has a second chamber, to which you enter on the right from the arger one just described. This is about 27 ft. by 20, and 19 ft. high; but its walls, from the obstruction of the earth, are not visible. The doorway to it is 94 ft. high, 4 ft. 7 in. wide it the base, and 4 ft. 3 in. at the top. Similar to the larger or principal doorway, it has a riangular opening over its lintel. The stones which fitted into these triangular openings vere of enormous dimensions, for the height of that over the principal entrance is 12 ft., ind its breadth 7 ft. 8 in. The vault has been either lined with metal or ornamented with ome sort of decorations, inasmuch as a number of bronze nails are found fixed in the stones ip to the summit. The lintel of the door consists of two pieces of stone, the largest whereof 5 27 ft. long, 17 ft. wide, and 3 ft. 9 in. thick, calculated, therefore, at 133 tons weight ; a nass which can be compared with none ever used in building, except those at Balbec and 2 Egypt. The other lintel is of the same height, and probably (its ends are liidden) of

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TREASURY OF ATRKUS.

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the same length as the first. Its breadth, however, is only one foot.

Its exterior has two parallel mouldings, which are continued down the jarnbs of the doorway.

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Fig. 16.

CHAMNKR OF TREASURE OF ATKKUS.

:36. The stone employed is of the hard and beautiful breccia, of which the neighbouring rocks, and the contiguous Mount Eubora, consist.

It is the hardest and compactest breccia which Greece produces, resembling the antique marble called Breccia Tracag. nina antica, sometimes found among the ruins of Rome.

Near the gate lie some masses of rosso antico decorated with guilloche-like and zigzag ornaments, and a columnar base of a Persian character.

Some have supposed that these belonged to the decorations of the doorway; but we are of a different opinion, inasmuch as they destroy its grand cha. racter.

We think if this were the tomb of Agamemnon, they were much more likely to have been a part of the shrine in which the body or ashes were des posited.

37. It is conjectured that the trea sury of Minyas, king of Orchomenos, whereof Pausanias speaks, bore a resemblance to the building we have just described ; and it is very probable that all the subterranean chambers of Greece, Italy, and Sicily were very similarly constructed.

Fig. 17. represents the entrance to the building fron the out

The architecture of the early

races of which we have been speaking F. 17.

will be further noticed in investigating tions by Fergusson, Rude Stone Monuments in all countries, 8vo., 1872 ; and Schliemann,

See the publicaResearches, &c., at Mycena and Tiryns, 8vo., 1878.

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F

Ka ST

PLAN OF BABYLAN.

hollow," obsı:rves Mr. Rich, “ near the southern part, I found a sepulchral urn of earthen:

ware, which had been broken in digging, and near it lay some human bones, which pulverised with the touch." Not more than 200 yards from the northern extremity of this mound, is a raving near 100 yards long, hollowed out by those who dig for bricks, on one of whose sides a few yards of wall remain, tlie face whereof is clear and perfect, and appears to have been the front of some building. The opposite side is so confused a mass of rubbish, that it looks as if the ravine had been worked through a solid building. Under the foundations at the southern end was discovered a subterranean passage floored and walled with large bricks in bitumen, and covered over with pieces of sandstone a yard thick and several yards long, on which the pressure is so great as to have pushed out the side walls. What was seen was near seven feet in height, its course being to the south. The upper part of the passage is cemented with bitumen, other parts of the ravine with mortar, and the bricks have all writing on them. At the northern end of the ravine an excavation was made, and a statue of a lion of colossal dimensions, standing on a pedestal of coarse granite and rude workmanship, was discovered. This was about the spot marked E on the plan. A little to the west of the ravine at B is a remarkable ruin called the Kasr or Palace, which, being uncovered,

and partly detached from the rubbish, is visible P. 19.

from a considerable distance. It is “ so surprisingly fresh,” says the author, “ that it was only after a minute inspection I was satisfied of its being in reality a Babylonian remain.” places ornamented with niches, and in others strengthened by pilasters of burnt brick, in

It consists of several walls and piers, in some lime cement of great tenacity. The tops of the walls have been broken down, and they inay have been much higher. Contiguous to this ruin is a heap of rubbish, whose sides are curiously streaked by the alternation of its materials, probably unburnt bricks, of which a small quantity were found in the neighbourhood, without however any reeds in their en terstices. They say it existed in ancient Babylon, and was preserved by God that it might afford a convenient place to Ali for tying up his horse after the battle Hellah!”

« It is an evergreen,” says Mr. R., “ something resembling the lignum vitæ, and of a kind, I believe, not common in this part of the country, though I am told there is a tree of the description at with nitre, and does not now appear to have had any buildings upon it except a small cite cular heap at D. The whole embankment is abrupt, and shivered by the action of the

At the narrowest part E, cemented into the burnt brick wall, there were a number siderable quantity of burnt bricks and other fragments of building in the water the river appears to have encroached here. ruin of this series, which Pietro della valle, in 1616, described as the tower of Belus, in

39. A mile to the north of the Kasr, and 950 yards from the bank of the river, is the last nunciation of those parts, Mujelibe, which means overturned. They sometimes also apply the same term to the mounds of the Kasr. oblong shape, irregular in its height and the measurement of its sides, which face the cara

This is marked F on the plan. dinal points as follows: the northern side 200 yards in length, the southern 219, the eastern The western face, which is the least elevated, is the most interesting on account of the depa ruptions, built of unburnt bricks mixed up with chopped strapp or reeds and cemented with clay mortar of great thickness.” are less perfect. The ruin is much worn into furrows, from the action of the weather heaps of rubbish, among which fragments of burne "brick are found, und here and there

water.

From a con

“ It is of an

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