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THEATRE. (Gr. Otaouas, to see.) A place appropriated to the representation of dramatic

spectacles. THEODOLITE. An instrument used in surveying for taking angles in vertical or horizontal

planes. THEOREM. A proposition which is the subject of demonstration. THERMÆ. See Bath. THOROUGH FRAMING. The framing of doors and windows, a term almost obsolete. THOROUGH LIGHTED Room. A room having windows on opposite sides. THRESHOLD OF A DOOR. The sill of the door frame. THROAT. See GORGE and CHIMNEY. T'HROUGH or THOROUGH STONE. A bond stone; a heading stone going through the wall. Turust. The force exerted by any body or system of bodies against another. Thus the

thrust of an arch is the power of the arch stones considered as a combination of wedges

to overturn the abutments or walls from which the arch springs. TiE. (Sax. Tian, to bind.) A timber-string, chain, or iron rod connecting two bodies

together, which have a tendoncy to diverge from each other, such as tie-beams, diagonal ties, truss-posts, etc. Braces may act either as ties or straining pieces. Straining pieces are preferable to ties, for these cannot be so well secured at the joints as

straining pieces. See ANGLE BRACE. Tie Beam. The beam which connects the bottom of a pair of principal rafters, and

prevents them from thrusting out the wall. Fig. 1459 is an illustration of a late mediæval example of a species of such a roof.

Fig. 1459. St. Mary's Church, Leicester. Tie Rod. The iron rod securing the feet of the principal rafters in the manner, and in

lieu, of the tie-beam. Tierce Point. The vertex of an equilateral triangle. Arches or vaults of the third

point, which are called by the Italians di terzo acuto, are such as consist of two ares of

a circle intersecting at the top. See PointED ARCH. TIGNA. The tie beam of an ancient timber roof. Tule. (Sax. Tigel.) A thin piece or plate of baked clay or other material used for the

external covering of a roof. A thicker sort serves for paving. The flat tiles are called plain tiles, the curved ones are pan-tiles ; these latter, it made with a double curvature, are called Bridgewater tiles.

Fig. 1460.

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1379 such cases. Besides the Grande Sulle, there are mary interesting apartments, some whereof possess ceilings of great beauty. This fine monument is perhaps the most admirable example of the adaptation of the style to secular architecture that can be quoted.

Smaller in plan, but more beautiful and symmetrical, is the bôtel de ville of Louvain. It is the most perfect, in every respect, of this class of buildings in Europe. Nothing can surpass the richness and deli. cacy of the tracery upon it. Like that at Brussels, it consists of three stories, but has no tower. Commenced in 1448, it was not completed till 1463 by De Layens. It stands on a site of about 85 feet by 42 feet; so that it derives little advantage from its absolute magnitude, and perhaps appears less than it really is, from the great height of the roof, which is pierced by four tiers of dor. mers or lucarnes. The angles are flanked by turrets, of which some notion may be formed by reference to fig. 1 4605, and the ridge of the roof is received at each end by another turret corbelled over from the gables. The façade towards the Place extends rather more than the height, and is pierced with twenty-eight windows and two doorways, being ten openings in each story, the spaces between the windows being decorated with canopies, and groups of small figures from the Old Testament, some whereof rather licentious. This charming edifice, which in its delicate rich tracery had suffered much from time and the elements, has, at the joint expense of the town and government,

Fig. 14600. undergone a complete renovation. This has, stone by stone, been effected with great care and artistic skill by M. Goyers. The new work being executed in very soft stone, which, however, hardens with exposure to the air, it has been saturated with oil.

In form, though not in features, totally different from the hôtels de ville we have just left, is that at Ghent, never completed, but exhibiting, in what was executed of the design, a choice example of the last days of the flamboyant period. It was begun in 1481; in it are all those indications of change in the solites and curves, as well as in the Jines of the foliage and tracery, that eventually proved its downfall; and the style is now out of character with the habits of the age, from which alone a real style of architecture can ever spring. The subdivision of the building as to height is into two stories as to effect, though in





lity there in manie; and the transoms, which abound in the apertu

eruandam si the borizontal arrangement of lines which was 60 ustace Poliet 1527-80; the other façade, 1600-20, has columns 0

bune at the poster, with the part adjoining, in the richest flamboy Parallèle, and it also forms the subject of a volume, in folio, published

The most dlebrated of town halls in Europe was that of Amsterdan
-hese have now been surpassed by modern structures ; amongst them ma

661-64, The town halls at Antwerp and at Maestricht may be also
colour, and sometimes sticks to the leaves. In England it is made in sizes of 60 i.
used, as may be seen in the old sketeh books, where the paper has turned a dark b
40in.; 40 in, by 30 in.; and 30 in. by 20 in. The last-named size is also made

The following are the sizes of modern French-made tracing paper,
Besides this, J. Poore and Co. make a ferro-prussiate paper, which gives white lines
on a blue ground, and supplied in rolls thirty and forty inches wide, of thin, thick, and
extra thick paper. This not having been considered a very satisfactory process, &
" black-line process," by Bemrose and Sons, of Derby, has lately been brought out
coloured and treated as ordinary drawings. It is called “Perfection Brand Sensitized
(1888), by which copies of the original drawings can be produced ; they can also be
since by Mr. Willis, whereby fac-simile copies of tracings are obtained, of the same

An aniline process of photographic printing was patented a few years

flaming curreas that had prevailed for nearly half a century. The

Continued from 1549 or 1559 on the designs of Domenico Boccadoro

in ac

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2e first half of the 17th century by Van Campen. The design is git

ders superpad


the city

che town hall at Berlin, 1881. The Hôtel de Ville at Paris was comme French Dominique de Cortone, in what is now term of the style of the The additions which became necessary in consequence of the extende were executed in the same style

, and the building presented one
and most picturesque features of the city, until 1870-71, when it was
fire ; its reconstruction was carried out by Théodore Ballu.

St. George's Hall, at Liverpool, with the town halls at Leeds, H:
chester, and other towns, large and small, are modern examples. Such
for a moderate-sized market town (as referred to previously), might reqi
ground floor, a wide entrance vestibule, out of which would be a room for
with four or five cells for prisoners; an office for the board of health,

magistrates' room, with a staircase to the first floor, to consist of
bull, at one end of which, or in the middle of one side, would be arranged
for any local purposes, as a county court perhaps, with a retiring room for
This ball would require a staircase for the public, entering at once from
thoroughfare. A partments for the resident policeman, and the usual con

will also be necessary.
JnAreation. Another term for ENTABLATURE.
TRABS. The Latin term for a wall-plate.
TRACERY. In Gothic architecture, the intersection, in various ways, of the
in the heud of a window, the subdivisions of groined vaults, &c.



Trachelium. (Lat.) The neck or space immediately below the capital in the
TRACING CLOTH. A fine white cloth, prepared in a similar way to paper for
ing it transparent. Having a very greasy surface it is not so easy to work aj
and as it shrinks much if wetted, no large washes of colour can be put on it
many small tints are detrimental to acenracy. Lines made in error
by gently using a brush damped with some soapy water. The cloth render
paper much stronger than tracing paper, and it is now constantly

used for *
TRACING PAPER. A tissue paper made transparent by a preparation of turpentin,
was, slightly washed over it and then allowed to dry. Formerly resin

and oil


can be

thicker paper:
is also made 40 in. wide, and 21ų yds, in length :-


16 by 12 Carré Tellière


Grand raisin






Grand aigle



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Paper" (black-line process).

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