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size as the originals, however large their dimensions, and copies can be supplied in a few hours. Delicate tinting as well as the black outlines are faithfully reproduced. By this process no cost is incurred for drawing, engraving, or lithograpbing. Drawings

on thin drawing paper and on parchment can also be copied by this process. TRAMMEL. An instrument for describing an ellipsis by continued motion. TRANSEPT (quasi Transseptum). The transverse portion of a cruciform church; that part

which is placed between and extends beyond those divisions of the building containing the nave and choir. It is one of the arms projecting each way on the side of the stem

of the cross. TRANSITION. A term used to denote the passing from one period of a style to another,

exhibiting features peculiar to both, some of which have not quite been given up,

and some of which were beginning to be introduced. TRANSOM. A beam or beams across a window to divide it into two or more lights in

height. A window having no transom was formerly called a clear-story window. TRANSTRA. (Lat.) The horizontal timbers in the roofs of ancient Roman buildings. TRANSVERSE. Lying in a cross direction. The transverse strain of a piece of timber is

that sidewise, by which it is more easily bent or broken than when compressed or drawn

as a tie in the direction of its length. TRAP. In drainage and water escape, an article formed in any material to prevent the

escape of foul air; such as a bell trap, syphon trap, D trap, &c. TRAPEZIUM. (Gr.) In geometry, a quadrilateral figure, whose opposite sides are not parallel. TRAPEZOID. (Gr.) A quadrilateral figure having one pair of opposite sides parallel. TRAVERSE. A gallery or loft of communication in a church or other large building TREAD. The horizontal part of the step of a stair. It can be greatly protectea where

there is much traffic, by squares of hard wood inserted grain upwards into a light cast

iron frame, which is then secured to the original tread. TREFOIL. In Gothic architecture, an ornament consisting of three cusps in a circle. TRELLICE. A reticulated framing made of thin bars of wood; it is used as a screen to

windows where air is required for the apartment, &c. TRENAIL. A large cylindrical wooden pin, used in roof work and framing. TRESSEL or TRUSSEL. Props for the support of anything the under surface of which is

horizontal. Each tressel consists of three or four legs attached to a horizontal part. When the tressels are high the legs are sometimes braced. Tressels are much used in building for the support of scaffolding; and by carpenters and joiners while ripping and

cross-cutting timber, and for many other purposes. TRIANGLE. (Lat.) A plane rectilineal figure of three sides, and consequently of three

angles. In measuring, all rectilineal figures must be reduced to triangles, and in constructions for carpentry all frames of niore than three sides must be reduced to triangles

to prevent a revolution round the angles. TRIANGULAR COMPASSES. Such as hare three legs or feet by which any triangle or any

three points may be taken off at once. TRIBUNE. See APSIS. TRICLINITM. (Lat.) The room in the Roman house wherein the company was received,

and seats placed for their accommodation. It was raised two steps from the peristyle, and had therein a large window, which looked upon the garden. The aspect of winter

triclinia was to the west, and of summer triclinia to the east. TRIFORIUM. (Lat.), The gallery or open space between the vaulting and the roof of the

aisles of a church, generally lighted by windows in the external wall of the building, and opening to the nave, choir, or transept over the main arches. It occurs only in large churches, and is varied in the arrangement and decoration of its openings in each succeeding period of architecture. See figs. 1417 to 1422. There is no triforium in Bath

abbey church, nor to the choir at Bristol cathedral. TRIGLYPH. (Gr. Tpers, and ravon, a channel.). The vertical tablets in the Doric frieze

chamfered on the two vertical edges, and haring two channels in the middle, which are double channels to those at the angles. In the Grecian Doric, the triglyph is placed upon the angle; but in the Roman, the triglyph nearest the angle is placed centrally over the column. The space between the channels was called a femur and meros. Fig. 1461 is an example of a triglyph with the metope decoratedwith a bull's skull and garlands,

ACCOLD as used in Italian architecture, by Sir William

Fig. 1461, Chambers and others. See SHANK.

Ditriglyph is the arrangement by which two triglyphs are obtained in the frioze between those which stand over the columns.

Tritriglyphs is where there are three so placed.

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CONYTON, W. Thus, three, Tuna, an angle, and Merpw, I measure

termining the unknown parts of a triangle from certain parts that the second to triangles formed upon the surface of a sphere by thre

her plane or spherical; the first relates to triangles composed of th
h are seen at Stonehenge.

(Verb.) To fit to anything; thus, to trim up, is to fit up:
between the floor and the ceiling; a post between two beams; a trim

said to be trimmed in between them. Thus, a partition wall is said t
BISECTION. The division of anything into three equal parts.

RIUMPHAL ARCH. A building of one arch erected first by the
TROUGH GUTTER. A gutter in the form of a trough, placed below the dripping eave

a house, in order to convey the water from the roof to the vertical trunk or pipe
Truss. (Fr. Trousse.) A combination of timber framing, so arranged that if suspended

at two given points, and charged with one or more weights in certain others, no

timber would press transversely upon another except by strains exerting equal and Truss PARTITION. One containing a truss within it, generally consisting of a quadrangu

lar frame, two braces, and two queen posts, with a straining post between them, opposite
Truss RooF. A roof formed of a tiebeam, principal rafters, king post or queen post, and

other necessary timbers to carry the purlins and common rafters, etc.
TRUSSED BEAM. One in which the combination of a truss is inserted between and let

latter is olles importance to the architect than the former,

rrangement takes place where a well-hole is to be left for stairs, or to avoi

rnament its forms are extremely varied, many of those of the ancients are rei

its place is between the two tori of the base of a column.

fixed plane, in or parallel to the plane of the moring circle. It is also called a cye.

TRUNCATED. (Lat. Trunco, I cut short.) A term employed to signify that the upper po.

into the two pieces whereof it is composed.

of deta is eith and th


such Trim. TRIMM






reca TRIMU



Hon. Two upright stones linked together by a third on the top like &


(Lat) Having three sides.

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o joists.



MED OUT. A term applied to the trimmers of stairs when brought
ceive the rough strings.
MMER. A small beam, into which are framed the ends of sereral joists.

jsts, into which each end of the trimmer is framed, are called trimming i
Dists near chimneys, etc.
NE DIMENSIONS. Those of a solid, including length, breadth, and thickness ;
threefold dimensions.

. (Gr. Tpels, and nous, a foot.) A table or seat with three legs. In arci
or their elegance and beauty of form.
PTYCH. A picture with folding doors, the inside of which is either also pa
jse decorated with diapers, etc. When the picture has only one door, it is


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Roman people in memory of the victor, his trophies being placed
on the top. Subsequently they became enriched and loaded with
ornaments, and later were penetrated by three apertures, a cen-
tral and two smaller ones.

The arch of Trajan at Ancona, and
that of Titus at Rome, have one arch ; an arch at Verona has
two openings; while those of Constantine, Septimius Severus
(fig. 1462 as restored) and others, have three.
numerous modern examples, such as the arc de l'etoile at Paris;
the arco dalle pace at Milan; the marble arch at London, etc.

Severus, as restor
Trochilus. (Gr. Tpoxinos, a pulley.) An annular moulding whose

section is concare, like the edge of a pulley. It is more commonly called a scotia,
TROCHOID. (Gr. Tpoxos, a wheel, and Eidos, shape.) A figure described by rolling a c

upon a straight line, such circle having a pin or fixed point in its circumference up Trophy: (Gr. Tportalov.) An ornament representing the trunk of a tree charged TROUGH. Sax. Troh.) A vessel in the form of a rectangular prism, open on the top

holding water.

There are

various spoils of war.

Fig. 1462. Septim

tion of some solid, as a cone, pyramid, sphere, etc. has been cut of

remains is called a frustum.
Trunk. That part of a pilaster which is contained between the base and the capital.
Also a vessel open at each end for the discharge of water, rain, etc.

opposite forces.

to the top of the braces.

The part whici


1385 TRUSSING Pieces. Those timbers in a roof that are in a state of compression. Try. (Verb.) To plano a piece of stuff by the rule and square only. Tuxe. (Lat.) A substance perforated longitudinally; generally quite through its length, Tuck POINTING. In old brickwork, after it has been well washed and the mortar raked

out, the joints are filled with new mortar; the face of the work is then coloured yellow or red, as desired. Lines to mark the joints are made by putting on a ridge of lime putty with the point of the trowel over the new mortar, and cutting it straight and to

the required width by means of a straight edge and knife. Tudor STYLE. A name given to the late portion of the Perpendicular Gothic, from

the line of sovereigns in England who reigned during its prevalence. The arch is of

a four-pointed obtuse shape. Tufa. A mass of volcanic earth, consolidated. Tufo is a mass of agglomerated sand

without volcanic character. Tufaceous, mixed with tufo. TUMBLED IN. The same as trimmed in. See TRIMMED. TUMULUS. A barrow or artificial earth mound. Among the Celtic works the former was

sepulchral, and the latter perhaps erected for beacons or for a memorial purpose. TUNNEL. (Fr.) A subterranean channel for carrying a stream of water under a road.

hill, etc., or through which a road or railway is run. Tun of Water. See WATER, Weight of. TURNING PIECE. A board with a circular face for turning a thin brick arch upon. TURPENTINE. Turpentine is obtained by exudation and hardening of the juice flowing

from incisions into pine trees. To obtain the oil of turpentine, the juice is distilled in

an apparatus like the common still, and water is introduced with the turpentine. TURRET. (Lat. Turris.) A small tower often crowning the angle of a wall, etc. TUSCAN ORDER. The first of the five orders used in Roman and Italian architecture. Seo

fig. 1454. Tusk. A bevel shoulder made above a tenon, and let into a girder to give strength to the TYMPANUM. (Gr.) The naked face of a pediment (see PEDIMENT) included between the

level and raking mouldings. See Ætuaior and Ætoma. The word also signifies the

die of a pedestal, and the panel of a door. TYPE. (Gr. Tutos.) A word expressing by general acceptation, and consequently appli

cable to, many of the varieties involved in the terms model, matrix, impression, &c. It is, in architecture, that primitive model, whatever it may have been that has been the foundation of every style, and which has guided, or is supposed to have guided, tho

forms and details of each. What it was in each style is still only conjecture. Type. The can spy over a pulpit, also called a sound board.


U UNDERCROFT. A vault under a church or chapel. See CRYPT, CROFT, and SHROWDS. UNDERPINNING. Bringing a wall up to the ground sill. The term is also used to denote

the temporary support of a wall, whose lower part or foundations are defective, and

the bringing up new solid work whereon it is in future to rest. See GOUFING. UNDERPITCH GROIN. See WELCH GROIN. UNGULA. The portion of a cylinder or cone comprised by part of the curved surface, the

segment of a circle, which is part of the base, and another plane. UNIVERSITY. An assemblage of colleges under the supervision of a senato, etc. UPHERS. Fir poles, from four to seven inches in diameter, and from twenty to forty feet

in length. They are often hewn on the sides, but not entirely, to reduce them square. They are chiefly used for scaffolding and ladders, and are also employed in slight and

common roofs, for which they are split. UPRIGHT. The elevation of a building; a term rarely used. URILLA. See HELIX. URN. (Lat.) A vase of a circular form, destined among the ancients to receive and pre

serve the ashes of the dead. With the vase, it often forms a decoration to the pedestal of a balustrade on a terraco, top of a wall, etc.

V Vagina. (Lat.) The lower part of a terminal in which a statue is apparently inserted. VALLEY. (Lat.) The internal meeting of the two inclined sides of a roof. The rafter

which supports the valley is called the valley rafter or valley piece, and the board fixed upon it for the leaden gutter to rest upon is called the valley board. The old writers

called the valley rafters sleepers. Valve. (Lat.) Anything which opens on hinges or pivots as a door. VANE. A plate of metal shaped like a banner fixed on the summit of a tower or steeple,

to show the direction of the wind.

the Corn 1 Composite cat arekiteture were beled vessels

STUNT lit Ulvan all its san, it is said
ulileler, full-centred alt is fo.

ells in the case of one being above another.
A Taliant valt Springs from Plates Hol para
file is Strical aut consists of
nc olanlar valt is contine between two
10 simple when fill the surface of some Tegu.
id well lowel of more than one surface of the sun

Acro-cylindric rault is formed of the surfaces
Toined rat is a compound one rising to the same heit

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walls that sustain the arch. See Fas VAULTING.

markable raulted avenues, as given by Mr. Garbett in his

VAULTED CEILING. A ceiling built of stone, bricks, or blocks of wood, supporting itself

yet both are monsidered well proportioned avenues in their respective styles.
VAULTING SHAFT. A pillar, sometimes rising from the floor, or only from the capital of a
VELARIUM. Lat.) The great awning, which by means of tackle was hoisted over the

Roman theatre and amphitheatre to protect the spectators from the rain or the sun's rays.
VELLAR CUPOLA. A term used by Alberti to denote a dome or spherical surface termi-

Thus St. Peter's has the same external height as Amiens hut gives twice the breadth;

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from a corbel, from the top of which spring the vaulting ribs of the

Dated by four or more walls, frequently used over large staircases and salons, and


1384 VANISHING and the pict


in its differ
the two axe

the lesser.

ferent resin
benzoin, co

oils, or alce
Vase. (Lat.

ornament. volutes of in ancient

Isaad uI IN DE

picture is calle

verberatio VAULT. (It.

section mi surfilce po vault is based. pault on the SUN The pla said to

SES is continually quickt ifferent parts. Thus, the

OF CURATERE, The at wat) The sam

and a
of two
sides o

in Arc

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A A term applied to a Tessel opil, amber, and asphaltum. In

6. Wolt. Au arehe root over any c1on of the sound. See Feue.




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5th cith 7th

Cloaca Maxima
Temple of Peace, Rome
Second Temple at Baalbec
Cathedral at Speyer -


Westminster Abbey
Cathedral it York (not vaulted)

Choir at Beauvais Cathedral
Chapel of King's College, Cambridge
Cathedral at Firence

of St. Peter's, Rome
St. Paul's, London.








Or even





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